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  • The Holocaust

Symbolism

  • Jewish and Nazi Symbols

The Star of David, representing Judaism. http://jnfeducation.co.uk/media/Image/MDAvid.gif The Star of David in a text from a Jewish book, dated 1008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Leningrad_Codex_Carpet_page_e.jpg A badge Jews were forced to wear during Nazi times. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Judenstern_JMW.jpg The current flag of Israel http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flag_of_Israel GANESH, the Hindu God of Good Luck and Prosperity. Swastikas adorn the open pages of the book at Ganesh's feet Swastikais Sanskrit forall is well , orwell-being. www.heathenworld.com/ swastika/ganesh.html The swastika as a Buddhist symbol. http://www.falundafa.org.il/ver_01/english/wan_eng.htm#china In India; the swastika still represents good luck to Hindus. www.ourlifejourney.com/ jaipur_photos.htm The ancient Chinese WuShu coin, with swastika designs. http://www.falundafa.org.il/ver_01/english/wan_eng.htm#china An eighth century BC Greek bowl. http://www.falundafa.org.il/ver_01/english/wan_eng.htm#china A swastika mosaic in a synagogue in Israel. http://www.falundafa.org.il/ver_01/english/wan_eng.htm#china This postcard, copyright 1907 by E. Phillips, a US card publisher, speaks for the universally high regard in which the swastika was held as a good luck token before use by the Nazis corrupted its meaning....It forms a combination of four Ls standing for Luck, Light, Love, and Life. http://www.luckymojo.com/swastika.html The Edmonton Swastikas Hockey Team, 1916. http://www.birthplaceofhockey.com/hockeyists/swastikas/pic-edmt-swas%201916.html A brass promotional watch fob from the 1920s. http://www.heathenworld.com/swastika/coke.html The Nazi flag intended to symbolize the ideology of the movement in red its social ideal, in white its nationalism, and in the swastika "the struggle for the victory of Aryan man" http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/de%7Dns_or.html#lef These trees were planted in the 1930's by a local resident during Nazi times. They were largely forgotten until after the German reunification in 1992 when planes once again flew over the area. Local forestry officials cut down 25 of the Larch trees after this photo appeared in several German tabloids. http://www.birthplaceofhockey.com/hockeyists/swastikas/pic-edmt-swas%201916.html This photo was taken on November 14, 2000. It was only visible from the air a few weeks in the Spring and a few weeks in the Fall when Larch trees stood out in contrast to the surrounding Pine trees. The History of the Jews Jewish Expulsions and Resettlement Areas in Europe. 1100 - 1500. Pogroms and antisemitic acts of violence in Russia and the Pale from 1871 - 1906. The Rise of the Nazi Party Nazi Party

  • 1918 - 1933

Nazi party in 1922.Julius Streicher, editor of the antisemitic newspaperDer Strmer , is front row, to the left of the child.Photo credit: USHMM Photo Archives Late 1920s; Adolf Hitler reviews stormtroopers at a Nazi party rally in Nuremberg, GermanyPhoto credit: USHMM Photo Archives Adolf Hitler and Heinrich Himmler review SS troops during Reich Party Day ceremonies.Photo credit: USHMM Photo Archives The Nazification of Germany of Germany

  • 1933 - 1939

Paul Von Hindenburg calling Adolf Hitler to the chancellorship of Germany, January, 30, 1933.Photo credit: National Archives, courtesy of USHMM Photo Archives Reichminster Joseph Goebbels urges Germans to boycott Jewish-owned businesses, April 1, 1933.Photo credit: National Archives, courtesy of USHMM Photo Archives German civilians and SA members paste anti-Jewish boycott signs on Jewish businesses.Most signs read, Germans defend yourselves against Jewish atrocity propaganda; buy only at German shops. (1933) Photo credit: National Archives, courtesy of USHMM Photo Archives A woman reads a boycott sign on a Jewish department store.The sign reads: Germans defend yourselves against Jewish atrocity propaganda; buy only at German shops. (1933) Photo credit: National Archives, courtesy of USHMM Photo Archives SA pickets, wearing boycott signs, block the entrance to a Jewish-owned shop. (1933) Photo credit: National Archives, courtesy of USHMM Photo Archives A brown shirt (member of the SA) throws un-German books into a book burning fire in Berlin.May 10, 1933. Photo credit: National Archives, courtesy of USHMM Photo Archives Hitler Youth march through Nuremberg, Germany past Nazi officials, including Julius Streicher. (1933) Photo credit: National Archives, courtesy of USHMM Photo Archives Adolf Hitler opening the 1935 Party Day of freedom in the historic Nuremberg town hall. Photo credit: USHMM Photo Archives Nazis at the University of Vienna, Austria try to prevent Jews from entering the building; led to a day of student rioting. Photo credit: National Archives, courtesy of USHMM Photo Archives Jesse Owens and other members of the 1936 US Olympic team arrive in Berlin. Photo credit: National Archives, courtesy of USHMM Photo Archives German citizens salute Adolf Hitler at the 1936 Olympics in Berlin. Photo credit: National Archives, courtesy of USHMM Photo Archives Regards: Measures against Jews tonight. a) Only such measures may be taken which do not jeopardize German life or property (for instance, burning of synagogues only if there is no danger of fires for the neighbourhoods). b) Business establishments and homes of Jews may be destroyed but not looted. The police have been instructed to supervise the execution of these directives and to arrest looters. c) In Business streets special care is to be taken that non-Jewish establishments will be safeguarded at all cost against damage. As soon as the events of this night permit the use of the designated officers, as many Jews, particularly wealthy ones, as the local jails will hold, are to be arrested in all districts. Initially only healthy male Jews, not too old, are to be arrested. After the arrests have been carried out the appropriate concentration camp is to be contacted immediately with a view to a quick transfer of the Jews to the camps.... Orders aboutKristallnacht : Nov. 10, 1938 Kristallnacht: Nov. 10, 1938.Red dots indicate cities where synagogues were destroyed. DuringKristallnacht , the Night of Broken Glass, a synagogue burns in Siegen, Germany.(November 10, 1938) Photo credit: The Pictorial History of the Holocaust, Yitzhak Arad, Ed., Macmillan Publishing Co., NY, 1990, p. 58, courtesy of Shamash: The Jewish Internet Consortium. Germans pass by the broken shop window of a Jewish business destroyed duringKristallnacht .(November, 1938) Photo credit: National Archives, courtesy of USHMM Photo Archives Estimated Jewish population in Europe in 1939. Soviet Foreign Commissioner signs the German-Soviet nonagression pact.Josef Stalin, in white, stands behind him.Photo credit: The National Archives and Records Administration, item #242-JRPE-44. Artillery General von Riechenau, commander of part of the army that invaded Poland on September 1, 1939.Photo credit: Meczenstwo Walka, Zaglada Aydw w Polsce 1939-1945. Poland. No. 28. German troops parade through Warsaw, Poland, September, 1939.Photo credit: K Hugo Juger, Courtesy The National Archives and Records Administration, item #200-SFF-52. The Ghettos

  • 1939 - 1941

Harassment of a Jewish man. Photo credit: Meczenstwo Walka, Zaglada Zydw Polsce 1939-1945. Poland. No. 32. German soldiers humiliating Polish Jews by forcing one Jew to cut the beard of another, while non-Jewish Poles look on. Photo credit: Main Commission for the Investigation of Nazi War Crimes, courtesy of USHMM Photo Archives. Soldiers using the psychological warfare of humiliation against Jews, forcing them to give the Nazi salute. Photo credit: Meczenstwo Walka, Zaglada Zydw Polsce 1939-1945. Poland. No. 37. On November 14, 1939, the President of Ldz decreed that all Jews must wear arm bands or badges with a Jewish star.Photo credit: Meczenstwo Walka, Zaglada Zydw Polsce 1939-1945. Poland. No. 43. Seller of Jewish arm bands on the streets of Warsaw, 1940. Photo credit: Meczenstwo Walka, Zaglada Zydw Polsce 1939-1945. Poland. No. 47. Ghetto ration card for October 1941. This card officially entitled the holder to 300 calories daily.Photo credit: Meczenstwo Walka, Zaglada Zydw Polsce 1939-1945. Poland. No. 137. Stores owned by Jews had to be marked with a Star of David, another part of the increasing segregation of Jews.Photo credit: Meczenstwo Walka, Zaglada Zydw Polsce 1939-1945. Poland. No. 49. This picture captures the essence of how many non-Jewish Europeans and Jews related during the rise of Nazism.Photo credit: Meczenstwo Walka, Zaglada Zydw Polsce 1939-1945. Poland. No. 116. One form of Nazi plunder was the circulation of money for use only in the ghetto, that had no value outside of the ghetto.Photo credit: Meczenstwo Walka, Zaglada Zydw Polsce 1939-1945. Poland. No. 181. Rubenstein, a popular figure in the Warsaw ghetto in 1941-42, used humor and biting mockery as a way to express the anger and hatred Jews felt toward the Nazis and the ghetto police.Photo credit: Meczenstwo Walka, Zaglada Zydw Polsce 1939-1945. Poland. No. 98. A German soldier and a Jewish policeman direct Ldz ghetto residents crossing the street between the two parts of the ghetto in 1940 or 1941. The German sign forbids entry into the Jewish area. This photograph was printed as a postcard.Photo credit: National Archives, courtesy of USHMM Photo Archives Identity card of Rudolf Kohn, deported from Vienna to the ghetto in Ldz.Photo credit: Meczenstwo Walka, Zaglada Aydw w Polsce 1939-1945. Poland. No. 68. Close-up of a child working at a machine in a Kovno ghetto workshop.Photo credit: George Kadish Collection, courtesy of USHMM Photo Archives A German policeman checks the identification papers of Jews in the