How to cite and reference in APA style

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<ul><li><p>Citing and Referencing </p><p>in APA Style(American Psychological Association )</p></li><li><p>This presentation is based on the description of APA found in this book:</p><p>(available in the library, shelfmark JJE)</p></li><li><p>Citing vs Referencing</p><p>in-text citations</p></li><li><p>Citing vs Referencing</p><p>references</p></li><li><p>In-Text Citations in APA</p></li><li><p>CITING in-text: the basics</p><p>The basic citation that you will use most of the time:</p><p>Recent research in herbology(Longbottom, 2013) has shown that</p><p>(Surname, YEAR)</p><p> as shown in its annual report (Ministry of Magic, 2016) </p></li><li><p>CITING in-text : the basics</p><p>If you have used the name of the author within the sentence, take it out of the brackets:</p><p>(YEAR) In his recent article, Neville Longbottom (2013) found that</p><p> as the Ministry of Magics annual report showed (2016) </p></li><li><p>CITING in-text : the basics</p><p>Conversely, if you have used the year within the sentence, you can take it out of the brackets:</p><p>(Surname)In this 2013 article (Longbottom), it was noted that</p><p> as the 2016 annual report showed (Ministry of Magic) </p></li><li><p>Citing Multiple Authors</p><p>For words with one or two authors, include all names in every in-text citation:</p><p>(Surname1, YEAR)</p><p>Recent research in herbology(Longbottom, 2013) has shown</p><p>(Surname1 &amp; Surname2, YEAR)</p><p>This important discovery (Weasley&amp; Potter, 1999) was done</p></li><li><p>Citing Multiple Authors</p><p>For works with three to five authors, include all names in the first in-text citations but used et al. for subsequent citations:</p><p>(Surname1, Surname2 &amp; Surname3, YEAR)</p><p>This survey (Bones et al., 1992) was later the basis of</p><p>Then: (Surname1 et al., YEAR)</p><p>In a ground breaking survey (Bones, Crouch, &amp; Bagman, 1992)</p></li><li><p>Citing Multiple Authors</p><p>For works with six or more authors, abbreviate to the first author name for all in-text citations:</p><p>This demonstrated something new (Flamel et al., 1992).</p><p>(Surname1 et al., YEAR)</p></li><li><p>The earliest report (Snape, n.d.) showed that</p><p>(Surname, n.d.)</p><p>No date available</p><p>If you dont know the year of publication, you can write n.d. (for no date) instead.</p><p>In text:</p><p>Reference List:Snape, S. (n.d.). School report. Hogsmeade: Hogswart Press.</p></li><li><p>Quotations</p><p>Short quotations are enclosed in quotation marks.</p><p>Grubby-Plank (2014, p. 587) states that a good blast-ended skrewt is a dead blast-ended skrewt.</p></li><li><p>Quotations</p><p>Longer quotations are separated from the text.</p><p>Scamander (2001, p. 35) in discussing the Common Welsh Green states that </p><p>This dragon blends well with the lush grass of its homeland, though it nests in the higher mountains, where a reservation has been established for its preservation. </p></li><li><p>Quotations</p><p>If you quote something directly, or if you paraphrase a specific page of a text, then </p><p>you have to mention the page number the quote is from. </p></li><li><p>Adding Page Numbers</p><p>Here is how to add a page number or a range of pages to your citation:</p><p>(Surname, YEAR, p. XX)</p><p>In a recent study Sinistra (2015, pp. 26-29) argued that</p><p> which proved this obscure point definitively (Bagshot, 1986, p. 867).</p><p>(Surname, YEAR, pp. XX-XX)</p></li><li><p>Adding Page Numbers</p><p>If pagination details are unavailable (i.e. on an eBook), use the chapter, section, and paragraph numbers</p><p>(Surname, YEAR, Chapter X, Section Y, para. Z)</p><p> which proved this obscure point definitively (Bagshot, 1986, Chapter 8, Section 12, para. 8).</p></li><li><p>Her study of the refereeing process (Weasley, 2012a) proved an important point. However this other case study (Weasley, 2012b) is also interesting.</p><p>Distinguishing Identical Citations</p><p>If several citations could be mixed up (same surname, same year), distinguish them by allocating lower case letters in alphabetical order after the publication date.</p><p>In text:</p><p>Reference List:Weasley, G. (2012a). The refereeing process in Quidditch. London: Leaky Cauldron Press.Weasley, R. (2012b). Chudley Cannons vs. Referrees of the world: a study. London: Leaky Cauldron Press.</p></li><li><p>Secondary Reference</p><p>To cite a document cited in another one, use the phrase as cited in and give the page number.</p><p>There was further evidence to support researchers views on genetic abnormalities in frogs through Kettleburns work (as cited in Hagrid, 2007, p.82).</p></li><li><p>Referencing in APA</p></li><li><p>Referencing a book</p></li><li><p>Referencing a book</p><p>Surname, I. (YEAR). Title of the book. Town: Publisher.</p><p>Burbage, C. (2002). Non-Magical populations of the UK. London: Leaky Cauldron Press.</p><p>Department of Mysteries (2008). Of the lasting preservation of prophecies. London: Ministry for Magic.</p></li><li><p>Authors names</p><p>You have to write every authors names up to seven.</p><p>Black, P., Dippet, A., Derwent, D., &amp; Everard, P. (1978). Headmasters Secrets. London: Flourish &amp; Blotts.</p></li><li><p>Authors names</p><p>If you have more than seven authors, use an ellipsis between the 6th and the last names.</p><p>Malfoy, D., Malfoy, L., Rookwood, A., Carrow, A., Macnair, W., Lestrange, R. Dolohov, A.(2015). Death Eaters: Real life tales of darker times. London: Flourish &amp; Blotts.</p></li><li><p>If the book has an editor, use her name + (Ed.) or (Eds.) for plural instead of the author.</p><p>Bogrod, G. (Ed.). (1994). International Wizarding Banking Strategies. London: Gringotts Press.</p><p>Editors names</p><p>Figg, A. and Filch, A. (Eds.). (2003) They should have been wizards: a history of forgotten squibs. Hogsmeade: Scrivenschafts.</p></li><li><p>If this is not a first edition, add the edition number.</p><p>Different Editions</p><p>Bagshot, B. (1937). A History of Magic (3rd ed.). Godrics Hollow: Godrics Press.</p></li><li><p>For eBooks, mention the DOI or URL you downloaded the eBook from:</p><p>About eBooks</p><p>Cresswell, D. (1994). Liaising with goblins. Retrived from</p></li><li><p>Referencing a Book Chapter</p></li><li><p>Referencing a Book Chapter</p><p>SurnameAuthor, I. (YEAR). Title of the chapter. In I. SurnameEditor (Ed.) Title of the book (pp. XX-XX). Town: Publisher.</p><p>Bagshot, B. (1937). The Goblins rebellion In A History of Magic (3rd ed., pp. 364-412). GodricsHollow: Godrics Press.</p><p>Weasley, P. (1997). New standards for cauldron thickness. In B. Crouch (Ed.) International Magical Cooperation: the basics (pp. 112-117). London: Ministry of Magic.</p></li><li><p>A Paper in a Collection</p><p>NameAuthor, I. (YEARpaper). Title of the paper. In I. NameEditor (Ed.) Title of the book (pp. XX-XX). Town: Publisher, YEARbook.</p><p>Freud, S. (1920). Beyond the pleasure principle. In The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud.Vol.18 (pp. 3-64). London: Hogarth Press, 1955.</p></li><li><p>Referencing an article</p></li><li><p>Referencing an article</p><p>Surname, I. (YEAR). Title of the article. Name of the Journal, Volume(Issue), xx-xx.</p><p>Dumbledore, A. (1943). Twelve uses of dragon blood. International Journal of Transfiguration, 135(2), 22-47.</p></li><li><p>Referencing an article</p><p>You can also add the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) at the end of the reference.</p><p>Horch, E.P. and Zhou, J. (2012). Charge-coupled device speckle observations of binary stars. Astronomical Journal, 136, 312-322. doi: 10.1088/0004-6256/136/1/312</p></li><li><p>Referencing a Web Page</p></li><li><p>Surname, I. (YEAR) Title of the web page. Retrieved from URL.</p><p>Referencing a Web Page</p><p>Rowling, J.K. (n.d.) How the wizarding world works. Retrieved from collection/jk-rowling-how-the-wizarding-world-works</p></li><li><p>Surname, I. (YEAR) Title of the blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL.</p><p>Referencing a Web Page</p><p>Storie, C. (2016). A very happy belated birthday to Rebeus Hagrid [Blog post]. Retrieved from</p></li><li><p>Good luck with your referencing!</p><p>For more information, have a look at the information skills </p><p>Moodle page!</p></li><li><p>Pictures used in this presentationSlide 1: Photo by dierk schaefer - Creative Commons Attribution License</p><p>Slide 5: Photo by A. Birkan AGHAN - Creative Commons Attribution License</p><p>Slide 6: Photo by Simone Bosotti - Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike License</p><p>Slide 9: Photo by Thomas Hawk - Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License</p><p>Slide 12: Photo by Jani Halinen - Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial</p><p>ShareAlike License</p><p>Slide 13: Photo by Quinn Dombrowski - Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike</p><p>Slide 18: Photo by Joe King - Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License</p><p>Slide 20: Photo by Moi of Ra - Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial ShareAlike</p><p>License</p><p>Slide 27: Photo by Nilufer Gadgieva - Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial</p><p>License</p><p>Slide 30: Photo by Mike Haufe - Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial</p><p>ShareAlike License</p><p>Slide 33: Photo by Markus Spiske - Creative Commons Attribution License</p><p>Slide 36: Photo by RodrigoVazquez - Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial</p><p>ShareAlike License</p><p></p></li></ul>