hematology - study... · hematology for a complete blood count (cbc), specimens of venous blood...

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  • Hematology For a Complete Blood Count (CBC), specimens of venous blood are taken, it

    includes hemoglobin and hematocrit measurements, erythrocyte (RBC) count, leukocyte

    (WBC) count, red blood cell (RBC) indices, and a differential white cell count. The CBC is

    a basic screening test and one of the most frequently ordered blood tests.

    Possible Causes of Normal Findings

    Hematology

    Result

    Normal

    Values

    Increased

    Decreased

    WBC

    5.4 x 109/L

    510 x 109/L

    Infection

    Inflammation Trauma

    Autoimmune

    disease Drug toxicity

    Bone marrow failure

    Neutrophil

    0.53

    0.45-0.65

    stress

    acute

    infection

    aplastic anemia

    dietary deficiency

    Lymphocytes

    0.43

    0.25-0.40

    Chronic infection

    Viral Infection Mononucleosis

    Leukemia Sepsis

    Immunodeficiency\ diseases

    Eosinophils

    0.02

    0.02-0.04

    Parasitic

    infections Allergic

    reactions Leukemia

    Increased

    Adrenosteroid production

    Monocytes

    0.02

    0.02-0.06

    Chronic Inflammatory

    disorder

    Tuberculosis Chronic

    Ulcerative colitis

    Drug Therapy: Prednisone

  • Possible Causes of Normal Findings

    Hematology

    Result

    Normal Values

    Increased

    Decreased

    RBC

    4.9 x 1012/L

    4.5 -5.9x 1012/L

    Dehydration

    Pulmonary fibrosis

    Hemorrhage

    Anemia Dietary deficiency

    Hemoglobin

    105 g/L

    140-170 g/L

    Polycythemia

    Dehydration COPD

    Hemorrhage

    Anemia Cancer

    Kidney disease Sickle Cell Anemia

    Hematocrit

    0.315

    0.40-0.50

    Polycythemia

    Dehydration COPD

    Hemorrhage

    Anemia Hyperthyroidism

    Dietary deficiency

    Platelet

    554 x 109/L

    150-450 x 109/L

    Malignant disorder

    Polycythemia Rheumatoid

    Arthritis Iron

    Deficiency Anemia

    Hemorrhage Leukemia

    Pernicious anemia Hemolytic anemia

    Chemotherapy

    MCV

    78fl

    80-100fl

    Liver disease

    Alcoholism

    Iron deficiency

    Anemia

    MCH

    26.1 pg

    27-31 pg

    Macrocytic

    anemia

    Microcytic anemia

    Hypochromic anemia

    MCHC

    334

    320-360

    Intravascular

    hemolysis

    Iron deficiency

    anemia

    Blood type

    O

    Rh (D)

    Positive

  • Urinalysis Urine tests include tests for specific gravity, pH and the presence of abnormal

    constituents such as glucose, ketones, protein, and occult blood.

    Specific gravity is an indicator of urine concentration, or the amounts of

    solutes present in the urine. The specific gravity of urine normally ranges from 1.010 to

    1.025. Low specific gravity readings is a result of excess fluid intake or diseases

    affecting the ability of the kidneys to concentrate urine. A high specific gravity may

    indicate fluid deficit or dehydration, or excess solutes such as glucose in the urine.

    Urinary pH is measured to determine the relative acidity or alkalinity of urine

    and assess the clients acid-base status. Urine is normally acidic with an average pH of

    6. Assessment of urine pH is useful in determining whether the kidneys are responding

    appropriately to acid-base imbalances.

    Urine is tested for glucose to screen clients for diabetes mellitus. Normally, the

    amount of glucose in the urine is neglible.

    Ketone bodies, a product of the breakdown of fatty acids, normally are not

    present in the urine. However, they may be present for clients with poorly controlled

    diabetes.

    Protein is normally negative in urine testing. If protein becomes positive in

    some clients, this may indicate that their glomerular membrane in the kidney has been

    damaged.

    Normal urine is free from blood. When blood is present, it may be clearly

    visisble or not visible (occult).

  • Microscopic

    Result

    Normal Values

    Color

    Yellow

    Straw/amber

    Transparency

    Clear

    Clear

    Glucose

    Negative

    Negative

    Bilirubin

    Negative

    Negative

    Ketone

    Negative

    Negative

    Blood

    Negative

    Negative

    Specific Gravity

    1.005

    1.005-1.030

    pH

    5.0

    4.6-8.0

    Protein

    Negative

    Negative

    Nitrite

    Negative

    Negative

    Leukocytes

    Negative

    Negative

    WBC

    0-2/lpf

    0-5/hpf

    Epithelial Cells

    few

    rare

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