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    GENETICALLY MODIFIED

    CROPS

    Presented By

    MD. YASIR KHANM. Sc. Biotechnology

    3rd Semester

    Jamia Hamdard

    http://www.google.com.sg/imgres?imgurl=http://redgreenandblue.org/files/2008/11/cornfield.jpg&imgrefurl=http://redgreenandblue.org/2008/11/16/new-plan-to-grow-genetically-modified-crops-in-secret-military-locations/&h=375&w=500&sz=181&tbnid=KpSeISMJYOD2XM:&tbnh=98&tbnw=130&prev=/images?q=GMO-CROP&usg=__KPgoODgaxZfs4BitId_WJrhIqq8=&ei=9hCQSq6ME5rY7APJu528Cg&sa=X&oi=image_result&resnum=5&ct=image
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    WHAT ARE GM-CROP PLANTS?

    A GM-crop plant contains a gene(s) which havebeen artificially inserted instead of plant acquiring

    them through pollination

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    WHY TO DEVELOP GM-PLANTS ?

    To increase crop yield

    Pest resistant crops

    Transgenic plant bioreactors

    Stress tolerant plants

    Herbicide resistant plants

    Protect the environment

    Reduce the risk of human medicine

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    How prevalent are GM-Crop plants?

    70% of all foods consumed in US has some

    elements from genetically modified crop

    Herbicide tolerance & insects tolerance

    GMO soybean, corn, cotton, n canola have the

    highest acreage in the US.

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    WAYS OF PRODUCING GM-CROP PLANTS?

    I. Agrobacterium mediated transformation

    II. Biolistic

    III. ElectroporationIV. Macroinjection

    V. Microinjection

    VI. Liposome mediated transformation

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    PROBLEMS AT HAND?

    Food scarcity

    Polluted environment

    Changing climate Damage to crops by insects

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    FOOD

    Golden rice

    Created by Prof.

    Ingo Potrykus ofthe Institute of

    Plant Sciences at

    Swiss Federal

    Institute of

    Technology.

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    L.S OF RICE SEEDS

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    -carotene biosynthesis

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    2 genes Narcissus pseudonarcissus

    1 geneErwinia uredovora

    Gt1 Transit peptide Phytoene synthase

    Narcissus pseudonarcissus

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    35S Transit peptide Phytoene desaturase

    Gt1 Transit peptide Lycopene cyclase

    Erwinia uredovora

    Narcissus pseudonarcissus

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    Transformed rice- SGR1

    SGR1 low carotene

    SGR2 -23 times more carotene then SGR1

    Phytoene synthase gene from maize

    other nutritionally important food crops

    canolawith increased vitamin E

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    PHYTOREMEDIATION

    Plants can extract contaminants from the soiland accumulate, transform and transport

    them into the parts of the plant that are

    above ground. In leaves, fruits or stems ,manycompounds are stored, transformed or

    volatilized. Such processes are known as

    phytoremediation.

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    STRATEGIES TO ENHANCE PHYTOREMEDIATION OF

    METALS

    a) Introduce transporter geneIRT1 iron transporter

    MRP1 Mg-ATPase transporter

    b) Genes encoding phytochelatine /metallo-thionein

    gene gene action species phenotype reference

    AtPCS1 phytochelatin Arabidopsis arsenic tolerance li et al 2004

    synthesis

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    c) Enzymes to change oxidation stategene gene action species phenotype reference

    merA mercuric oxide plant Hg tolerance Ruiz et al 2003

    reductase

    merB organo mercurial plant Hg tolerance Ruiz et al 2003

    lyase

    merApc9 mercuric oxide Tobacco Hg tolerance He et al 2001

    reductase and volatilization

    d) Genes encoding biodegradable enzymegene gene action species phenotype reference

    GSL selenocystine B.juncea Se tolerance Garifullin et al 2003

    lyase(mouse)

    e) Introduce genes to enhance : Growth rate /biomass production rate

    Enhancement of root depth /penetration

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    GM Indian mustard (B.juncea)

    a) -glutamyl cysteine synthetase

    b) Glutathione synthetase

    Increase tolerance and accumulation of Cd

    GM A. thalianaa) Arsenate reductase

    b) -glutamyl cysteine synthetase

    Increased tolerance and accumulation ofarsenic

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    GM-PLANTS RESISTANT TO INSECTS

    a) Crystal protein (CRY)B.thuringiensis

    b) Proteases

    cowpea trypsin -Vigna unguiculata

    -amylasePhaseolus vulgaris

    c) Lectins Galanthus nivalis

    d) Cholesterol oxidase-Streptomyces

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    BtGM-crop

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    3-D STRUCTURE OF CRYSTAL PROTEIN

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    MODE OF Bt CRYSTAL PROTEIN ACTION

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    POTATO

    resistant to colorado potato beetle

    Gm- POTATO NON GM- POTATO

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    CORN

    resistant to

    EUROPEAN CORN BORER

    CORN EAR WORMGM-CORN

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    COTTON

    resistant to cotton boll worm

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    ABIOTIC STRESS TOLERANT PLANTS

    Effect of water scarcity on plants

    Protoplast gets dehydrated

    Proteins/enzymes gets dehydrated and losetheir activity

    Plasma membrane and photosyntheticapparatus gets disrupted

    High temperature stress

    Enzymes get denatured

    Change in membrane permeability

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    LOW TEMPERATURE STRESS

    Impaired protoplasmic streaming

    Reduced respiration /photosynthesis/protein

    synthesis

    INCREASED SALINITY

    Soil porosity decrease

    Physiological stress

    Ion toxicity

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    DROUGHT AND SALT TOLERANT TOMATOES

    Overexpressing vacuolar Na+/H+ antiport

    pump.Salt and drought tolerant plants.

    Reclaim farmland lost to salinity and lack of

    rainfall.

    Na Na

    Na

    OUTSIDE OF

    VACUOLE

    INSIDE OF

    VACUOLE

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    CROP TOLERANT TO TEMPERATURE STRESS.

    Tomato plants.

    35S CaMV promoter.

    Constitutively express HSF ofA.thaliana

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    OTHER USES OF GM-CROPS

    Virus resistant GM-crop plants

    Disease resistant GM-crop plants

    Herbicide resistant GM-crop plants

    long shelf life

    Male sterility

    Bioreactors

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    IS IT ETHICALLY RIGHT TO PRODUCE

    GM-CROP PLANTS?

    Flavr savr tomato

    Have Neomycin phosphotransferase II marker

    In laboratory,it has been demonstrated thatthe bacteria can take up and incorporate the

    plasmid DNA from rotting vegetables and

    hence can become resistant to kanamycin

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    REFERENCES Frizzi A, Huang S, Gilbertson LA, Armstrong TA, Luethy

    MH, Malvar TM (2008) Modifying lysine biosynthesis andcatabolism in corn with a single bifunctionalexpression/silencing transgene cassette. PlantBiotechnol J 6: 1321

    Baenziger PS, Russell WK, Graef GL, Campbell BT (2006)Improving lives: 50 years of crop breeding, genetics, and

    cytology (C-1). Crop Sci 46: 2230

    2244. Castle LA, Siehl DL, Gorton R, Patten PA, Chen YH,

    Bertain S, Cho HJ, Duck N, Wong J, Kiu D, et al (2004)Discovery and directed evolution of a glyphosatetolerance gene. Science 304: 11511154.

    Cooper M, Smith OS, Graham G, Arthur L, Feng L,

    Podlich DW (2004) Genomics, genetics, and plantbreeding: a private sector perspective. Crop Sci 44:19071913.

    Everson RE, Golin D (2003) Assessing the impact of theGreen Revolution, 1960 to 2000. Science 300: 758762.

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    Chawla H. S., Introduction to Plant Biotechnology, Ed-2nd2003.

    Tyagi Rajiv, Yadav P. R., Plant Product Biotechnology,Ed-1st 2006.

    Kumar Ashok, Plant Biotechnology, Ed-1st 2006.

    Narain Rabindra, Naha Surendra, Genetic Engineering in

    Plants, Ed-1

    st

    2006. Kaul Opender, Dhaliwal G. S., Transgenic Crop

    Protection, Ed-2nd 2004.

    www.wikipedia.com

    www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

    www.sciencedirect.com

    www.plantphysiology.org

    http://www.wikipedia.com/http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/http://www.sciencedirect.com/http://www.plantphysiology.org/http://www.plantphysiology.org/http://www.plantphysiology.org/http://www.plantphysiology.org/http://www.plantphysiology.org/http://www.plantphysiology.org/http://www.sciencedirect.com/http://www.sciencedirect.com/http://www.sciencedirect.com/http://www.sciencedirect.com/http://www.sciencedirect.com/http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/http://www.wikipedia.com/http://www.wikipedia.com/http://www.wikipedia.com/http://www.wikipedia.com/http://www.wikipedia.com/
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    THANK

    YOU