hematology hematology = study of blood (no heart or blood vessels

Download Hematology Hematology = study of blood (no heart or blood vessels

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  • Hematology Hematology = study of blood (no heart or blood vessels
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  • Fluid and solid matter in the body 40% of adult body is solid matter 60% is water These proportions vary with age (higher % water in babies) and sex (more fat, less water in women) Blood accounts for 5% of body fluid = 5-6 liters: - about 55% of blood is water
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  • Blood Total blood volume 5L Roughly 8-10% total body weight Thicker viscosity than water (obviouslythere are cells and proteins in it) pH 7.35-7.45 (recall pH homeostasis) Normally 38 C When you donate blood, 1 unit = 500 ml (10% total blood volume) 2 component groups: Formed elements (45% total volume) Blood plasma (fluid portion)
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  • Hematocrit Proportion of formed elements (mostly red blood cells) in the blood Common medical test Plasma: 55% Formed elements: 45% Varies with sex, circumstances
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  • Blood Plasma Fluid portion of blood (technically the extracellular matrix of bloodsince blood is a form of connective tissue) 90% water Straw/yellow tone due to presence of proteins, various salts (electrolytes), carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, vitamins & hormones
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  • Blood Plasma Plasma proteins ( 7-9% total plasma ingredients) Albumins (a family of proteins) 60 % total plasma protein content Produced in liver Act as carrier/delivery molecules Influence blood viscosity Influence blood pressure through viscosity Globulins 35 % total plasma protein Alpha ( ) & Beta ( ) globulins produced in liver ( fat/lipid transport) Gamma ( ) globulins produced by lymphoid cells ( antibodies) Fibrinogen 4 % total plasma protein content Produced in liver blood clot (with platelets)
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  • Blood Plasma vs. Serum Serum = plasma without fibrinogen Serum can be harvested by NOT including an anti- coagulant in a blood draw (allow blood to clot) With anticoagulant No anticoagulant
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  • Blood Plasma Proteins If albumin = 60%, globulin = 35%, fibrinogen = 4% 1% of blood protein content = regulatory proteins, lipoproteins, iron-binding proteins etc. Recall the ENDOCRINE system
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  • Hematopoiesis Formed elements are born in the red bone marrow = Hematopoiesis Red blood cell synthesis: erythropoiesis White blood cell synthesis: leukopoiesis Platelet synthesis: thrombopoiesis
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  • Erythropoiesis: formation of red blood cells Despite the fact that mature RBCs have no nuclei, they do originate from a cell type that does have a nucleus. During RBC development or maturation, the nucleus dissolves. Red bone marrow produces 2.5 million cells/day
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  • Erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBCs) Bi-concave Increases surface area for gas exchange (O 2 and CO 2 ) Permits greater flexibility (allows RBC to flex and squish through tight capillaries) 7.5 m diameter, 2.5 m thick No nucleus, no mitochondria Produce ATP by anaerobic fermentation exclusively Without nucleus, there is NO DNARBCs retain mRNA for various protein requirements, but are generally born with everything they need to function
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  • Erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBCs) 120 day lifespan Lifespan reflects number of bends & squishes as well as hemoglobin function Terminated in the spleen & liver
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  • Erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBCs) Contain hemoglobin (4 subunit large gas-carrying protein) Usually 250-300 billion hemoglobin molecules per RBC When bound to O 2, hemoglobin changes color (diffracts color light differently) Oxygenated RBC is bright red - oxyhemoglobin Deoxygenated RBC is dark purple/red NOTE: venous blood still has oxygenit just doesnt have as much as arterial blood When hemoglobin is carrying CO 2 : carbhemoglobin
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  • Pathophysiology Anemia = low hemoglobin count, or low RBC count Pernicious anemia = vitamin B 12 deficiency = low RBC count Autoimmune disease that results in decreased parietal cells in the stomach Parietal cells produce intrinsic factor which is required for B 12 absorption Aplastic anemia = chemical destruction of red bone marrow = low RBC count Microcytic anemia = defect in hemoglobin production (usually due to low iron stores) Sickle-cell anemia = genetic defect in hemoglobin sequence Regions of heme molecule cannot hold O 2 and subsequently alter the shape of the RBC
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  • Leukocytes (white cells) Larger than RBCs, but fewer in number Have nuclei, have mitochondria Motile (can migrate or move by themselves) Ameboid motility permits extravasation via diapedesis http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=- 142799799667345732&q=diapedesis&total=1&start=0&num= 10&so=0&type=search&plindex=0http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=- 142799799667345732&q=diapedesis&total=1&start=0&num= 10&so=0&type=search&plindex=0 Characterized by how they stain Cannot really see leukocytes without stains Eosin & hematoxylin Granular leukocytes Agranular leukocytes
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  • Leukopoiesis
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  • Leukocytes (white cells) Granular leukocytes: Granules = vesicles of digestive enzymes, reactive oxidants etc. When attacking an invading pathogen (or autoimmune reaction), will degranulate or exocytose granular contents Will also phagocytose foreign particles and fuse granules with them to kill/digest Neutrophils: most common granular leukocyte (65% total white cell count) - first line defenders against bacteria Eosinophils: larger than neutrophils (eosinophil = stained by eosin) Phagocytic white cells for parasite and inflammatory and allergic responses (ex: asthma) Basophils: most rare leukocyte Produce histamine (similar to tissue mast cells) Involved in allergic responses
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  • Leukocytes (white cells) Agranular leukocytes No granulesrelatively clear cytoplasm Development takes place in lymphoid tissue Lymph nodes, tonsils, spleen & thymus Lymphocytes: 30-35% total white cell count B-cells differentiate in BONE MARROW (antibody cells) T-cells differentiate in THYMUS (killer, helper etc.) Monocytes: largest cells in the blood In circulation = monocyte When in tissue (after extravasation) = macrophage Phagocytic digesters
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  • Platelets - thrombocytes - Originate from megakaryocytes in red bone marrow that fragment into platelets No nuclei (no DNA) Are capable of extravasation and have ameboid motility Very short lifespan (5-7 days) Act to form blood clots by altering their plasma membrane
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