Genetically modified crops and food Security..scientific facts

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Genetically Modified Crops (GM) & Food SecurityGenetically Modified Crops (GM)&Food SecurityBy:Rajdeep Singh SidhuGaurav GhaiWhat is GM crops/ food?According to World Health Organisation Genetically modified (GM) foods are foods derived from organisms whose genetic material (DNA) has been modified in a way at does not occur naturally, i.e. through the introduction of a gene from a different organism.GM Crops are described by many different names Genetically Engineered crops(GE)Transgenic or Biotech crops Genetically Modified Organism(GMO)BT GeneBT Gene inserted into DNA of the cropGenetically Modified PlantInjectedAdvantages of GM CropsInsect Resistance (IR)Insect pests have become an integral part of agricultural crops worldwide and significantly reduce yield of the plants. So IR trait is inserted into crops. IR trait is helpful in following waysReduction in Insecticide sprayingTargeting of the insecticide solely to the plant to be protected .GM plantKilled European Corn BorerToxin is PresentEuropean Corn Borer(Insect)4Herbicide ToleranceOver 63% of Gm crops grown globally have herbicide tolerance traits. Herbicide tolerance is achieved through the introduction of a gene from a bacteriumconveying resistance to some herbicides. In situations where weed pressure is high, theuse of such crops has resulted in a reduction in the quantity of the herbicides used.GM cropGM Crop(Unaffected)Weed KilledWeedHerbicide SprayResult OfHerbicide SprayVirus ResistanceVirus resistance makes plants less susceptible to diseases caused by such viruses, resulting in higher crop yields. For Example- Hawaiian Papaya- Hawaiian papaya is made resistant to the devastating effects of Papaya Ring Spot Virus (PRSV). Hawaiian Papaya Papaya Ring Spot Virus Disadvantages of GM cropsAllergenicityGene transferOutcrossingSuper WeedsAllergenicityIn India, hundreds of laborers picking cotton and working in cotton ginning factories developed allergic reactions when handling the BT cotton. This didnt happen with the non-Bt varieties. [Ashish Gupta et. al., Impact of Bt Cotton on Farmers Health (in Barwani and Dhar District of Madhya Pradesh), Investigation Report, OctDec 2005]Hospital records: Show that victims of itching have increased massively this year, and all of them are related to BT cotton farming. [The Sunday Indian, 10/26/08]Itching all over the body, eruptions, wounds, discolorationOut-crossingThe movement of genes from GM plants into conventional crops or related species in the wild (referred to as out crossing), as well as the mixing of crops derived from conventional seeds with those grown using GM crops, may have an indirect effect on food safety and food security.pollensDirection of windGM CropsConventional crops Super Weeds :A wild plant that has been accidentally pollinated by a genetically-modified plant and now contains that plant's abilities to resist herbicides and insects.Glyphosate is the chemical name for an herbicide. Certain invasive grasses and weeds have proven themselves to be resistant to glyphosate, meaning that the herbicide is no longer effective against these plants.Examples of weeds resistant to GlyphosateCommon RagweedItalian RyegrassSuper WeedspollensWeedGM CropCross Pollination of GM crop With WeedsSuper WeedHerbicide Spray GM CropSuper WeedNo Effect of Herbicide Spray GM Crop10FOOD SECURITYFood SecurityDefinition: According to United State Department of Agriculture (USDA)Food security for a household means access by all members at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life. Food security includes at a minimum : (1) the ready availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods. (2) an assured ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways (that is, without resorting to emergency food supplies, scavenging, stealing, or other coping strategies). Food SecurityHumanFood AvailabilityFood AccessUtilizationStabilityFood AvailabilityAvailability of sufficient Quantity of Food.Quality should be appropriate.Food AccessHaving sufficient resources to:-Obtain appropriate foods for a nutritious diet.MoneyRESOURCESStabilityIn case of :SHOULD HAVE FOOD RESERVEEarthquakesFloodsDroughtUtilizationUtilization of food through Proper :Clean WaterHand WashFlushingWashing UtensilsProper SanitationWhy we need food security? To cope with situations like:DroughtFloodsNo market to sell the Goods18Food Crisis in the World during period 1986-2005Africa has > 15 years of food crisis and worst in the world where the average number of crises has tripled over the last two decades.Food Emergencies in YearsHow Genetically Modified CropHelpTo Tackle Food SecurityYield IncreaseConventional SeedsGenetically Modified SeedsLow yieldHigh yieldDrought ResistantGenetically Modified Crops requires less water for their growth , hence are capable to sustain in drought conditions. Useful in areas which receive less rainfall. Nutrient EnhancementWhite rice is a staple food in most countries.It provides 80% daily calories. Concern ArisesWhite rice doesnt contain beta-carotene which human body converts it to Vitamin A.WHO says 5 Lakh people get blind due to vitamin A deficiency every year .To tackle this beta-carotene is added to white rice to make Golden Rice.Adding Nutritive ValueGene added from:-Maize or Daffodil PlantCommon soil bacteria (Erwinia)LycopeneBeta-caroteneYellow-Orange rice grainOrGolden riceWhite RiceGolden Rice is rich in Vitamin A Food shell life Increase TransportationBy variousmeansStorageSpoiling of vegetable decreases.The first genetically modified crop approved for sale in the U.S. was theFalvrsvrtomato.Ware-HouseConclusionGMOs present both positive and negative aspects to society as a whole.They are a topic of much deliberation and tension; very prevalent in some parts of the world and banned in others.GE crops are required for meeting Food Security in todays growing population.Ultimately, GMOs are still a relatively premature technology and in the developmental process. Only time will reveal their ultimate effect on humans.

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