How to Cite Sources_ APA Style_OWL

Download How to Cite Sources_ APA Style_OWL

Post on 24-Dec-2015

5 views

Category:

Documents

3 download

DESCRIPTION

APA

TRANSCRIPT

  • 2/25/2015 PurdueOWL:APAFormattingandStyleGuide

    https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/10/ 1/9

    GeneralWritingResearchandCitationTeachingandTutoringSubjectSpecificWritingJobSearchWritingESL

    ThispageisbroughttoyoubytheOWLatPurdue(https://owl.english.purdue.edu/).Whenprintingthispage,youmustincludetheentirelegalnoticeatbottom.

    ReferenceList:ElectronicSources(WebPublications)Summary:

    APA(AmericanPsychologicalAssociation)styleismostcommonlyusedtocitesourceswithinthesocialsciences.This

    resource,revisedaccordingtothe6thedition,secondprintingoftheAPAmanual,offersexamplesforthegeneralformat

    ofAPAresearchpapers,intextcitations,endnotes/footnotes,andthereferencepage.Formoreinformation,please

    consultthePublicationManualoftheAmericanPsychologicalAssociation,(6thed.,2ndprinting).

    Contributors:JoshuaM.Paiz,ElizabethAngeli,JodiWagner,ElenaLawrick,KristenMoore,MichaelAnderson,Lars

    Soderlund,AllenBrizee,RussellKeck

    LastEdited:2014120209:54:49

    Pleasenote:TherearenospacesusedwithbracketsinAPA.Whenpossible,includetheyear,month,anddatein

    references.Ifthemonthanddatearenotavailable,usetheyearofpublication.Pleasenote,too,thattheOWLstillincludes

    informationaboutprintsourcesanddatabasesforthosestillworkingwiththesesources.

    ArticleFromanOnlinePeriodical

    Onlinearticlesfollowthesameguidelinesforprintedarticles.Includeallinformationtheonlinehostmakesavailable,

    includinganissuenumberinparentheses.

    Author,A.A.,&Author,B.B.(Dateofpublication).Titleofarticle.

    TitleofOnlinePeriodical,volumenumber(issuenumberifavailable).

    Retrievedfrom

    http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

    Bernstein,M.(2002).10tipsonwritingthelivingWeb.AListApart:For

    PeopleWhoMakeWebsites,149.Retrievedfrom

    http://www.alistapart.com/articles/writeliving

    OnlineScholarlyJournalArticle:CitingDOIs

    Pleasenote:InAugustof2011theformattingrecommendationsforDOIschanged.DOIsarenowrenderedasanalpha

    numericstringwhichactsasanactivelink.AccordingtoTheAPAStyleGuidetoElectronicReferences,6thedition,you

    https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/4/https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/2/https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/6/https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/3/https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/1/https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/5/

  • 2/25/2015 PurdueOWL:APAFormattingandStyleGuide

    https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/10/ 2/9

    shouldusetheDOIformatwhichthearticleappearswith.So,ifitisusingtheoldernumericstring,usethatastheDOI.

    If,however,itispresentedastheneweralphanumericstring,usethatastheDOI.ThePurdueOWLmaintainsexamples

    ofcitationsusingbothDOIstyles.

    BecauseonlinematerialscanpotentiallychangeURLs,APArecommendsprovidingaDigitalObjectIdentifier(DOI),

    whenitisavailable,asopposedtotheURL.DOIsareanattempttoprovidestable,longlastinglinksforonlinearticles.

    Theyareuniquetotheirdocumentsandconsistofalongalphanumericcode.Manybutnotallpublisherswillprovidean

    article'sDOIonthefirstpageofthedocument.

    Notethatsomeonlinebibliographiesprovideanarticle'sDOIbutmay"hide"thecodeunderabuttonwhichmayread

    "Article"ormaybeanabbreviationofavendor'snamelike"CrossRef"or"PubMed."Thisbuttonwillusuallyleadthe

    usertothefullarticlewhichwillincludetheDOI.FindDOI'sfromprintpublicationsoronesthatgotodeadlinkswith

    CrossRef.org's"DOIResolver,"whichisdisplayedinacentrallocationontheirhomepage.

    ArticleFromanOnlinePeriodicalwithDOIAssigned

    Author,A.A.,&Author,B.B.(Dateofpublication).Titleofarticle.

    TitleofJournal,volumenumber,pagerange.doi:0000000/000000000000

    orhttp://dx.doi.org/10.0000/0000

    Brownlie,D.(2007).Towardeffectiveposterpresentations:Anannotated

    bibliography.EuropeanJournalofMarketing,41,12451283.

    doi:10.1108/03090560710821161

    Wooldridge,M.B.,&Shapka,J.(2012).Playingwithtechnology:Mother

    toddlerinteractionscoreslowerduringplaywithelectronictoys.

    JournalofAppliedDevelopmentalPsychology,33(5),211218.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2012.05.005

    ArticleFromanOnlinePeriodicalwithnoDOIAssigned

    OnlinescholarlyjournalarticleswithoutaDOIrequiretheURLofthejournalhomepage.Rememberthatonegoalof

    citationsistoprovideyourreaderswithenoughinformationtofindthearticleprovidingthejournalhomepageaids

    readersinthisprocess.

    Author,A.A.,&Author,B.B.(Dateofpublication).Titleofarticle.

    TitleofJournal,volumenumber.Retrievedfrom

    http://www.journalhomepage.com/full/url/

    Kenneth,I.A.(2000).ABuddhistresponsetothenatureofhumanrights.

    JournalofBuddhistEthics,8.Retrievedfrom

    http://www.cac.psu.edu/jbe/twocont.html

    ArticlefromaDatabase

    Pleasenote:APAstatesthatincludingdatabaseinformationincitationsisnotnecessarybecausedatabaseschangeover

  • 2/25/2015 PurdueOWL:APAFormattingandStyleGuide

    https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/10/ 3/9

    time(p.192).However,theOWLstillincludesinformationaboutdatabasesforthoseuserswhoneeddatabase

    information.

    Whenreferencingaprintarticleobtainedfromanonlinedatabase(suchasadatabaseinthelibrary),provideappropriate

    printcitationinformation(formattedjustlikea"normal"printcitationwouldbeforthattypeofwork).Byprovidingthis

    information,youallowpeopletoretrievetheprintversioniftheydonothaveaccesstothedatabasefromwhichyou

    retrievedthearticle.YoucanalsoincludetheitemnumberoraccessionnumberordatabaseURLattheend,buttheAPA

    manualsaysthatthisisnotrequired.

    Ifyouarecitingadatabasearticlethatisavailableinotherplaces,suchasajournalormagazine,includethehomepage's

    URL.Youmayhavetodoawebsearchofthearticle'stitle,author,etc.tofindtheURL.

    Forarticlesthatareeasilylocated,donotprovidedatabaseinformation.Ifthearticleisdifficulttolocate,thenyoucan

    providedatabaseinformation.Onlyuseretrievaldatesifthesourcecouldchange,suchasWikis.Formoreaboutciting

    articlesretrievedfromelectronicdatabases,seepages187192ofthePublicationManual.

    Author,A.A.,&Author,B.B.(Dateofpublication).Titleofarticle.

    TitleofJournal,volumenumber,pagerange.Retrievedfrom

    http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

    Smyth,A.M.,Parker,A.L.,&Pease,D.L.(2002).Astudyofenjoymentof

    peas.JournalofAbnormalEating,8(3),120125.Retrievedfrom

    http://www.articlehomepage.com/full/url/

    Abstract

    Ifyouonlyciteanabstractbutthefulltextofthearticleisalsoavailable,citetheonlineabstractasanyotheronline

    citations,adding"[Abstract]"afterthearticleorsourcename.However,ifthefulltextisnotavailable,youmayusean

    abstractthatisavailablethroughanabstractsdatabaseasasecondarysource.

    Paterson,P.(2008).HowwelldoyoungoffenderswithAspergerSyndrome

    copeincustody?:Twoprisoncasestudies[Abstract].BritishJournal

    ofLearningDisabilities,36(1),5458.

    Hendricks,J.,Applebaum,R.,&Kunkel,S.(2010).Aworldapart?Bridging

    thegapbetweentheoryandappliedsocialgerontology.Gerontologist,

    50(3),284293.AbstractretrievedfromAbstractsinSocialGerontology

    database.(AccessionNo.50360869)

    NewspaperArticle

    Author,A.A.(Year,MonthDay).Titleofarticle.TitleofNewspaper.

    Retrievedfrom

    http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

  • 2/25/2015 PurdueOWL:APAFormattingandStyleGuide

    https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/10/ 4/9

    ParkerPope,T.(2008,May6).Psychiatryhandbooklinkedtodrugindustry.

    TheNewYorkTimes.Retrievedfromhttp://well.blogs.nytimes.com

    ElectronicBooks

    Electronicbooksmayincludebooksfoundonpersonalwebsites,databases,oreveninaudioform.Usethefollowing

    formatifthebookyouareusingisonlyprovidedinadigitalformatorisdifficulttofindinprint.Iftheworkisnot

    directlyavailableonlineormustbepurchased,use"Availablefrom,"ratherthan"Retrievedfrom,"andpointreadersto

    wheretheycanfindit.Forbooksavailableinprintformandelectronicform,includethepublishdateinparenthesesafter

    theauthor'sname.Forreferencestoebookeditions,besuretoincludethetypeandversionofebookyouarereferencing

    (e.g.,"[KindleDXversion]").IfDOIsareavailable,providethemattheendofthereference.

    DeHuff,E.W.(n.d.).Taytaystales:TraditionalPuebloIndiantales.

    Retrievedfrom

    http://digital.library.upenn.edu/women/dehuff/taytay/taytay.html

    Davis,J.(n.d.).FamiliarbirdsongsoftheNorthwest.Availablefrom

    http://www.powells.com/cgibin/biblio?inkey=197809316861080

    KindleBooks

    TociteKindle(orotherebookformats)youmustincludethefollowinginformation:Theauthor,dateofpublication,title,ebookversion,andeithertheDigitalObjectIdentifer(DOI)number,ortheplacewhereyoudownloadedthebook.PleasenotethattheDOI/placeofdownloadisusedinplaceofpublisherinformation.

    Heresanexample:

    Stoker,B.(1897).Dracula[KindleDXversion].RetrievedfromAmazon.com

    Chapter/SectionofaWebDocumentorOnlineBookChapter

    Author,A.A.,&Author,B.B.(Dateofpublication).Titleofarticle.In

    Titleofbookorlargerdocument(chapterorsectionnumber).Retrieved

    fromhttp://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

    Engelshcall,R.S.(1997).Modulemod_rewrite:URLRewritingEngine.In

    ApacheHTTPServerversion1.3documentation(Apachemodules).

    Retrievedfromhttp://httpd.apache.org/docs/1.3/mod/mod_rewrite.html

    Peckinpaugh,J.(2003).ChangeintheNineties.InJ.S.BoughandG.B.

  • 2/25/2015 PurdueOWL:APAFormattingandStyleGuide

    https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/10/ 5/9

    DuBois(Eds.),AcenturyofgrowthinAmerica.RetrievedfromGoldStar

    database.

    NOTE:UseachapterorsectionidentifierandprovideaURLthatlinksdirectlytothechaptersection,notthehomepage

    oftheWebsite.

    OnlineBookReviews

    Citetheinformationasyounormallywouldfortheworkyouarequoting.(Thefirstexamplebelowisfromanewspaper

    articlethesecondisfromascholarlyjournal.)Inbrackets,write"Reviewofthebook"andgivethetitleofthereviewed

    work.Providethewebaddressafterthewords"Retrievedfrom,"ifthereviewisfreelyavailabletoanyone.Ifthereview

    comesfromasubscriptionserviceordatabase,write"Availablefrom"andprovidetheinformationwherethereviewcan

    bepurchased.

    Zacharek,S.(2008,April27).Naturalwomen[ReviewofthebookGirlslike

    us].TheNewYorkTimes.Retrievedfrom

    http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/27/books/review/Zachareck

    t.html?pagewanted=2

    Castle,G.(2007).NewmillennialJoyce[ReviewofthebooksTwentyfirst

    Joyce,Joyce'scritics:Transitionsinreadingandculture,andJoyce's

    messianism:Dante,negativeexistence,andthemessianicself].Modern

    FictionStudies,50(1),163173.AvailablefromProjectMUSEWebsite:

    http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/modern_fiction_studies/toc/mfs52.1.html

    Dissertation/ThesisfromaDatabase

    Biswas,S.(2008).DopamineD3receptor:Aneuroprotectivetreatmenttarget

    inParkinson'sdisease.RetrievedfromProQuestDigitalDissertations.

    (AAT3295214)

    OnlineEncyclopediasandDictionaries

    Oftenencyclopediasanddictionariesdonotprovidebylines(authors'names).Whennobylineispresent,movetheentry

    nametothefrontofthecitation.Providepublicationdatesifpresentorspecify(n.d.)ifnodateispresentintheentry.

    Feminism.(n.d.).InEncyclopdiaBritannicaonline.Retrievedfrom

    http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/724633/feminism

    OnlineBibliographiesandAnnotatedBibliographies

    Jrgens,R.(2005).HIV/AIDSandHCVinPrisons:ASelectAnnotated

    Bibliography.Retrievedfromhttp://www.hcsc.gc.ca/ahc

  • 2/25/2015 PurdueOWL:APAFormattingandStyleGuide

    https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/10/ 6/9

    asc/alt_formats/hpbdgps/pdf/intactiv/hivvihaidssidaprison

    carceral_e.pdf

    DataSets

    PointreaderstorawdatabyprovidingaWebaddress(use"Retrievedfrom")orageneralplacethathousesdatasetson

    thesite(use"Availablefrom").

    UnitedStatesDepartmentofHousingandUrbanDevelopment.(2008).Indiana

    incomelimits[Datafile].Retrievedfrom

    http://www.huduser.org/Datasets/IL/IL08/in_fy2008.pdf

    GraphicData(e.g.InteractiveMapsandOtherGraphicRepresentationsofData)

    Givethenameoftheresearchingorganizationfollowedbythedate.Inbrackets,provideabriefexplanationofwhattype

    ofdataisthereandinwhatformitappears.Finally,providetheprojectnameandretrievalinformation.

    SolarRadiationandClimateExperiment.(2007).[Graphillustrationthe

    SORCESpectralPlotMay8,2008].SolarSpectralDataAccessfromthe

    SIM,SOLSTICE,andXPSInstruments.Retrievedfrom

    http://lasp.colorado.edu/cgibin/ionp?page=input_data_for_spectra.ion

    QualitativeDataandOnlineInterviews

    Ifaninterviewisnotretrievableinaudioorprintform,citetheinterviewonlyinthetext(notinthereferencelist)and

    providethemonth,day,andyearinthetext.Ifanaudiofileortranscriptisavailableonline,usethefollowingmodel,

    specifyingthemediuminbrackets(e.g.[Interviewtranscript,Interviewaudiofile]):

    Butler,C.(Interviewer)&Stevenson,R.(Interviewee).(1999).Oral

    History2[Interviewtranscript].RetrievedfromJohnsonSpaceCenter

    OralHistoriesProjectWebsite:http://

    www11.jsc.nasa.gov/history/oral_histories/oral_histories.htm

    OnlineLectureNotesandPresentationSlides

    Whencitingonlinelecturenotes,besuretoprovidethefileformatinbracketsafterthelecturetitle(e.g.PowerPointslides,

    Worddocument).

    Hallam,A.Dualityinconsumertheory[PDFdocument].Retrievedfrom

    LectureNotesOnlineWebsite:

    http://www.econ.iastate.edu/classes/econ501/Hallam/

    index.html

  • 2/25/2015 PurdueOWL:APAFormattingandStyleGuide

    https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/10/ 7/9

    Roberts,K.F.(1998).Federalregulationsofchemicalsintheenvironment

    [PowerPointslides].Retrievedfrom

    http://siri.uvm.edu/ppt/40hrenv/index.html

    NonperiodicalWebDocumentorReport

    Listasmuchofthefollowinginformationaspossible(yousometimeshavetohuntaroundtofindtheinformationdon't

    belazy.Ifthereisapagelikehttp://www.somesite.com/somepage.htm,andsomepage.htmdoesn'thavetheinformation

    you'relookingfor,moveuptheURLtohttp://www.somesite.com/):

    Author,A.A.,&Author,B.B.(Dateofpublication).Titleofdocument.

    Retrievedfromhttp://Webaddress

    Angeli,E.,Wagner,J.,Lawrick,E.,Moore,K.,Anderson,M.,Soderland,

    L.,&Brizee,A.(2010,May5).Generalformat.Retrievedfrom

    http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/

    NOTE:WhenanInternetdocumentismorethanoneWebpage,provideaURLthatlinkstothehomepageorentrypage

    forthedocument.Also,ifthereisn'tadateavailableforthedocumentuse(n.d.)fornodate.

    TociteaYouTubevideo,theAPArecommendsfollowingtheaboveformat.

    ComputerSoftware/DownloadedSoftware

    Donotcitestandardofficesoftware(e.g.Word,Excel)orprogramminglanguages.Providereferencesonlyfor

    specializedsoftware.

    Ludwig,T.(2002).PsychInquiry[computersoftware].NewYork:Worth.

    SoftwarethatisdownloadedfromaWebsiteshouldprovidethesoftwaresversionandyearwhenavailable.

    Hayes,B.,Tesar,B.,&Zuraw,K.(2003).OTSoft:OptimalityTheory

    Software(Version2.1)[Software].Availablefrom

    http://www.linguistics.ucla.edu/people/hayes/otsoft/

    Email

    Emailsarenotincludedinthelistofreferences,thoughyouparentheticallycitetheminyourmaintext:(E.Robbins,

    personalcommunication,January4,2001).

    OnlineForumorDiscussionBoardPosting

    Includethetitleofthemessage,andtheURLofthenewsgroupordiscussionboard.Pleasenotethattitlesforitemsin

  • 2/25/2015 PurdueOWL:APAFormattingandStyleGuide

    https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/10/ 8/9

    onlinecommunities(e.g.blogs,newsgroups,forums)arenotitalicized.Iftheauthor'snameisnotavailable,providethe

    screenname.Placeidentifierslikepostormessagenumbers,ifavailable,inbrackets.Ifavailable,providetheURLwhere

    themessageisarchived(e.g."Messagepostedto...,archivedat...").

    Frook,B.D.(1999,July23).Newinventionsinthecyberworldoftoylandia

    [Msg25].Messagepostedto

    http://groups.earthlink.com/forum/messages/00025.html

    Blog(Weblog)andVideoBlogPost

    IncludethetitleofthemessageandtheURL.Pleasenotethattitlesforitemsinonlinecommunities(e.g.blogs,

    newsgroups,forums)arenotitalicized.Iftheauthorsnameisnotavailable,providethescreenname.

    JDean.(2008,May7).Whentheselfemerges:Isthatmeinthemirror?

    [Weblogcomment].Retrievedfrom

    http://www....

Recommended

View more >