fashion merchandising: standard 4 the fashion industry

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Chapter 4

Fashion Merchandising:Standard 4The Fashion IndustryObjectivesStudents will understand key components of the fashion industry. Objective 1: Identify factors that contributed to the development of the apparel industry. Objective 2: Identify key fashion centers in the U.S. and around the worldObjective 3: Identify and describe major trade publications and fashion magazines. Objective 4: Identify key fashion designers and their contributions.Objective 5: Identify careers in the fashion merchandising industry.

The Scope of the Apparel IndustryThe apparel industry has been developing for many centuries. Key contributing factors:HistoryPoliticsEconomicsMedia

HistoryFashion as we know it started with changes that came during the Industrial Revolution.Development of the factory system of production. Ex. Assembly lineMechanized textile mills: made better quality fabrics in less time.Ex. Flying shuttle, Spinning Jenny, Cotton mill, Cotton ginApparel switched from handmade garments to mass produced ready-to-wear.Sewing machine invented: factory manufacturing of clothing was introduced

PoliticsCivil War:Introduction of standard sizes due to military uniformsGlobal Capitalism:More interaction between governments allows free trade to occur worldwide.EntrepreneurPerson who starts his or her own business and who assumes the risk and management of the enterpriseClothes were made faster, which dropped prices so all were competitive in sales.

EconomicsTechniques in mass distribution, advertising, and retail selling developed and refinedCreation of retail outlets (department stores) during 19thcentury. Began in Europe. Permanently reshaped shopping habits.Textile and apparel production is the largest industry in many nations, especially in developing countries. One of the largest employers in the US.

MediaAdvertising and promotion of all types of apparel, from haute couture to every day low-priced garments. Items shown in ads, magazines, and on social media develop a need to purchase. Introduction of movies, then television, then internet constantly sped up introduction of new fashions to the public.

Fashion CentersThe fashion industry is truly international. Its presence is found in cities around the world.Centers are usually found in cities where fashion design and production firms are clustered together.Some of these centers are locations for Fashion Weeks.When designers present new designs or collectionsThe most important collection shows are held twice a year, featuring spring-summer and fall-winter lines.

THE fashion center. New York designers include Donna Karan, Vera Wang, Marc Jacobs, Michael Kors, Calvin Klein, and Ralph Lauren. New Yorks Fashion District is the largest in the world. It ranges from Fifth Avenue to Ninth Avenue and from 34th to 42nd Street. New York Fashion Week is held every February and September each year. An estimated 900 fashion companies are headquartered in New York City. 180,000 are employed in the industry, which generates over $2 billion in tax revenues.

New York

9Los AngelesThe West Coast Fashion Center is known for its casual lifestyle, laid back threads, and bloggers. The LA Fashion District covers over 90 blocks. Big brand names based in LA are: John Elliott+Co, Mother, Aviator Nation, d.RA, Apolis, Korovilas, Nasty Gal, Elder Statesman, and American Apparel.

MiamiKnown for its luxury boutiques, designer stores galore, and its international center of commerce. Famous designers that have called Miami home: Gianni Versace, Lazaro Hernandez, Proenza Schouler, and Alejandro Ingelmo. Best shopping areas are in South Beach and include Webster Miami, and Miamis Design District. Miami holds 3 Fashion Weeks: Fashion Week Swim, Miami Beach International Fashion Week, and Funkshion Fashion Week. They showcase swimwear, international design, and resort wear.

ChicagoKnown for the Magnificent Mile (Michigan Avenue). Major stores include Macys, Nordstrom, Barneys Bloomingdales, 900 North Michigan shops, and the Shops at North Bridge. Chicago does its own fashion show, and has showcases for many major fashion events.

MilanHome to numerous fashion designers including Armani, Versace, Prada, and Valentino. Milan Fashion Week held twice a year. The famous shopping streets are Via Montenapoleone, Via SantAndrea, Via della Spiga, Via Manzoni, Via Bigli and Via Gesu.

ParisFirst Fashion Capital. Home to many premier fashion designers including Chanel, Dior, Hermes, Vuitton, and Saint Laurent. Paris Fashion Week is the grand finale of the Big 4 (New York, London, and Milan.) Some of the biggest names in the industry are headquartered in Paris. Best shopping streets in the world: Champs-Elyses, Avenue Montaigne, Rue de la Paix, Saint Honor. The French dress to impress and invest in high quality fabrics. Haute couture was born in Paris. Only the French Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture can bestow upon a designer the title of couturier.

LondonFamous fashion designers are Vivienne Westwood, Alexander McQueen, Stella McCartney, Jimmy Choo, and Manolo Blahnik. Major areas for fashion are Knightsbridge District, South Kensington, and Chelsea. London Fashion Week and The Clothes Show London are the prominent fashion events. London Fashion Week is known for its new, fresh, and creative designers.

TokyoFamous Tokyo Fashion Designers are Rei Kawabuko, Issey Misake, and Yohji Yamamoto. Known for Street Fashion. Different styles of Street Fashion are Lolita, Gyaru, Ganguro, Kogal, Bosozoku, Decora, Visual Kei, Oshare Kei, Angura Kei, Cult Party Kei, Dolly Kei, Fairy Kei, and Mori Girl. Known for the significant consumption of luxury brands.

Trade PublicationsDefinition: magazines, newspapers, and books that deal with a specific industry.Womens Wear Daily: Major US trade publication for womens and mens clothing. It reports all new apparel trends with photos, fashion illustrations, and stories. Footwear News: Specializes in the footwear industry.

17Fashion MagazinesDefinition: consumer magazines sold commercially, featuring articles, illustrations, and advertisements.

Internet Sites/Social MediaEasily accessible information, instant updates on the latest designs, access to designersIncludes Fashion Blogs

Fashion DesignersGiorgio Armani:Italian designer known for Mens wear, most notably tailored suitsCoco Chanel:Famous French couturier known for introducing the little black dress, died in 1971, still remains a top French fashion house

Fashion DesignersMichael Kors:American known for American sportswear and accessories for womenChristian Dior:French designer who introduced the New Look (fitted blouses and long full skirts) in 1947, died in 1957

21Fashion DesignersDolce and Gabbana:Italian design team known for modern, romantic styles and high-end casual for men and womenTom Ford:American designer who has worked behind the Gucci and YSL labels, Classic simplistic menswear

22Fashion DesignersMarc Jacobs:American designer who's designs include grungy-hobo chicDonna Karen:American designer who designs simple, womens clothes that stretch and move well

23Fashion DesignersCalvin Klein:Famous for his jeans, underwear and advertisingKarl Lagerfeld:German born French designer, creates quality tailoring and bold ready-to-wear pieces

24Fashion DesignersRalph Lauren:Popular American designer famous for his classic mens and womens linesYves St. Laurent:French designer who paved the way for pantsuits and female power dressing, died in 2008

25Fashion DesignersLevi Strauss:American business man who popularized the denim craze, added rivets for extra durability, died in 1902Gianni Versace:Italian designer who used bold color, daring cuts, and innovative materials. His sister Donatella took over in 1997 after his tragic death

26Fashion DesignersDiane von Furstenberg:Belgian- born designer and former princess whos jersey wrap dress became her brands iconic look, works in NYCVera Wang:American designer and child champion figure skater, famous for designing expensive and elegant bridal wear

27Fashion DesignersLouis Vuitton:Italian born, famous for bags, luggage, and leather goods, died in 1892

28Careers in the IndustryDesigner:Designs clothing, etc.Fashion blogger:Uses social media, does not need to be an expertFashion journalist:Writes or edits articles, or helps to formulate and style a fashion shoot.29