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<p>Grammar and Composition</p> <p>Grammar EnrichmentGrade 9</p> <p>Glencoe/McGraw-Hill</p> <p>Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission is granted to reproduce material contained herein on the condition that such material be reproduced only for classroom use; and be provided to students, teachers, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with Writers Choice. Any other reproduction, for use or sale, is prohibited without written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Send all inquiries to: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, Ohio 43240 ISBN 0-07-823334-8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 079 04 03 02 01 00</p> <p>ii</p> <p>ContentsUnit 10</p> <p>Parts of Speech10.1 10.2 10.3 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.78 Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Action Verbs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Linking Verbs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Prepositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Conjunctions and Interjections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8</p> <p>Unit 11</p> <p>Parts of the Sentence11.14 11.5 11.5 11.5 Subjects and Predicates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Direct and Indirect Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Object Complements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Subject Complements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12</p> <p>Unit 12</p> <p>Phrases12.1 12.2 12.3 12.3 12.3 Prepositional Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Appositives and Appositive Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Participles and Participial Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Gerunds and Gerund Phrases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17</p> <p>Unit 13</p> <p>Clauses and Sentence Structure13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 13.8 13.9 13.10 Complex and Compound-Complex Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Adjective Clauses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Adverb Clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Noun Clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Four Kinds of Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Sentence Fragments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Run-on Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24</p> <p>Unit 15</p> <p>Verb Tenses and Voice15.23 15.5 15.6 Regular and Irregular Verbs and Verb Tenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Progressive and Emphatic Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Compatibility of Tenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27</p> <p>Unit 16</p> <p>Subject-Verb Agreement16.23 16.46 Agreement with Linking Verbs and in Inverted Sentences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Agreement with Special and Compound Subjects and Intervening Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 iii</p> <p>ContentsUnit 17</p> <p>Using Pronouns Correctly17.1 17.2 17.4 17.5 17.6 Case of Personal Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Pronouns with and as Appositives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Who and Whom in Questions and Subordinate Clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Clear Pronoun Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34</p> <p>Unit 18</p> <p>Using Modifiers Correctly18.12 18.35 18.7 Degrees of Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Double and Incomplete Comparisons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37</p> <p>Unit 20</p> <p>Capitalization20.1 20.23 Capitalization of Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Capitalization of Proper Nouns and Proper Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39</p> <p>Unit 21</p> <p>Punctuation, Abbreviations, and Numbers21.13 21.4 21.5 21.6 21.6 21.6 21.6 21.6 21.78 21.9 21.10 21.11 21.14 End Punctuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 The Colon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 The Semicolon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Commas and Compound Sentences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Commas and Coordinate Adjectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Commas with Parenthetical Expressions and Conjunctive Adverbs . . . . . . 45 Commas and Direct Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Misuse of Commas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Dashes and Parentheses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Quotation Marks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Italics (Underlining) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 The Apostrophe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Numbers and Numerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52</p> <p>Answers</p> <p>. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53</p> <p>iv</p> <p>Grammar EnrichmentName ...................................................................................... Class .................................................. Date ................................</p> <p>10.1</p> <p>Nouns</p> <p>s A. Identifying Nouns</p> <p>Underline each noun in the following sentences. Above each noun you underline, write concrete, collective, abstract, or proper to tell what kind of noun it is.1. When people think of Florida, they probably think first of white beaches, blue water, and tall palm trees. 2. Anywhere you look you can see a family on vacation in scenic, tropical beauty. 3. Miami, on the southeastern coast, is a fast-growing center of Hispanic culture. 4. The Sunshine State is well known for agriculture and manufacturing as well as for tourism. 5. Among the interesting places to visit in Florida are the Everglades, old Saint Augustine, and the Kennedy Space Center. s B. Using Nouns</p> <p>Fill in the blanks with the type of noun requested, concrete or abstract. Do not repeat nouns. Continue the story in the last sentence; use both concrete and abstract nouns.1. After years of searching for the fabled (concrete) ________________, the explorer finally</p> <p>held it in his hand and was hypnotized by its unearthly (abstract) ________________.2. In spite of the objects unmeasurable (abstract) ________________, he could think only</p> <p>of its hideous reputation for bringing bad (abstract) ________________ to its owner.Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.</p> <p>3. How can such a beautiful (concrete) ________________ be the cause of so much (abstract)</p> <p>________________? he wondered.4. Standing on the edge of the (concrete) ________________, holding the object in front of him,</p> <p>he asked himself, Do I dare keep this strange and mysterious (concrete) ________________?5. ______________________________________________________________________________</p> <p>______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________</p> <p>Writers Choice: Grammar Enrichment, Grade 9, Unit 10</p> <p>1</p> <p>Grammar EnrichmentName ...................................................................................... Class .................................................. Date ................................</p> <p>10.2</p> <p>Pronouns</p> <p>s A. Identifying Pronouns</p> <p>Underline each pronoun in the following sentences. Above each pronoun you underline, write relative, interrogative, indefinite, intensive, reflexive, demonstrative, personal, or possessive to tell the kind of pronoun it is.1. Dian Fossey was an American scientist who studied mountain gorillas in the Central African jungles for almost two decades. 2. She worked for years to gain the trust of the gorillas, and her research changed the way people think of these gentle creatures. 3. What would you think of living by yourself in the jungle, with only gorillas for companions? 4. Among those Dian Fossey studied and befriended were Flossie, Beethoven, Uncle Bert, and Digit. 5. The 1977 killing of Digit by poachers alerted many to the desperate plight of the mountain gorillas. 6. Dian Fossey herself died in December 1985, bringing an abrupt end to her efforts to save the gorillas. s B. Using Pronouns</p> <p>Write sentences using each type of pronoun requested.1. (interrogative) __________________________________________________________________</p> <p>______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________2. (indefinite)_____________________________________________________________________</p> <p>______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________3. (reflexive)______________________________________________________________________Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.</p> <p>______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________4. (demonstrative) _________________________________________________________________</p> <p>______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________5. (relative) ______________________________________________________________________</p> <p>______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________</p> <p>2</p> <p>Writers Choice: Grammar Enrichment, Grade 9, Unit 10</p> <p>Grammar EnrichmentName ...................................................................................... Class .................................................. Date ................................</p> <p>10.3</p> <p>Action Verbs</p> <p>s A. Using Action Verbs</p> <p>Replace the underlined verbs in the sentences below with more vivid action verbs. Write your new verbs above the old ones.1. As soon as we got off the bus, we were met by at least a dozen people, pushing and shoving to get near us. 2. The stalls in the bazaar sat in the broiling sun, and the merchants told what they had to sell. 3. As we went through the narrow rows, we were struck by the incredible sights, sounds, and smells of Cairo. 4. Anwar stopped at a stall where birds sang gaily and small, strange animals in cages made noise constantly. 5. The old man in the stall looked at us, smiled a toothless grin, and laughed wildly. s B. Using Verbs</p> <p>Write a paragraph telling why the old Egyptian man in the bazaar stall was laughing wildly at you and Anwar. Tell what happened next. Use at least one strong action verb in each sentence.</p> <p>Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.</p> <p>Writers Choice: Grammar Enrichment, Grade 9, Unit 10</p> <p>3</p> <p>Grammar EnrichmentName ...................................................................................... Class .................................................. Date ................................</p> <p>10.3</p> <p>Linking Verbs</p> <p>s A. Identifying Linking Verbs</p> <p>Underline the verb in each of the following sentences. Above the verb indicate whether it is a linking verb or an action verb.1. Americans first taste classical tragedies in literature classes. 2. Readers soon grow fond of the poetry of Greek tragedies. 3. Aristotles theories of tragedy remain relevant. 4. At the start of most tragedies, events look foreboding. 5. Audiences become emotionally close to the troubles of the hero. 6. We feel close to tragic heroes. 7. We remain in our seats until the bitter end. 8. Many of the names of classical Greek characters sound familiar. 9. Electra and Oedipus appear on stage in Greek plays. 10. The punishments of Oedipus appear harsh. 11. The members of the chorus sound their opinions. 12. Audiences stay satisfied by a Greek tragedy year after year. 13. Audiences look for meaning in their own lives. 14. Greek tragedies remain important contributions to Western thought. s B. Writing with Linking Verbs</p> <p>Write sentences on any subject using the given verb first as a linking verb and then as an action verb. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________2. (sound)________________________________________________________________________Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.</p> <p>1. (re...</p>