hemoglobin structure - assiut .hemoglobin structure hemoglobin (hb) is synthesized in a complex...

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Hemoglobin Structure

Hemoglobin (Hb) is synthesized in a complex

series of steps. The heme part is synthesized

and themitochondriain a series of steps in the and the mitochondriain a series of steps in the

of immature red blood cells, while the cytosoly

protein parts are synthesized by globin

in the cytosolribosomes

Heme synthesized by mitochondria, fixed with irony y ,

Heme then surrounded by globin proteins that surround and protect

the heme

Each single Hemoglobin molecule has two globin chains, each with itsEach single Hemoglobin molecule has two globin chains, each with its

own heme protein attached

One globin chain is alpha

One is non-alphaOne is non alpha

Two hemoglobin molecules combine to produce functional hgb

tetramer

- Alpha globin genes coded on Chrom 16

Each Chrom 16 has 2 alpha gene loci

four total per cellfour total per cell

- Non alpha globin genes on Chrom 11p g g

Arranged from embryonic expression to adult expression

( il d lt b t )(epsilon, gamma, delta, beta)

Adult chromosome has one copy of beta gene

Two per cell

Hemoglobin AbnormalitiesHemoglobin Abnormalitiesgg

There are 3 main categories of inherited Hemoglobin abnormalities:

- Structural or qualitative: The amino acid sequence isStructural or qualitative: The amino acid sequence is altered because of incorrect DNA code (HBs).

Quantitative: Production of one or more globin- Quantitative: Production of one or more globin chains is reduced or absent (Thalassemia).

- Hereditary persistence of Fetal Hemoglobin (HPFH): Complete or partial failure of globin to switch to gglobin.

Laboratory Methods to evaluate Laboratory Methods to evaluate HemoglobinHemoglobin

Red cell morphologies:HbS: Sickle cells

Red cell morphologies:HbS: Sickle cellsHbC: Target cells, crystals after splenectomy

Red cell morphologies:HbS: Sickle cellsHbC: Target cells, crystals after splenectomyThalassemias: Microcystosis target cellsThalassemias: Microcystosis, target cells, basophilic stippling

ThalassemiaThalassemia

Variety of genetic defects in globin chain synthesis decreased or absent

Classified according to globin chain thatClassified according to globin chain that

is affected e.g. -thalassemia vs. thalassemia

Heterozygous: minor

Homozygous: majorHomozygous: major

The name is derived from the Greek words Thalasso = Sea" and "Hemia = Blood" in reference to anemia of the sea.

Pathophysiology

- If chain is affected, excess of chains produced. If chain is affected, excess of chains produced

- Imbalance in chain synthesis causes

-Decrease in total hemoglobin production

-Ineffective erythropoiesis-Ineffective erythropoiesis

-Chronic hemolysis

-Excess chains are unstable precipitate

within cell precipitates bind to cell

membrane, causing membrane damage

Excess chains combine to form Hb HExcess chains combine to form Hb H-High oxygen affinity poor oxygen transporter-unstableunstable

- thalassemia Major Cooleys Anemia

Homozygous (+/ + or 0/ 0) or doubleHomozygous ( / or 0/ 0) or double heterozygous ( +/ 0) inheritance

Pathophysiology: dramatic reduction or complete absence of chain synthesis y

Symptoms begin to manifest at age 6 months

-Increase in non containing hemoglobins

- Excess chains precipitate in cellsExcess chains precipitate in cells

- hemolysis

Pathophsiology Pathophsiology

excessexcess

2 2 dest of RBC

hb F hemolysis

level of hb F Splenomegaly ineff erythropoiesisof RBCof RBC

Anemia

High O2 affinity g ytissue hypoxia

Epop

anemiaEPO

Marrow expansionMarrow expansion

Skeletal def.Inc.mwtabolic rate Inc. Fe absorption transfusion Gout

Folate def. Fe overload

endocrine def.cardiac f

LC

Clinical SymptomsClinical Symptoms

-First observed in infants irritability,-pallor, failure to thrive Enlarged abdomenp g-Sever anemia - cardiac failure in first decade of lifelife-Growth is retarded; brown pigmentationof skinof skin-Bone changes facial deformities-Splenomegaly extramedullary hematopoiesis

Gallstones due to increasedintravascular and extravascular hemolysisintravascular and extravascular hemolysis

-Skeletal abnormalities expansion ofbone marrrow

-Pathological fractures thinning of-Pathological fractures thinning ofcalcified bone

-Iron toxicity multiple transfusions

Laboratory Findings of tha majorLaboratory Findings of tha.major

Hemoglobin as low as 2-3 g/dL

-Markedly microcytic/hypochromic

Marked anisocytosis and poikilocytosis-Marked anisocytosis and poikilocytosis

-Basophilic stippling and polychromasia

-Hemoglobin electrophoresis 90% Hb F and increased Hb A2

-Increased bilirubin, decreased haptoglobin

Increased serum iron and decreased TIBC-Increased serum iron and decreased TIBC

Thalassemia carriers (trait):Thalassemia carriers (trait):

Usually no signs or symptoms are Usua y o s g s o sy p o s a eapparent, except for a mild anemia.

Carriers are usually initially detected th h i h f ithrough screening, or when performing routine CBC Later it can be confirmedroutine CBC . Later it can be confirmed using hemoglobin electrophoresis.

Alpha ThalassemiasAlpha ThalassemiasAlpha ThalassemiasAlpha ThalassemiasThere are two genes on each of two chromosome 16 structures (four genes in the diploid state)

M t ti ff t f thMutations can affect one or more of the

genes resulting in four levels of severity

Wh ll f d l t d-When all four genes deleted no

chains, hydrops fetalis or a-thalassemia

majormajor

- 3 of the four deleted, hemoglobin H

DiseaseDisease-2 of the 4 deleted, a-thalassemia minor-1 deletion, silent carrier

Classification & TerminologyClassification & TerminologyAlphaAlpha ThalassemiaThalassemia

Normal/Silent carrier- /

Minor-/---/--/

Hb H disease--/-Barts hydrops fetalis--/--

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