Hematology - study... · Hematology For a Complete Blood Count (CBC), specimens of venous blood are…

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Hematology For a Complete Blood Count (CBC), specimens of venous blood are taken, it includes hemoglobin and hematocrit measurements, erythrocyte (RBC) count, leukocyte (WBC) count, red blood cell (RBC) indices, and a differential white cell count. The CBC is a basic screening test and one of the most frequently ordered blood tests. Possible Causes of Normal Findings Hematology Result Normal Values Increased Decreased WBC 5.4 x 109/L 510 x 109/L Infection Inflammation Trauma Autoimmune disease Drug toxicity Bone marrow failure Neutrophil 0.53 0.45-0.65 stress acute infection aplastic anemia dietary deficiency Lymphocytes 0.43 0.25-0.40 Chronic infection Viral Infection Mononucleosis Leukemia Sepsis Immunodeficiency\ diseases Eosinophils 0.02 0.02-0.04 Parasitic infections Allergic reactions Leukemia Increased Adrenosteroid production Monocytes 0.02 0.02-0.06 Chronic Inflammatory disorder Tuberculosis Chronic Ulcerative colitis Drug Therapy: Prednisone Possible Causes of Normal Findings Hematology Result Normal Values Increased Decreased RBC 4.9 x 1012/L 4.5 -5.9x 1012/L Dehydration Pulmonary fibrosis Hemorrhage Anemia Dietary deficiency Hemoglobin 105 g/L 140-170 g/L Polycythemia Dehydration COPD Hemorrhage Anemia Cancer Kidney disease Sickle Cell Anemia Hematocrit 0.315 0.40-0.50 Polycythemia Dehydration COPD Hemorrhage Anemia Hyperthyroidism Dietary deficiency Platelet 554 x 109/L 150-450 x 109/L Malignant disorder Polycythemia Rheumatoid Arthritis Iron Deficiency Anemia Hemorrhage Leukemia Pernicious anemia Hemolytic anemia Chemotherapy MCV 78fl 80-100fl Liver disease Alcoholism Iron deficiency Anemia MCH 26.1 pg 27-31 pg Macrocytic anemia Microcytic anemia Hypochromic anemia MCHC 334 320-360 Intravascular hemolysis Iron deficiency anemia Blood type O Rh (D) Positive Urinalysis Urine tests include tests for specific gravity, pH and the presence of abnormal constituents such as glucose, ketones, protein, and occult blood. Specific gravity is an indicator of urine concentration, or the amounts of solutes present in the urine. The specific gravity of urine normally ranges from 1.010 to 1.025. Low specific gravity readings is a result of excess fluid intake or diseases affecting the ability of the kidneys to concentrate urine. A high specific gravity may indicate fluid deficit or dehydration, or excess solutes such as glucose in the urine. Urinary pH is measured to determine the relative acidity or alkalinity of urine and assess the clients acid-base status. Urine is normally acidic with an average pH of 6. Assessment of urine pH is useful in determining whether the kidneys are responding appropriately to acid-base imbalances. Urine is tested for glucose to screen clients for diabetes mellitus. Normally, the amount of glucose in the urine is neglible. Ketone bodies, a product of the breakdown of fatty acids, normally are not present in the urine. However, they may be present for clients with poorly controlled diabetes. Protein is normally negative in urine testing. If protein becomes positive in some clients, this may indicate that their glomerular membrane in the kidney has been damaged. Normal urine is free from blood. When blood is present, it may be clearly visisble or not visible (occult). Microscopic Result Normal Values Color Yellow Straw/amber Transparency Clear Clear Glucose Negative Negative Bilirubin Negative Negative Ketone Negative Negative Blood Negative Negative Specific Gravity 1.005 1.005-1.030 pH 5.0 4.6-8.0 Protein Negative Negative Nitrite Negative Negative Leukocytes Negative Negative WBC 0-2/lpf 0-5/hpf Epithelial Cells few rare

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