gm crops (genetically modified crops)


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  2. 2. What are Genetically Modified Crops A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. Has been a very controversial topic. This presentation will go over the positive and negative effects of crop production. 2
  3. 3. In 1980, the first transgenic animal is created, a mouse. 1980s, transgenic plants are started to be created in china. 1988, first transgenic plants producing a pharmaceutical. 1995, GMO corn hits the market in the USA. 1996, Roundup Ready Soybeans hit market in USA. 1998, First GM labelling rules introduced to provide consumers with information regarding the use of GM ingredients in food. Over the years, we have developed new and better ways to manage and produce GMO crops. 3 History of GMO's
  4. 4. First crop introduced was Flavr Savr tomato in USA in 1995 So far 20 crops approved for commercial cultivation in different countries Only four crops being marketed commercially I.e., corn, cotton, soybean and canola Commercial production initiated for papaya, squash, rice and alfalfa in USA and other countries, Others are approved but not yet being Marketed Major countries include USA, Canada, Japan, China, India, Brazil, EU, Argentina, South Africa 4
  5. 5. 5 Why to make transgenic crops? Due to limitations of conventional breeding for attaining the desirable traits use of recombinant DNA technology has been taken advantage of and development of transgenics started
  6. 6. Transgenic Crops: Development Objectives Integrated pest management (IPM) Herbicide tolerance (HT) Nutritional enhancements Product quality improvement Increase in yield Stress tolerance (ST) Plant based pharmaceuticals 6
  7. 7. Identifying gene(s) Giving a desired trait Make copies of the gene Transfer to plant tissue Regenerate plants Lab analysis and safety testing Development of a variety Field tests Approval by Government agencies Monitoring of safety 7 Development of GM Crop/Transgenic
  8. 8. Produce Transgenic Plant 8
  9. 9. GLOBAL Source: FAO Stat and ISAAA, 2013 9
  10. 10. 10 Govt. of India approved Mahycos Bt-cotton for control of bollworms Indias first transgenic crop
  11. 11. What is Bt cotton ? Genetically modified variety of cotton that produces an insecticide. What is Bt ? Bacillus thuringiensis discovered by Ishiwatari in 1901. Bacterium produces insecticidal crystal protein (ICP) also known As Cry protein They are a class of endotoxin endotoxins. 11
  12. 12. How Bt works ? 1. Ingestion 2. Solublization & proteolytic activation 3. Binding to target site 4. Formation of toxic lesions 12
  13. 13. 13 1. Insect eats Bt crystals and spores. 2. The toxin binds to specific receptors in the gut and the insects stops eating. 3. The crystals cause the gut wall to break down, allowing spores and normal gut bacteria to enter the body. 4. The insect dies as spores and gut bacteria proliferate in the body. How Bt works ?
  14. 14. 14 Mode of action of Cry toxin
  15. 15. GM crops-Pros Improved resistance to pests and diseases. Improved resistance to Herbicide Production of more nutritious staple crops Contribute to food security ,sustainability Contributing to the alleviation of poverty and hunger Increased crop productivity Stability of production Economic and social benefits 15
  16. 16. GM crops- Cons Human health Environmental hazards Effects on Non-Target organisms and plants 16
  17. 17. HUMAN HEALTH Allergen and toxin Antibiotic resistance Unknown effects on human health 17
  18. 18. Environmental hazards Growing of GM crops may lead to monoculture The creation of pest or herbicide resistant GM crops could result in superbugs or super weeds 18
  19. 19. Effects on Non-Target organisms 19
  20. 20. Do GM crops increase yield? Have GM crops increased global food security? 20 To Feed a growing global population that may touch 9 billion by 2050.. The world already produces enough food for 13 billion people, so the problem is not of food production but of access to it by the poor In Paraguay, where nearly 65% of the land is under GM, hunger has increased from 12.6% in 2004-06 to 25.5% in 2010-12
  21. 21. THANK YOU @mahalam 21


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