practical hematology manual. components of normal adult blood

Download Practical Hematology Manual. Components of Normal Adult Blood

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  • Slide 1
  • Practical Hematology Manual
  • Slide 2
  • Components of Normal Adult Blood
  • Slide 3
  • How to collect blood sample to do the Complete blood count (CBC) When blood come in contact to external surfaces (tube), it will Normally clot as follow We need to prevent this blood clotting to be able to proceed through the intended CBC, To do this we have to add anti-coagulants (chemicals that prevents the blood clotting
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  • Separation of Components Plasma = Less Dense Hematocrit Packed Cells More Dense Platelets / WBCs
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  • Hemacytometer The hemacytometer counting chamber is used for cell counting. It is constructed so that the distance between the bottom of the coverslip and the surface of the counting area of the chamber is 0.1 mm. The surface of the chamber contains two square ruled areas separated by an H-shaped moat. Hemo: blood Cyto: cell Meter: measurement/counter Thus, it is an instrument used to count the blood cells.
  • Slide 7
  • It includes: a)Neubauers slide b)Cover slip c)RBC pipette d)WBC pipette
  • Slide 8
  • haemocytometer chamber Thoma white pipette Rubber sucking tube
  • Slide 9
  • Hemacytometer
  • Slide 10
  • Each scale is 3mm wide and 3mm long. The whole scale is divided into 9 big squares. Each primary square is 1mm long and 1mm width Each primary square is further divided into 16 secondary square (central 25 secondary square ) Each secondary square is further subdivided into 16 tertiary square
  • Slide 11
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  • Principle of WBCs count Free-flowing capillary or well-mixed anticoagulated venous blood is added to a diluent) at a specific volume in the diluting pipette. The diluent lyses the erythrocytes but preserves leukocytes and platelets. The diluted blood is added to the hemacytometer chamber. Sample: EDTA- anticoagulated blood or capillary blood is preferred. WBCs count diluting fluid : May be one of the following: Acetic acid 1% (v/v) in distilled water. HCL 1% (v/v) in distilled water. Turks' solution which is formed of: Glacial acetic acid 1 ml Crystal violet 1 ml 100 ml distilled water. Principle
  • Slide 13
  • Equipment 1.White blood cells count diluting fluid 2.WBCs pipette 3.Hemacytometer and coverslip 4. Microscope 5.Lint-free wipe 6.Alcohol pads For WBC counting 0.5 part of blood is mixed in 10 parts of fluid So, 1 part of blood is in 20 parts of fluid Thus, dilution factor for WBC counting is 20.
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  • Procedure Carefully charge hemacytometer with diluted blood by gently squeezing sides of reservoir to expel contents until chamber is properly filled.
  • Slide 16
  • 4X to see the general formation of slide. 10X for WBC counting 40X for RBC counting FOCUSING
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  • Adjust the microscopic objective lens 40X for RBC counting
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  • Counting Rule Cont RBCs in the L shape method Do not count cells touching Top line Right line This is to avoid double counting.
  • Slide 21
  • WBC COUNTING Total no. of WBCs in 4 Primary squares = X Mean No. of WBCs in Primary squares (1 mm 2 ) = X/4 (diluted) X/4 x20 = No. of WBCs in 1 mm 2 of undiluted blood X/4 x20 x 10= No. of WBCs in 1 mm 3 of undiluted blood No. of WBCs in 1mm = 1 l = X x 50/mm While X is the No of WBCs counted in the 4 primary square Normal Values: 4500 -11000/mm 3 or L
  • Slide 22
  • Disturbance of Leukocytes Number) Leucopenia :WBCs < 4000 Leukocytosis : WBCs >11000 Neutrophilia: Lyphoctosis Leukemia. Uncontrolled production of WBCs can be caused by cancerous growth. Leukemia, is characterized by WBCs > 30000/ul


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