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<ul><li><p>BIOLOGY LAB REPORT </p><p>TITLE : LOOKIN FOR PATTERNS IN TANJUNG BIDARA, MALACCA </p><p>PREPARED BY : </p><p>I/C NUMBER : </p><p>STUDENT ID : </p><p>GROUP : </p><p>LAB PARTNER : GOVERNMENT GROUP </p><p>LECTURERS NAME : </p><p>PRACTICAL DATE : </p><p>SUBMISSION DATE : </p></li><li><p> GOVERNMENT GROUP MEMBERS : </p></li><li><p>Abstract </p><p>We set off from our hostel at about 7.30 am. After a two and half hour journey, we reached at our </p><p>ultimate destination, Tanjung Bidara, Malacca eventually. Then, we were divided into two groups and </p><p>we set off to find desirable place where suit our investigation the best by walking around the rocky </p><p>shore. After that, each group began to distribute work among them such as finding a suitable way of </p><p>laying out tape measure for a transect study, finding out distribution of organism along the transect </p><p>line using 0.25 m2quadrat and measuring all biotic and abiotic factors. The experiment was done </p><p>within one day and was successfully conducted. This report will discuss about the relationship </p><p>between distributions of species with abiotic factors that exist there. </p><p>Introduction </p><p> Hygrometer(1) </p><p>A hygrometer is an instrument used for measuring the moisture content in the environmental air </p><p>(humidity). Most measurement devices usually rely on measurements of some other quantity such as </p><p>temperature, pressure, mass or a mechanical or electrical change in a substance as moisture is </p><p>absorbed. From calculations based on physical principles, or especially by calibration with a reference </p><p>standard, these measured quantities can lead to a measurement of humidity. There are different types </p><p>of hygrometer, such as metal/pulp coil type, hair tension hygrometer, electronic hygrometer and more. </p><p>Metal/pulp coil hygrometer is very useful in giving a dial indication of humidity change while hair </p><p>tension hygrometer use human or animal hair under tension by calculating the length of the hair that </p><p>changes with the humidity. Besides greenhouses and industrial spaces, hygrometers are also used in </p><p>some incubators, saunas, humidors and museums. They are also used in the care of wooden musical </p><p>instruments such as guitars and violins which can be damaged by improper humidity conditions. In </p><p>residential settings, hygrometers are used to aid humidity control. </p><p>Figure 1 : Hygrometer(2)</p></li><li><p>Calculating relative humidity </p><p>1 Subtract the wet-bulb temperature from the dry-bulb temperature. </p><p>2 Find the difference in degrees at the top of the chart and place your nger on it. </p><p>3 Find the dry-bulb temperature in the rst column on the left. Place your nger on it. </p><p>4 Bring your ngers down the column and across the row. The relative humidity percentage </p><p>appears where column and row intersect on the chart. </p><p>Figure 2 : Relative humidity table(3)</p></li><li><p> Quadrat Sampling Technique(4) </p><p>In studying and estimating the population size of an organism, ecologists need to define the </p><p>geographic boundary of the organism. The quadrat sampling technique is used in the studies of plant </p><p>population and populations of immobile animals. A quadrat consists of a square or rectangular frame </p><p>made of metal or wood. Strings are used to subdivide the quadrat into smaller squares. The frame is </p><p>pegged to the ground with a few pieces of string. A fixed wood or metal quadrat can be made up to </p><p>1m. The size of the quadrat used depends on the size, distribution and density of the organisms being </p><p>studied. A number of quadrats are set up randomly throughout the area being studied. The species </p><p>present within the frame is then counted and the number recorded. The data collected from the </p><p>different sites enclosed by the quadrats are used as samples to represent the entire habitat. The quadrat </p><p>sampling technique can be used to determine the distribution of organisms in a habitat based on the </p><p>following: </p><p>a) Frequency of a species </p><p>Frequency is the number of times a particular species is found when a quadrat is thrown/placed </p><p>a certain number of times. </p><p>Percentage frequency = (number of quadrats containing species / number of quadrats </p><p>sampled) X 100% </p><p>b) Density of the species </p><p>Density is the mean number of individuals of the species per unit area. Density can only be </p><p>used to estimate the population of plants which exists as separate units. It is extremely difficult </p><p>to estimate the population of plants which reproduce vegetatively. </p><p>Density = total number of individuals of a species in all quadrats / (number of quadrats </p><p> sampled X area of each quadrat sampled) </p><p>c) Percentage coverage of the species </p><p>An indication of the area of the quadrat that is occupied by a species. Percentage coverage is </p><p>useful when it is not possible to identify separate individuals of a species. </p><p>Percentage coverage = (aerial coverage of all quadrats, m / (number of quadrats sampled X </p><p>quadrat area)) X 100% </p><p> Figure 3: Quadrat sample(5)</p></li><li><p> Transect tape meter and transect sampling(6) </p><p>A transect line can be made using a marked nylon rope or tape meter. This transect line is laid across </p><p>the area that we wish to study. The position of the transect line is very important and it depends on the </p><p>direction of the environmental gradient we wish to study. It should be thought about carefully before it </p><p>is placed. Otherwise it may be end up without clear results because the line has been wrongly placed. </p><p>A line transect is carried out by unrolling the transect line along the gradient identified. The species </p><p>touching the line may be recorded along the whole length of the line (continuous sampling). </p><p>Alternatively, the presence, or absence of species at each marked point is recorded (systematic </p><p>sampling). If the slope along the transect line is measured as well, the results can then be inserted onto </p><p>this profile. </p><p>Figure 4: Transect line made by ecologists (7)</p></li><li><p> Dissolved Oxygen Meter(8) </p><p>A dissolved oxygen meter is used to measure the amount of oxygen present in a unit volume of water. </p><p>Indication of oxygen content in water is useful for a specific application like water treatment plants, </p><p>sewage treatment works, river monitoring and </p><p>fish farming. There are various types of oxygen meter available such as Polarographic Sensor Oxygen </p><p>Meter, Galvanic Sensor Oxygen Meter and Optical Fluorescence Oxygen Meter. These oxygen meters </p><p>differ in the range and accuracy in measuring oxygen concentration in water. The typical features that </p><p>should be available with the Oxygen Meter are self calibration, event triggers, battery packs and </p><p>filters. The technical datas that a portable oxygen meter able to capture are oxygen range, resolution, </p><p>temperature, automatic air pressure compensation, automatic temperature compensation and correction </p><p>for salinity. </p><p> Figure 5: Dissolved Oxygen Meter</p><p> (9) </p></li><li><p> Ecology (10) </p><p>Ecology is the scientific study of the relations that living organism have with respect to each other and </p><p>their natural environment. Ecosystems is a biological system consisting of all the </p><p>living organisms or biotic components in a particular area and the nonliving or abiotic component with </p><p>which the organisms interact, such as air, mineral soil, water and sunlight. Key processes in </p><p>ecosystems include the capture of light energy and carbon through photosynthesis, the transfer of </p><p>carbon and energy through food webs, and the release of nutrients and carbon through decomposition. </p><p>Biodiversity affects ecosystem functioning, as do the processes of disturbance and succession. </p><p>Ecosystems provide a variety of goods and services upon which people depend; the principles </p><p>of ecosystem management suggest that rather than managing individual species, natural </p><p>resources should be managed at the level of the ecosystem. </p><p> Figure 6 : Linnaeus Hierarchy(11)</p><p> Figure 7 : Ecosystem of a pond(12)</p></li><li><p> Barnacles(13) </p><p>A barnacle is a type of arthropod that belongs to Crustacean. These barnacles tend to live in shallow </p><p>and tidal water. They have jointed legs and shells of connected overlapping plates. They glue </p><p>themselves to rocks, ships, pilings, abalones, and maybe even whales and wait for food to wash by. </p><p>The barnacle's enemies are worms, snails, sea stars, and fish like sheep head, certain shorebirds, and </p><p>oil spills. Some are parasites inside crabs or in other animals. Barnacles are a hermaphrodite; means </p><p>that they have both male and female reproductive organs and can produce both sperm and eggs. </p><p>. </p><p>Figure 8: Anatomy of Barnacles(14)</p><p> Figure 9 : Life cycle of Barnacles(15)</p></li><li><p>Objective </p><p> To study the ecology of a rocky shore habitat (marine). </p><p> To find out the major organisms present and their adaptations to the environment </p><p> To find out the effect of the main physical factors on the distribution of organisms and the </p><p>Problem Statement : </p><p>What is the relationship between the sizes of population of marine organisms occupied in particular </p><p>areas with the abiotic factors on that area? </p><p>Hypothesis </p><p>Abiotic factor affect the species population distribution at rocky shore at Tanjung Bidara. </p><p>Null Hypothesis </p><p>There is no correlation between abiotic factors with species population distribution at rocky shore of </p><p>Tanjung Bidara. </p></li><li><p>EXPERIMENT ON BIOTIC FACTOR </p><p>Experiment 1 : Investigating the distribution of organisms using quadrat sampling technique. </p><p>Variable: </p><p>Types of Variables Ways to control the variables </p><p>Manipulated Variable: </p><p>Quadrat position </p><p>Quadrats are placed along the transect line at </p><p>interval of 5 meters. </p><p>Responding Variables: </p><p>Species density and percentage coverage </p><p>Using formula , density of species is calculated : </p><p>total number of individuals of a species in all </p><p>quadrats / (number of quadrats sampled X area of </p><p>each quadrat sampled) </p><p>Using formula, percentage frequency is calculated: </p><p> (number of quadrats containing species / number </p><p>of quadrats sampled ) X 100% </p><p>Fixed Variables: </p><p>Number of Quadrats </p><p>Interval distance (m) </p><p>4 grid quadrats were used along transect line. </p><p>Quadrats were placed at interval of 5 meters along </p><p>15 meter of transect line. </p><p>Apparatus: </p><p>A quadrat measuring m X m, pen and paper. </p></li><li><p>Procedure: </p><p>1. An area that appears to be a gradual change in the species composition across the rocky shore </p><p>was spotted. </p><p>2. A transect line of 15 meter was placed along the rocky shore using transect meter. </p><p>3. The transect line was laid on the shore, from the top of the shore to the sea water. The distance </p><p>between the starting point and final point of transect line was calculated. </p><p>4. Four quadrats with the size of 0.25m2 were then placed along the transect line of 5 meter </p><p>intervals. </p><p>5. Each of the quadrats was subdivided into 25 smaller squares where each square had the area of </p><p>10cm by 10cm. </p><p>6. The number of species found in the quadrats were noted and recorded. </p><p>7. The number of individuals of each species found were counted and recorded. </p><p>8. The data obtained was used to calculate the density and the percentage coverage of the species </p><p>in each quadrat. </p><p>9. The following formulae were used to analyse the data. </p><p>Density = total number of individuals of a species in all quadrats / (number of quadrats </p><p> sampled X area of each quadrat sampled) </p><p>Percentage frequency = (number of quadrats containing species / number of quadrats </p><p>sampled) X 100% </p></li><li><p>Results: </p><p>Species Picture Scientific name </p><p>A </p><p>White Barnacles </p><p>(Perforatus bruguiere) </p><p>B </p><p>Grey Barnacles </p><p>(Nesochthamalus </p><p>intertextus) </p><p>C </p><p>Red Algae </p><p>D </p><p>Clams ( Mya arenaria) </p><p>E </p><p>Centipede </p><p>Table A: Species that were identified at experimental site and its scientific and common name </p></li><li><p> Quadrats Distance </p><p>from the </p><p>shore </p><p>Number of individual </p><p>A B C D E </p><p>1 0.0 95 1097 97 - - </p><p>2 5.0 - 401.5 356 29 - </p><p>3 10.0 0.5 6 9 14 4 </p><p>4 15.0 12 56 20.7 </p><p>Table 1: Number of individual for each species according to quadrat. </p><p>Quadrats Density of species </p><p>A B C D E </p><p>1 380 4388 388 - - </p><p>2 - 1606 1424 116 - </p><p>3 2 24 36 56 16 </p><p>4 48 224 82.8 - - </p><p>Table 2: Density of each species according to quadrat </p><p>Table 3: Number of square occupied by each species according to quadrat </p><p>Species Number of square occupied with species </p><p>Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 </p><p>A 18 0 1 11 </p><p>B 22 17 3 16 </p><p>C 10 22 7 25 </p><p>D 0 6 7 0 </p><p>E 0 0 2 0 </p></li><li><p>Table 4: Percentage frequency of each species according to quadrat </p><p>EXPERIMENT ON ABIOTIC FACTORS </p><p>Experiment 2 : </p><p>Determining water content of a soil sample </p><p>Apparatus : </p><p>Soil sample, aluminium foil, accurate balance and thermostatically controlled oven. </p><p>Procedure: </p><p>1. The aluminium foil was weighed and recorded. </p><p>2. Sample soil from first quadrat was added to the aluminium foil and it was reweighed. </p><p>3. The mass of aluminium foil was subtracted to obtain the fresh mass of soil. </p><p>4. The aluminium foil and soil was placed in a thermostatically controlled oven that was set up at </p><p>110C and left to heat until no further loss of mass observed. </p><p>5. The dish was then removed and allowed to cool. The dry mass was recorded. </p><p>6. The loss in mass of soil sample was calculated. This represents the mass of water in the soil </p><p>which can be expressed as a percentage of the fresh mass : </p><p>Percentage of soil moisture = </p><p>(loss in mass / fresh mass) X 100% </p><p>7. The steps were repeated for sample soil from second quadrat. The result was noted. </p><p>Species Percentage Frequency (%) </p><p>Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 </p><p>A 72 0 4 44 </p><p>B 88 68 12 64 </p><p>C 40 88 28 1 </p><p>D 0 24 28 0 </p><p>E 0 0 8 0 </p></li><li><p> Results: </p><p> Mass </p><p>Quadrats </p><p>Fresh Mass </p><p>Dry Mass Percentage of soil </p><p>moisture (%) </p><p>Quadrat 1 </p><p>Aluminium foil </p><p> = 5.28g </p><p>Aluminium foil + soil </p><p> = 114.47g </p><p>Mass of soil </p><p> = 109.19g </p><p>Aluminium foil </p><p>= 5.28g </p><p>Aluminium foil + soil </p><p>= 107.78g </p><p>Mass of soil </p><p> = 102.5g </p><p>(109.19 g 102.5 g)/ </p><p>109.19 g X 100 </p><p>= 6.13 % </p><p>Quadrat 2 </p><p>Aluminium foil </p><p> = 5.29g </p><p>Aluminium foil + soil </p><p> = 187.16g </p><p>Mass of soil </p><p>= 181.87g </p><p>Aluminium foil </p><p>= 5.29g </p><p>Aluminium foil + soil </p><p>= 175.61g </p><p>Mass of soil </p><p>= 170.32g </p><p>(181.87 g 170.32g)/ </p><p>181.87 g X 100 </p><p>= 6.35 % </p><p>Table 5: Percentage of soil moisture based on fresh and dry mass of soil obtained from first and </p><p>second quadrats. </p><p>For third and fourth quadrats, no results were obtain as the experiment for both 3rd</p><p> and 4th</p><p> quadrats </p><p>were carried on the rock (absence of sand) </p></li><li><p> Experiment 3 : </p><p> Determining percentage of organic matter in a soil sample </p><p>Apparatus : </p><p>Soil sample, aluminium foil, accurate balance and thermostatically controlled oven. </p><p>Procedure: </p><p>1. The aluminium foil was weighed and recorded. </p><p>2. Sample dry soil from first quadrat (obtained from first experiment) was added to the </p><p>aluminium foil and it was reweighed. </p><p>3. The mass of aluminium foil was subtracted to obtain the dry mass of soil. </p><p>4. The aluminium foil and soil was placed in a thermostatically controlled oven and heated for </p><p>about 15 minutes to burn off all the organic matter. </p><p>5. The dish was then removed and allowed to cool. The mass was recorded. </p><p>6. The loss in mass of soil sample was calculated. The percentage of soil organic matter was </p><p>calculated using the...</p></li></ul>