Genetically Modified Crops and Animals
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- 1. crystal huynh vasu srinivasan february 28 th , 2011 ib biology 1 mr. hill
- Normally, most crops do not thrive in salt prevalent areas (Bailey).
- This ground-breaking development is an innovation that scientists hope will lead to a world-wide agricultural endeavor to develop plants that can withstand salinity in the environment (Bailey).
- This new GM tomato crop thrives in salty irrigation water, because scientists have engineered plants that produce higher levels of transport proteins (Bailey).
- The increased levels of transport proteins move the salt (sodium ions) into vacuoles, where it is unable to restrict the cells biochemical activity.
- Most of this activity occurs in the leaves of the plants, making the quality of the fruit unaltered.
- The Roslin Institute and PPL Therapeutics were successful in cloning two sheep Molly and Polly, who carried the human gene code for the protein Factor IX (Kae).
- Factor IX assists in blood clotting and this protein is used to treat hemophilia B.
- The hope with Molly and Polly was to create a herd of sheep that would produce milk containing Factor IX.
- The only other source of Factor IX was from human blood plasma.
- Because Vitamin A deficiency, which leads to blindness, is such a vital problem in developing countries, often causing fatal diseases, scientists aimed to develop a GM crop that produced beta carotene (a Vitamin A precursor) (Beyer).
- Four steps to ensure the success of this endeavor include (Beyer)
- Research to comprehend the regulation of beta-carotene production in rice.
- Introducing this method to rice farmers and the varieties of rice.
- Test the nutrition and safety of the method.
- Introduce into industries to fight Vitamin A deficiency.
- To produce this GM crop of rice, scientists first isolated the genetic coding for beta carotene synthesis pathways. Second, the rice was transformed with the genes to create building blocks for beta-carotene. Finally, the transformed rice plants are analyzed to check the quality of the beta-carotene that is produced (Beyer).
- The final grains are yellow, therefore they are called Golden Rice.
- Because when herbicides are sprayed on fields, they cannot distinguish from crops and weeds, scientists have developed GM crops that are resistant to non-selective herbicides (Herbicide Resistant Crops).
- The most common forms of herbicide resistant crops are soybean, maize, rapeseed, and cotton (Herbicide Resistant Crops).
- These crops have been modified to contain a gene resistant to herbicides (Herbicide Resistant Crops).
- They can deactivate the active ingredient, making it easier for farmers to control weeds.
- Recombinant bovine somatotropin, sometimes known as recombinant bovine growth hormone (rBGH) is a genetically engineered copy of the naturally occurring hormone in cows, BST. (Cummings)
- Developed by the Monsanto Company, who marketed it as Posilac
- When rBST is injected into dairy cows, it stimulates the hormone IGF-1, which milk production increases by as much as 10 15%.
- IGF-1 is a natural hormone found in the milk of both cows and humans that causes the quick growth of infants
- It is essentially like crack for cows, because although they produce more milk, it has negative effects on their health and reproductive system
- In the late 1980s, the University of Hawaii began developing a papaya cultivarresistant toPapaya Ringspot Virus(GMO Compass) .
- Certain viral genes encodingcapsid proteins were transferred to the papaya genome.
- The new, genetically modified papaya plants are no longer susceptible to infection .
- This allows farmers to cultivate the fruit even when the virus is widespread.
- of the papaya crop grown in Hawaii are genetically modified, and available for consumption in the U.S. and Canada (GMO Compass).
- Amflorais a starch potato developed by BASF for the production of specialty starch.(Amflora)
- Potato starch consists of two types of starch: amylose and amylopectin.
- Instead of the regular 20/80 amylose-amylopectin mixture in a typical potato, Amflora has been genetically modified to contain only amylopectin. (Amflora)
- The messenger RNA containing the directions for making amylose is intercepted by an antisense gene.
- This gives the starch superior properties for a variety of technical applications such as making glossy paper, binding concrete. (Amflora)
- AquAdvantage Atlantic salmon, developed by AquaBounty Technologies, has a pair of added genes, a growth gene from Chinook salmon and an activator gene from ocean pout.
- Normally, salmon do not make growth hormone in cold weather, but the pouts activator gene keeps production of the hormone going year round.
- The result is salmon that can grow to market size in 16 to 18 months instead of 30 months.
- The modified salmon will not end up any bigger than a conventional fish.
- It is currently being approved for consumption by the FDA.
- GM crops and animals is an expensive technology, making it near impossible for developing countries to adapt this technology (Shah).
- It is a relatively new and untested technology, which may mean there are dangers that have not yet been discovered (Shah).
- Companies that produce GM crops or animals stand to experience high economic benefits (Syllabus).
- However, local economies could suffer, because GM crops can only be produced by a certain group (Syllabus).
- The wealth will be concentrated in a much smaller percentage.
- "Amflora Potato Approved for Cultivation."Biotechnologie - Startseite . 03 Oct. 2010. Web. 26 Feb. 2011..
- Bailey, Pat. Genetically Engineered Tomato Plant Grows in Salty Water.UC Davis News and Information.24February 2011. Web. http://www.news.ucdavis.edu/search/news_detail.lasso?id=5840
- Beyer, Peter. New Rice Strikes Gold.Research and Innovation.24 February 2011. Web
- Cummings, Ronnie. "Bovine Growth Hormone (rBGH) in Milk Threathens Our Health."Transfer Factor . Web. 25Feb. 2011. .
- Genetically Modified Organisms.The Free Dictionary . 24 February 2011. Web.
- "Genetically Modified Papayas with Virus Resistance."GMO Compass . 27 Nov. 2006. Web. 25 Feb. 2011..
- Herbicide Resistant Crops.GMO Compass.24 February 2011. Web.
- International Baccalaureate.IB Biology Syllabus.International Baccalaureate Organization, 2007.
- Kae, Helmut. The New MacDonald Pharm.The Science Creative Quarterly.24 February 2011. Web.
- Pollack, Andrew. "Genetically Altered Salmon Get Closer to the Table."The New York Times . 25 June 2010. Web. 25Feb. 2011. .
- Shah, Anup. Genetically Engineered Food.Global Issues . 24 February 2011. Web. .