‘BIBLIOGRAPHY’ HOW TO CITE USING CITATION STYLE. Citation Style 1.AMA 2. APA 3. Chicago 4. MLAAMAAPAChicagoMLA 5. TurabianTurabian Which should you use?

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  • Slide 1
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY HOW TO CITE USING CITATION STYLE
  • Slide 2
  • Citation Style 1.AMA 2. APA 3. Chicago 4. MLAAMAAPAChicagoMLA 5. TurabianTurabian Which should you use? Ask each of your teachers which style they want you to use. If they have no preference, you can use any or follow these guidelines:
  • Slide 3
  • 1.AMA: medicine, health, and biological sciences. 2.APA: psychology, education, and other social sciences. 3.Chicago: used with all subjects in the "real world" by books, magazines, newspapers, and other non- scholarly publications. 4.MLA: literature, arts, and humanities. 5.Turabian: designed for college students to use with all subjects. Citing Internet Sources Each of the above styles includes internet sources.
  • Slide 4
  • Information includes in the citation : 1.Author(s) 2.Date 3.Title of Book 4.Title of Article 5.Title of Periodical 6.Volume 7.Pages 8.Place of Publication 9.Publisher 10.Other Information
  • Slide 5
  • Examples; APA Style a)Book Author(s)Date Title of Book Okuda, M., & Okuda, D. (1993). Star Trek chronology: The history of the future. New York: Pocket Books. Place of Publication Publisher
  • Slide 6
  • b)Journal or Magazine Article Author(s) Date Title of Article Wilcox, R. V. (1991). Shifting roles and synthetic women in Star Trek: The Next Generation. Studies in Popular Culture, 13(2), 53-65. Title of Periodical Volume Pages
  • Slide 7
  • c) Website (for more details, see the American Psychological Association's official site)American Psychological Association Author(s) Date Title of Article Lynch, T. (1996). DS9 trials and tribble-ations review. Retrieved October 8, 1997, from Psi Phi: Bradley's Science Fiction Club Website:http://www.bradley.edu/campusorg/psiphi/D S9/ep/503r.html Date of retrieved url address Website names
  • Slide 8
  • 1.AMA Citation Style American Medical Association Manual of Style, 9th edition
  • Slide 9
  • Book Okuda M, Okuda D. Star Trek Chronology: the History of the Future. New York: Pocket Books; 1993. Journal or Magazine Article (with volume numbers) Wilcox RV. Shifting roles and synthetic women in Star Trek: The Next Generation. Stud Pop Culture. 1991;13:53-65. Newspaper, Magazine or Journal Article (without volume numbers) Di Rado A. Trekking through college: classes explore modern society using the world of Star Trek. Los Angeles Times. March 15, 1995:A3. Encyclopedia Article Sturgeon T. Science fiction. In: Lorimer LT, editorial director; Cummings C, ed-in-chief; Leish KW, managing ed. The Encyclopedia Americana. Vol 24. International ed. Danbury, Conn: Grolier Incorporated; 1995:390-392.
  • Slide 10
  • Book Article or Chapter James NE. Two sides of paradise: the Eden myth according to Kirk and Spock. In: Palumbo D, ed. Spectrum of the Fantastic. Westport, Conn: Greenwood; 1988:219-223. ERIC Document Fuss-Reineck M. Sibling Communication in Star Trek: The Next Generation: Conflicts Between Brothers. Miami, Fla: Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication Association; 1993. ERIC Document Reproduction Service ED364932. Website Lynch T. DSN Trials and tribble-ations review. Psi Phi: Bradley's Science Fiction Club Web site. 1996. Available at: http://www.bradley.edu/campusorg/psiphi/DS9/ep /503r.htm. Accessed October 8, 1997. Journal Article on the Internet McCoy LH. Respiratory changes in Vulcans during pon farr. J Extr Med [serial online]. 1999;47:237-247. Available at: http://infotrac.galegroup.com/itweb/nysl_li_liu. Accessed April 7, 1999.
  • Slide 11
  • Notes Items are listed numerically in the order they are cited in the text. If you are using a typewriter and cannot use italics, then use underlining. Authors: use initials of first and second names with no spaces. Include up to six authors. If there are more than six, include the first three, followed by et al. If no author is given, start with the title. Books: include the edition statement (ex: 3rd ed. or Rev ed.) between the title and place if it is not the first edition.
  • Slide 12
  • Place: use abbreviations of states, not postal codes. Journals: abbreviate titles as shown in Index Medicus. If the journal does not paginate continuously through the volume, include the month (and day). Websites: include the name of the webpage, the name of the entire website, the full date of the page (if available), and the date you looked at it. For documents and situations not listed here, see the printed version of the manual. A similar styleguide is the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals Other Styles
  • Slide 13
  • 2.APA Citation Style Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th edition
  • Slide 14
  • Journal or Magazine Article (use for journals that start each issue with page one) Wilcox, R. V. (1991). Shifting roles and synthetic women in Star Trek: The Next Generation. Studies in Popular Culture, 13(2), 53-65. Journal of Magazine Article (use for journals where the page numbering continues from issue to issue) Dubeck, L. (1990). Science fiction aids science teaching. Physics Teacher, 28, 316-318. Newspaper Article Di Rado, A. (1995, March 15). Trekking through college: Classes explore modern society using the world of Star Trek. Los AngelesTimes, p. A3.
  • Slide 15
  • Article from an Internet Database (for more details, see the American Psychological Association's official site)American Psychological Association Mershon, D. H. (1998, November-December). Star Trek on the brain: Alien minds, human minds. American Scientist, 86, 585. Retrieved July 29, 1999, from Expanded Academic ASAP database. Book Okuda, M., & Okuda, D. (1993). Star Trek chronology: The history of the future. New York: Pocket Books. Book Article or Chapter James, N. E. (1988). Two sides of paradise: The Eden myth according to Kirk and Spock. In D. Palumbo (Ed.), Spectrum of the fantastic (pp. 219-223). Westport, CT: Greenwood.
  • Slide 16
  • Encyclopedia Article Sturgeon, T. (1995). Science fiction. In The encyclopedia Americana (Vol. 24, pp. 390-392). Danbury, CT: Grolier. ERIC Document Fuss-Reineck, M. (1993). Sibling communication in Star Trek: The Next Generation: Conflicts between brothers. Miami, FL: Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication Association. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 364932) Website (for more details, see the American Psychological Association's official site)American Psychological Association Lynch, T. (1996). DS9 trials and tribble-ations review. Retrieved October 8, 1997, from Psi Phi: Bradley's Science Fiction Club Website:http://www.bradley.edu/campusorg/psiphi/DS9/ep/ 503r.html
  • Slide 17
  • Notes If you are using the style for Copy Manuscripts, doublespace all lines. If you are using the style for Final Manuscripts, singlespace all lines and skip a line in between each reference. Ask your professor which style to follow. Arrange the items on your reference list alphabetically by author, interfiling books, articles, etc. Indent the second and following lines 5 to 7 spaces or one half inch. Use only the initials of the authors' first (and middle) names.
  • Slide 18
  • If no author is given, start with the title and then the date. If you are using a typewriter that cannot produce italics, then use underlining instead. Magazine articles: include the month (and day) as shown under Newspapers. Websites: if the date the page was created is not given, use (n.d.). The rules concerning a title within a title are not displayed here for purposes of clarity. See the printed version of the manual for details. For documents and situations not listed here, see the printed version of the manual. Other Styles
  • Slide 19
  • 3.Chicago Citation Style The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th edition
  • Slide 20
  • Book Okuda, Michael, and Denise Okuda. 1993. Star Trek chronology: The history of the future. New York: Pocket Books. Journal Article Wilcox, Rhonda V. 1991. Shifting roles and synthetic women in Star Trek: The Next Generation. Studies in Popular Culture 13 (2): 53-65. Magazine Article Smith, Jane. 1996. There is no resisting the Borg queen. Maclean's, 2 December, 82. Newspaper Article Di Rado, Alicia. 1995. Trekking through college: Classes explore modern society using the world of Star Trek. Los Angeles Times, 15 March, sec. A, p. 3.
  • Slide 21
  • Encyclopedia Article Reference books used as sources are not included in the Reference List but are cited in the text. Examples : In his article on science fiction in the 1995 edition of the Encyclopedia Americana, Theodore Sturgeon says that the phrase, science fiction, was created by Hugo Gernsback. Theodore Sturgeon says that the phrase, science fiction, was created by Hugo Gernsback (Encyclopedia Americana, 1995 ed.,s.v. "science fiction.")..Book Article or Chapter James, Nancy E. 1988. Two sides of paradise: The Eden myth according to Kirk and Spock. In Spectrum of the fantastic, edited by Donald Palumbo. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
  • Slide 22
  • ERIC Document Fuss-Reineck, Marilyn. 1993. Sibling communication in Star Trek: The Next Generation: Conflicts between brothers. Miami, FL: Speech Communication Association. ERIC, ED 364932. Website (Chicago follows the International Standards Organization documentation system)International Standards Organization Lynch, Tim. 1997. DS9 Trials and Tribble-ations Review. In Psi Phi: Bradley's Science Fiction Club [online]. Peoria, IL: Bradley University, 1996 [cited 8 October 1997]. Available from World Wide Web:.
  • Slide 23
  • Notes There are two different Chicago Styles. The one shown above is for a Reference List which is starting to become the more common one. See the printed manual for the other. Arrange the items on your reference list alphabetically by author, interfiling books, articles, etc. Indent the second and following lines. If no author is given, start with the title and then the date.
  • Slide 24
  • If you are using a typewriter and cannot use italics, then use underlining. Websites: Include the year you looked at it, the date it was created or updated, and the full date you looked at it. Include the title of the web page, the name of the entire website, and the organization that posted it (these last two might be the same).
  • Slide 25
  • 4.MLA Citation Style Manual language Association, MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th edition
  • Slide 26
  • Book Okuda, Michael, and Denise Okuda. Star Trek Chronology: The History of the Future. New York: Pocket, 1993. Journal Article Wilcox, Rhonda V. "Shifting Roles and Synthetic Women in Star Trek: The Next Generation." Studies in Popular Culture 13.2 (1991): 53-65. Newspaper or Magazine Article Di Rado, Alicia. "Trekking through College: Classes Explore Modern Society Using the World of Star Trek." Los Angeles Times 15 Mar. 1995: A3.
  • Slide 27
  • Book Article or Chapter James, Nancy E. "Two Sides of Paradise: The Eden Myth According to Kirk and Spock." Spectrum of the Fantastic. Ed. Donald Palumbo. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1988. 219-223. Encyclopedia Article (well known reference books) Sturgeon, Theodore. "Science Fiction." The Encyclopedia Americana. International ed. 1995. Encyclopedia Article (less familiar reference books) Horn, Maurice. "Flash Gordon." The World Encyclopedia of Comics. Ed. Maurice Horn. 2 vols. New York: Chelsea, 1976.
  • Slide 28
  • Gale Reference Book (and other books featuring reprinted articles) Shayon, Robert Lewis. "The Interplanetary Spock." Saturday Review 17 June 1967: 46. Rpt. in Contemporary Literary Criticism. Ed. Sharon R. Gunton. Vol. 17. Detroit: Gale Research, 1981. 403. ERIC Document Fuss-Reineck, Marilyn. Sibling Communication in Star Trek: The Next Generation: Conflicts between Brothers. Miami: Speech Communication Assn., 1993. ERIC Document Reproduction Service ED364932. Website Lynch, Tim. "DSN Trials and Tribble-ations Review." Psi Phi: Bradley's Science Fiction Club. 1996. Bradley University. 8 Oct. 1997..
  • Slide 29
  • Newspaper or Magazine Article on the Internet Andreadis, Athena. "The Enterprise Finds Twin Earths Everywhere It Goes, But Future Colonizers of Distant Planets Won't Be So Lucky." Astronomy Jan. 1999: 64-. Academic Universe. Lexis-Nexis. B. Davis Schwartz Memorial Lib., Brookville, NY. 7 Feb. 1999.. Literature Resource Center Shayon, Robert Lewis. "The Interplanetary Spock." Saturday Review 17 June 1967: 46. Rpt. in Contemporary Literary Criticism. Ed. Sharon R. Gunton. Vol. 17. Detroit: Gale Research, 1981. 403. Literature Resource Center. Gale Group. B. Davis Schwartz Memorial Lib., Brookville, NY. 16 Oct. 2001..
  • Slide 30
  • Notes Arrange the items on your reference list alphabetically by author, interfiling books, articles, etc. Doublespace all lines. Indent the second and following lines 5 spaces (or one half inch). If no author is given, start with the title. Abbreviate the names of all months except May, June, and July. If the encyclopedia does not arrange its articles alphabetically, treat the encyclopedia article as if it were a book article. Specific volume and page numbers are cited in the text, not in the list of references.
  • Slide 31
  • Gale Reference Book: cite the original source being reprinted as shown under Book, Journal Article, Newspaper or Magazine Article, etc. The example shows a Magazine Article. Then include the citation information for the reference book. Websites: include the title of the web page, the name of the entire web site, the organization that posted it (this may be the same as the name of the website). Also include the full date the page was created or last updated (day, month, year if available) and the date you looked at it.
  • Slide 32
  • Internet Magazine Articles: Include the name of the database (underlined) and the company that created it and its home webpage; the full date of the article (day, month, year if available) and the date you looked at it; as well as the library or other organization (and its location) that provided you with access to the database. If you are citing a journal instead of a magazine, include the volume (and issue number) and date as shown under the Journal Style above. The rules concerning a title within a title are not displayed here for purposes of clarity. See the printed version of the manual for details. For documents and situations not listed here, see the printed version of the manual. Other Styles
  • Slide 33
  • 5.Turabian Citation Style A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and D...