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Grammar and Composition

Grammar EnrichmentGrade 9

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission is granted to reproduce material contained herein on the condition that such material be reproduced only for classroom use; and be provided to students, teachers, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with Writers Choice. Any other reproduction, for use or sale, is prohibited without written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Send all inquiries to: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, Ohio 43240 ISBN 0-07-823334-8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 079 04 03 02 01 00

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ContentsUnit 10

Parts of Speech10.1 10.2 10.3 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.78 Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Action Verbs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Linking Verbs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Prepositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Conjunctions and Interjections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Unit 11

Parts of the Sentence11.14 11.5 11.5 11.5 Subjects and Predicates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Direct and Indirect Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Object Complements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Subject Complements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Unit 12

Phrases12.1 12.2 12.3 12.3 12.3 Prepositional Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Appositives and Appositive Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Participles and Participial Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Gerunds and Gerund Phrases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Unit 13

Clauses and Sentence Structure13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 13.8 13.9 13.10 Complex and Compound-Complex Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Adjective Clauses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Adverb Clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Noun Clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Four Kinds of Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Sentence Fragments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Run-on Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Unit 15

Verb Tenses and Voice15.23 15.5 15.6 Regular and Irregular Verbs and Verb Tenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Progressive and Emphatic Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Compatibility of Tenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Unit 16

Subject-Verb Agreement16.23 16.46 Agreement with Linking Verbs and in Inverted Sentences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Agreement with Special and Compound Subjects and Intervening Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 iii

ContentsUnit 17

Using Pronouns Correctly17.1 17.2 17.4 17.5 17.6 Case of Personal Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Pronouns with and as Appositives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Who and Whom in Questions and Subordinate Clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Clear Pronoun Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

Unit 18

Using Modifiers Correctly18.12 18.35 18.7 Degrees of Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Double and Incomplete Comparisons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Unit 20

Capitalization20.1 20.23 Capitalization of Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Capitalization of Proper Nouns and Proper Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

Unit 21

Punctuation, Abbreviations, and Numbers21.13 21.4 21.5 21.6 21.6 21.6 21.6 21.6 21.78 21.9 21.10 21.11 21.14 End Punctuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 The Colon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 The Semicolon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Commas and Compound Sentences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Commas and Coordinate Adjectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Commas with Parenthetical Expressions and Conjunctive Adverbs . . . . . . 45 Commas and Direct Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Misuse of Commas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Dashes and Parentheses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Quotation Marks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Italics (Underlining) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 The Apostrophe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Numbers and Numerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

Answers

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Grammar EnrichmentName ...................................................................................... Class .................................................. Date ................................

10.1

Nouns

s A. Identifying Nouns

Underline each noun in the following sentences. Above each noun you underline, write concrete, collective, abstract, or proper to tell what kind of noun it is.1. When people think of Florida, they probably think first of white beaches, blue water, and tall palm trees. 2. Anywhere you look you can see a family on vacation in scenic, tropical beauty. 3. Miami, on the southeastern coast, is a fast-growing center of Hispanic culture. 4. The Sunshine State is well known for agriculture and manufacturing as well as for tourism. 5. Among the interesting places to visit in Florida are the Everglades, old Saint Augustine, and the Kennedy Space Center. s B. Using Nouns

Fill in the blanks with the type of noun requested, concrete or abstract. Do not repeat nouns. Continue the story in the last sentence; use both concrete and abstract nouns.1. After years of searching for the fabled (concrete) ________________, the explorer finally

held it in his hand and was hypnotized by its unearthly (abstract) ________________.2. In spite of the objects unmeasurable (abstract) ________________, he could think only

of its hideous reputation for bringing bad (abstract) ________________ to its owner.Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. How can such a beautiful (concrete) ________________ be the cause of so much (abstract)

________________? he wondered.4. Standing on the edge of the (concrete) ________________, holding the object in front of him,

he asked himself, Do I dare keep this strange and mysterious (concrete) ________________?5. ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

Writers Choice: Grammar Enrichment, Grade 9, Unit 10

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Grammar EnrichmentName ...................................................................................... Class .................................................. Da