How to cite and reference in APA style

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  • Citing and Referencing

    in APA Style(American Psychological Association )

  • This presentation is based on the description of APA found in this book:

    (available in the library, shelfmark JJE)

  • Citing vs Referencing

    in-text citations

  • Citing vs Referencing

    references

  • In-Text Citations in APA

  • CITING in-text: the basics

    The basic citation that you will use most of the time:

    Recent research in herbology(Longbottom, 2013) has shown that

    (Surname, YEAR)

    as shown in its annual report (Ministry of Magic, 2016)

  • CITING in-text : the basics

    If you have used the name of the author within the sentence, take it out of the brackets:

    (YEAR) In his recent article, Neville Longbottom (2013) found that

    as the Ministry of Magics annual report showed (2016)

  • CITING in-text : the basics

    Conversely, if you have used the year within the sentence, you can take it out of the brackets:

    (Surname)In this 2013 article (Longbottom), it was noted that

    as the 2016 annual report showed (Ministry of Magic)

  • Citing Multiple Authors

    For words with one or two authors, include all names in every in-text citation:

    (Surname1, YEAR)

    Recent research in herbology(Longbottom, 2013) has shown

    (Surname1 & Surname2, YEAR)

    This important discovery (Weasley& Potter, 1999) was done

  • Citing Multiple Authors

    For works with three to five authors, include all names in the first in-text citations but used et al. for subsequent citations:

    (Surname1, Surname2 & Surname3, YEAR)

    This survey (Bones et al., 1992) was later the basis of

    Then: (Surname1 et al., YEAR)

    In a ground breaking survey (Bones, Crouch, & Bagman, 1992)

  • Citing Multiple Authors

    For works with six or more authors, abbreviate to the first author name for all in-text citations:

    This demonstrated something new (Flamel et al., 1992).

    (Surname1 et al., YEAR)

  • The earliest report (Snape, n.d.) showed that

    (Surname, n.d.)

    No date available

    If you dont know the year of publication, you can write n.d. (for no date) instead.

    In text:

    Reference List:Snape, S. (n.d.). School report. Hogsmeade: Hogswart Press.

  • Quotations

    Short quotations are enclosed in quotation marks.

    Grubby-Plank (2014, p. 587) states that a good blast-ended skrewt is a dead blast-ended skrewt.

  • Quotations

    Longer quotations are separated from the text.

    Scamander (2001, p. 35) in discussing the Common Welsh Green states that

    This dragon blends well with the lush grass of its homeland, though it nests in the higher mountains, where a reservation has been established for its preservation.

  • Quotations

    If you quote something directly, or if you paraphrase a specific page of a text, then

    you have to mention the page number the quote is from.

  • Adding Page Numbers

    Here is how to add a page number or a range of pages to your citation:

    (Surname, YEAR, p. XX)

    In a recent study Sinistra (2015, pp. 26-29) argued that

    which proved this obscure point definitively (Bagshot, 1986, p. 867).

    (Surname, YEAR, pp. XX-XX)

  • Adding Page Numbers

    If pagination details are unavailable (i.e. on an eBook), use the chapter, section, and paragraph numbers

    (Surname, YEAR, Chapter X, Section Y, para. Z)

    which proved this obscure point definitively (Bagshot, 1986, Chapter 8, Section 12, para. 8).

  • Her study of the refereeing process (Weasley, 2012a) proved an important point. However this other case study (Weasley, 2012b) is also interesting.

    Distinguishing Identical Citations

    If several citations could be mixed up (same surname, same year), distinguish them by allocating lower case letters in alphabetical order after the publication date.

    In text:

    Reference List:Weasley, G. (2012a). The refereeing process in Quidditch. London: Leaky Cauldron Press.Weasley, R. (2012b). Chudley Cannons vs. Referrees of the world: a study. London: Leaky Cauldron Press.

  • Secondary Reference

    To cite a document cited in another one, use the phrase as cited in and give the page number.

    There was further evidence to support researchers views on genetic abnormalities in frogs through Kettleburns work (as cited in Hagrid, 2007, p.82).

  • Referencing in APA

  • Referencing a book

  • Referencing a book

    Surname, I. (YEAR). Title of the book. Town: Publisher.

    Burbage, C. (2002). Non-Magical populations of the UK. London: Leaky Cauldron Press.

    Department of Mysteries (2008). Of the lasting preservation of prophecies. London: Ministry for Magic.

  • Authors names

    You have to write every authors names up to seven.

    Black, P., Dippet, A., Derwent, D., & Everard, P. (1978). Headmasters Secrets. London: Flourish & Blotts.

  • Authors names

    If you have more than seven authors, use an ellipsis between the 6th and the last names.

    Malfoy, D., Malfoy, L., Rookwood, A., Carrow, A., Macnair, W., Lestrange, R. Dolohov, A.(2015). Death Eaters: Real life tales of darker times. London: Flourish & Blotts.

  • If the book has an editor, use her name + (Ed.) or (Eds.) for plural instead of the author.

    Bogrod, G. (Ed.). (1994). International Wizarding Banking Strategies. London: Gringotts Press.

    Editors names

    Figg, A. and Filch, A. (Eds.). (2003) They should have been wizards: a history of forgotten squibs. Hogsmeade: Scrivenschafts.

  • If this is not a first edition, add the edition number.

    Different Editions

    Bagshot, B. (1937). A History of Magic (3rd ed.). Godrics Hollow: Godrics Press.

  • For eBooks, mention the DOI or URL you downloaded the eBook from:

    About eBooks

    Cresswell, D. (1994). Liaising with goblins. Retrived from http://www.ministryofmagic.co.uk/BeastsBeingsSpirits/54/Goblins/

  • Referencing a Book Chapter

  • Referencing a Book Chapter

    SurnameAuthor, I. (YEAR). Title of the chapter. In I. SurnameEditor (Ed.) Title of the book (pp. XX-XX). Town: Publisher.

    Bagshot, B. (1937). The Goblins rebellion In A History of Magic (3rd ed., pp. 364-412). GodricsHollow: Godrics Press.

    Weasley, P. (1997). New standards for cauldron thickness. In B. Crouch (Ed.) International Magical Cooperation: the basics (pp. 112-117). London: Ministry of Magic.

  • A Paper in a Collection

    NameAuthor, I. (YEARpaper). Title of the paper. In I. NameEditor (Ed.) Title of the book (pp. XX-XX). Town: Publisher, YEARbook.

    Freud, S. (1920). Beyond the pleasure principle. In The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud.Vol.18 (pp. 3-64). London: Hogarth Press, 1955.

  • Referencing an article

  • Referencing an article

    Surname, I. (YEAR). Title of the article. Name of the Journal, Volume(Issue), xx-xx.

    Dumbledore, A. (1943). Twelve uses of dragon blood. International Journal of Transfiguration, 135(2), 22-47.

  • Referencing an article

    You can also add the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) at the end of the reference.

    Horch, E.P. and Zhou, J. (2012). Charge-coupled device speckle observations of binary stars. Astronomical Journal, 136, 312-322. doi: 10.1088/0004-6256/136/1/312

  • Referencing a Web Page

  • Surname, I. (YEAR) Title of the web page. Retrieved from URL.

    Referencing a Web Page

    Rowling, J.K. (n.d.) How the wizarding world works. Retrieved from https://www.pottermore.com/ collection/jk-rowling-how-the-wizarding-world-works

  • Surname, I. (YEAR) Title of the blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL.

    Referencing a Web Page

    Storie, C. (2016). A very happy belated birthday to Rebeus Hagrid [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://www.the-leaky-cauldron.org/2016/12/07/a-very-happy-belated-birthday-to-rubeus-Hagrid/

  • Good luck with your referencing!

    For more information, have a look at the information skills

    Moodle page!

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