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  • The Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Science Volume 1, Issue 4

    www.moj-es.net

    Failure of ETeMS: The Teaching Courseware Factor? MohdNazriLatiffAzmi[1],MahendrenManiam[2]

    [1] mohdnazri@unisza.edu.my Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin [3] Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris

    ABSTRACT

    This study was carried out in response to the announcement of the reversal of the ETeMS policy (English in the Teaching of Mathematics and Science) which had been practiced by teachers in Malaysia since 2003. The Ministry of Education took a drastic approach in gradually halting this controversial policy for several related reasons, namely the poor performance of students and teachers in applying the policy and also political pressure by Malay language activists. The main objective of the study is to investigate whether or not the application of CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning), in this case is the application of teaching courseware, is one of the contributing factors to the failure of ETeMS. This study also investigated teachers perception of the teaching courseware implementation in ETeMS. Fifty primary school key - personnel teachers of Mathematics and Science were involved in answering the questionnaire because they were experienced and fully involved in the policy implementation. The findings showed that teachers were not committed to use the courseware for several reasons. However, the teaching courseware is not the major contributing factor to the failure of ETeMS.

    Keywords: CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning), ETeMS (English for the Teaching of Mathematics and Science).

    1. INTRODUCTION

    1.1WhatisETeMS?

    AccordingtoAlwis(2005),theEnglish languagehasbecomeabasiccommunicationrequirementforstudentsandjobseekersinthisincreasinglyglobalizedworldwhereitis,fornow,theundisputedlinguafranca.TheissuehereisnottheimportanceofEnglish.Thatisselfevidentandtheeducationsystemmustcommititselftomakingourstudentsfluent inEnglish.Infact,tobecomeadevelopedcountryby2020,Malaysiansshouldnotonlybecomebilingual,buteventrilingual.TherealissuehereisnotonlyhowweimproveourchildrenscommandofEnglish,butalsohowwehelpthem get educationalbenefits inmastering the language compared to thatof notmastering the language.Manyresearchersbelieve that itmostdefinitely isnot throughapoorlyconceivedpolicysuchasETeMS (the teachingofMathematicsandScience inEnglish)butabetter comprehensivepolicywhichenablesattractionofgreaterpublicacceptanceofEnglish(Pandian,2004)

    TheannouncementtoteachScienceandMathematicsinEnglishhoggedtheheadlinesinallthelocalmediain2002.The idea sparkedbyour formerPrimeMinister,TunDr.MahathirMohamadproposedETeMSasanurgentprovisionalactiontoensurethatteachersofMathematicsandSciencewillhavebasiccapacitytouseEnglishasthemediumofinstruction.TheMinistryofEducationintroducedseveralsupportmechanismsnotonlytoencouragetheMathematicsandScienceteacherstofurtherdeveloptheirEnglishlanguagecompetencetoalevelthatwillengenderoptimalperformanceinandoutsidetheclassroombutalsotoenablethembemoreconfidentinusingthelanguage.ThefirstbatchofstudentsinvolvedinthispioneerprojectwereYear1,Form1,LowerSixandMatriculation.

    Sincethepolicywasreallynew,itsimplementationgeneratedmuchdebateamongthegeneralpublic,parents,politicalpartiesandeventeachersontheeffectivenessasitisstillinthetransitionstage.AccordingtoAlwis(2005),manypeople are skeptical especially thosewhonamed themselves languagenationalists about its success citingreasons suchaspoorEnglish languageproficiencyof teachers in these subjectsand the lackof student interest in

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    learningEnglish.Onthecontrary,whilediscussionswerebeingheldwithvariousgroups,thegovernmentwentaheadwith its preparations to implement the policy. This is because theMinistry of Education presented thenecessaryinfrastructuretoenableteacherreadinessinimplementingthechange.Asaresult,thepolicywasrevisedin2008(afterthe12thGeneralElection);eventuallythegovernmentdecidedtoreversethiscontroversialpolicytoitsearlierlanguage(BahasaMalaysia)startinginJanuary2011.Beginning2012,studentsinYearOneandYearFourinprimaryschools,andFormOneandFormFourinsecondaryschools,willlearnMathematicsandScienceinBahasaMalaysia.ThereplacementofETeMSiscalledMBMMBI(EmpoweringMalayLanguage,EnhancingEnglishLanguage).

    1.2TheImplementationofTeachingCourseware

    According toOng (2004), theaimofusingEnglish in the teachingofMathematicsand Science is toenablestudentstoacquireandslowlymasterthelanguagewhilelearningbothsubjects,asifkillingtwobirdswithonestone.However,alotofeducationalissues(pertainingtoteachingandlearning)areimportanttotakeintoconsiderationwhenthelearningprocesstakesplace,especiallywhenitinvolvesstudentssecondlanguageacquisition.InMalaysia,Englishisnormallyfirst introducedtostudentswhentheystartschool,either inpreschoolorYear1.Since learning inthesesubjectsmaybeconstrainedwithinacomplexlinguisticclassroom;hence,thelearningprocessinadvertentlyimpairsstudentslearningabilities.Similarly,accordingtoPandian(2004),otherfactorsmightalsocauseproblemsinlearningMathematicsandSciencethroughasecondlanguage,suchasteacherswhoarenotproficientinEnglishandthelackofgoodMathematicsandSciencetextbooksintheEnglishLanguage.

    Fromotherpointsofview, learning inasecond language isseenasunbecomingwhenchildrenare in theprocessofencounteringdifficultyininterpretingthemeaningofMathematicsandSciencediscourse.Atthebeginningof the policy implementation, all schools received a specially designed teaching and learning courseware forMathematics,ScienceandEnglishincludingspecialcoursewareforcomputersandLCDsforteaching.Tosupportthepolicy,especiallyinacquiringadditionalreferenceresourcesandmaterials,eachschoolwasgivenalaunchinggrantofRM5,000toRM15,000.And,until2009,80%ofMathematics,ScienceandEnglishteachershavebeengivenlaptops.StudentsreceivedMyCD(Pupil'sCDROM)whichcontainedinteractiveexercises(games,simulationsandetest)andforteacherstheTeachersCDROM)whichcanbeconsideredastextbookpackages.

    ThemainpurposesoftheteachingcoursewarearetobeamodelforpronunciationofscientifictermsandactasteachinginstructionespeciallyforteacherswholackcompetencyinEnglish.Also,providedarealotofinteractiveteachinginformationrelatedtothetopics.Meanwhile,afreeinternetaccesswithselectedvendor(e.g.,DynamicInc.)wasalsoavailabletoimproveteachersselfdevelopment.Theteachingcourswareconsistsof3,075topics,110lessonsforeachsubject(Mathematis,ScienceandEnglish)and18specialmodulesforteachers.

    1.3ObjectivesoftheStudy

    Basically,thestudyfocusesontwomajorobjectives;

    1.3.1. To investigate teachers perception on several issues pertaining to the use of the ETeMS teachingcourseware

    1.3.2.ToknowthemainreasonsforthefailureofETeMS

    ThefirstobjectiveofthisstudyistogainanunderstandingoftheteachersperceptiontowardsthecoursewareforteachingMathematicsandScienceinEnglishwhichisrelatedtothecontentanddesign,themanagement,learningaspectsandmostimportantlythecontributionofthecoursewaretothispolicy.

    Basedontheobjectives,theresearcherscameupwithtworesearchquestions.

    1.4 ResearchQuestions

    1.4.1WhatisteachersperceptiontowardthecoursewareforteachingMathematicsandScienceinEnglish,the instructionalcontentanddesignofthecourseware, itseaseofuse,managementofthecourseware,motivationaspectsofthecoursewareandlearningaspectsofthecourseware?

    1.4.2WhatarethemaincontributingfactorsofthefailureofETeMS?1.4.3 IstheETeMSteachingcoursewaretheprimarydecidingfactorinthefailureofETeMS?

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    1.5LimitationsofStudy

    TerengganuwaschosenastheresearchsiteduetoitssuperbperformanceinUPSRsince2000especiallyinterms of number of studentswho score straight As. Therefore, the researcherswould like to share Terengganuteachersopinionson the issue.Thechosen teachersweredirectly involved in implementing thepolicyboth in theclassroom(teaching)andoutside(preparingmodulesforteachers).However,theywerenotinvolvedinformulatingthesyllabusandtextbooksbecausetheywerenotthepolicymakers.Ontheotherhand,accordingtoSpillane(1999,p.144)teachersareconsideredasthefinalpolicymakersbecausetheyarethekeyagentswhenitcomestochangingclassroompractice.HisideaissharedwithLittle(1999,p.2)whostressedthatreformationineducation(classroomteachingandlearningenvironment)totallydependsonteachersindividuallyandcollectively.

    Evidently,iftheteachersareabletomeetthechallenges,educationalreformwillbeeasilyandsuccessfullyachieved.Nevertheless, the study only concentrates on the implementation of ETeMS at primary school level ofTerengganubecauseETeMShascompleteditscycleatprimarylevel.Furthermore,themainvariablewhichisAKRAM(Terengganu Special KeyPersonnel ofMathematics and Science) ismore active at that level in ensuring that theperformanceofUPSRofTerengganuwouldbeimprovedyearbyyear.Thefocusismoreontheimplementationoftheteachingcourseware.

    1.6Statementoftheproblem

    ThecruxoftheprobleminETeMShasbeenhighlightedinmanyrecentstudiessuchasNorhashimah(2004),Rahimi(2007)andIshak(2008),statingthatthemajordecidingfactorsofETeMSareteachersproficiency(itwasfoundthatoneof theways forMathematics and Science teachers todealwith theirproficiencyproblem in the Englishlanguagewas tocodeswitch to their first languagewhen teaching thesubjectswhichhascausedproblemsamongstudents),theavailabilityandrolesofteachingcoursewareandtheschoolmanagementandteachersmotivationalaspects.

    ARM470,000researchdoneby53linguistsfromsevenuniversitiesinDecember2008,whichinvolved15,089principalsandheadmastersandalsoseniorassistantteachersfoundthatETeMShadcausedmultipledrawbacksamongstudents(estimated75%)intermsofgrabbingtheknowledgeofMathematicsandSciencebesidesaffectingstudentinterestandspiritinlearningbothsubjects.Duetotheaboveresearchfindings,theresearchershavedecidedtochooseoneofthefactorsthatistheETeMSteachingcourseware,inordertoknowthevaliditybasedonTerengganuscenariowiththeassistanceofthemostreliablesourceAKRAM.AKRAMisanacronymforAngkatanKerjaRajindanMulia(AMovementofHardworkingandNobleTeachers).TheyaretheexperiencedMathematicsandScienceteacherswhohavecontributeda lotofeffort inpreparingeducationalmaterialstoteachersandstudents inTerengganu.Furthermore,theyarealsoinchargeofplanningforthebettermentofbothsubjects.

    Following the implementation of ETeMS,millions of ringgit has been spent to produceMathematics andScienceteachingcourseware.However,didthecoursewarebenefittheteacherstoimprovetheirstandardofEnglishandtheirteachingbothsubjects?

    ItisstronglybelievedthattheteachingofMathematicsandSciencewouldbecomemoremeaningfultotheteachersandstudentswhentheuseoftechnologicaltoolscanassistbothpartiesinmakingthelearningprocessbecomemorerelevant,enjoyableandunderstandable.EffectiveuseoftechnologyencouragesashiftfromteachercenteredapproachestowardamoreflexiblestudentcenteredenvironmentashighlightedbySEAMEOLibrary(2003)whichsaysthatAtechnologyrichlearningenvironmentischaracterizedbycollaborativeandinvestigativeapproachestolearning,increasing integrationof contentacross the curriculumanda significantemphasisupon conceptdevelopmentandunderstanding.

    2.LITERATUREREVIEW

    AccordingtoLittle(1999),inshapingtheeducationpolicyandthenimplementingit,theroleofteachersshouldbeclearlystatedandevaluated.Heexplainedthatprogressineducationalreformrestsincrucialwaysonthecapacityofteachers.Thisistoensurethatallimportantaspectsintheplannedcurriculumwouldbeachievedsuchasthevisionsofthispolicy,majorchangesintheirknowledgeandbeliefs,aswellastheirinstructionalpracticesarerequiredthroughtheteachersprofessionalism(Putnam&Borko,1997).

    FullanandHargreaves(1992),basedontheempiricalinvestigationsofeducationalchangeinCanada,England,and theUS,concluded thatteacherdevelopment iscentral tosuccessfulchange. In linewith theabovestatement,PutnamandBorko(1997)stressthatthesetransformations(thenewteachingand learningapproach)thatteachersrequireareunlikelytooccurwithoutsupport(software)andguidancefromexperts.Therefore,toensurethesuccessfulimplementation of educational reform, the Malaysian government provided adequate support for teachers

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    professionaldevelopment(Ishak,2008);oneexampleisbyprovidingthemwiththeteachingcourseware.Todate,theimplementationofETeMShasbeenwidelyresearchedandacademicallydiscussedamongteachers

    andacademics, leadingtoanumberofresearcharticlesonthe languageproblemsfacedbyprimaryandsecondarystudents in ETeMS implementation. These include students language needs (Chan, 2003), lack of vocabulary andconfusionwithcertainwords (Hashimah,2003)anddifficulty inunderstandingnonscientific terms in the scientificcontext(Saidi,2004).StudiesconductedonlearnerEnglishlanguagecompetencieshavealsobeencomparedbetweenthetwocriticalsubjects.Isahak(2008)whoconductedalargescalestudyinvolving3903Year5pupilsintheirfifthyearofETeMSrevealedthefollowing:75%donotorbarelycomprehendteachinginEnglishandfinditdifficulttolearn;80%ofteachersusedcodeswitchingandthestudentsexaminationresultsinScienceandEnglishwaspoorwithanaveragescore of 4.08/14.0 and 11.87/31.0 respectively. Zarina (2009) in her qualitative study also found code switchingoccurringduringclassroomimplementationofteachingScienceinEnglish.

    Fromanotherpointofview,DaCosta(2003)mentionedthatthevalueofeducationalteachingcoursewareinteachingand learningcanbeveryhelpfulandvaluable.Thecoursewarecangivestudents interactiveactivitiesandimmediate feedback, control over their own learning process and access to difficult or impossible experiments.Furthermore, the teachingcoursewarenotonlycanbeused for individualselflearningbut isalsoable topromotecollaborativeorcooperativelearningamongthestudents.Therefore,variousteachingandlearningenvironmentscouldbe built and achieved. Eventually, learningwould become fun and priceless to both parties. So,we can see thateducationalcoursewareishighlyrecommendedintheteachingandlearningprocessespeciallyinvolvingyounglearners(SEAMEOLibrary,2003).

    AccordingtoPillay(2004),basedonthegrowingemphasisontechnology,itiscrucialtostrengthenpreserviceteachertrainingandprofessionaldevelopmentinusingICTfortheteachingofMathematicsandScience.Byundergoingprofessionaldevelopmentcourses, theMathematicsandScience teacherswillupgrade their ICTknowledgeandbeupdatedonthetrendsandtechniquesofintegratingICTinMathematicsandScienceteaching.Moreimportantly,theteachingprofessionwillbeupgraded,wellrespectedandalsobecomeacareerforthehighlymotivatedduetowelldevelopedstrategies inpreparingtheMathematicsandScienceteacherstoaveryprofessional level.Thiswillmakeavailableteachingandlearningresourcestailoredtoteachersneeds.

    3.RESEARCHMETHOLOGY

    Thestudywasconductedusingthesurveymethod:Answeringaquestionnaire(Likertscaleandopenendedquestions)andstudyingthoroughlyrecentresearchesdonepertainingtoteachingScienceandMathematicsinEnglish.ThepopulationforthisstudycomprisedagroupofteacherscalledAKRAMwhohavebeenteachingMathematicsandScience in primary schools, Mathematics and Science teachers and officers from district and state educationdepartments.Thestudysampleconsistedof63participants(50teachers(27AKRAM,23nonAKRAMmembers)and13stateanddistricteducationofficers).Theofficersonlyansweredrelatedquestionsinthequestionnaire.3.1Instruments

    Apartfromanewsyllabuswithspecificmodulesandtextbooks,inordertofacilitateteaching,teachersshouldbeable toapply thecontentof the teaching toeverydayor realsituations (Ishak,2008) toexplainsteps insolvingproblems.Therefore,inaccomplishingalltheseobjectives,teachersneedtohaveagoodcommandofthelanguageofinstruction.Inaddition,theywouldneedtheabilitytointegrateICT(teachingcourseware)intheirteachingsandtheknowledgetoapply,utilizeandexploittheteachingaidssuppliedbytheMinistryofEducationtomakethe learningexperienceofthestudentsaseffectiveaspossible.Consideringthesefactors,allMathematicsandScienceteachersunderwentaseriesoflanguageandICTcourses.Besidesthatallofthemweregivenalaptop,teachingcoursewareandsupportedbyabuddysupportsystem.Moreover,alldistrictsweremonitoredandsupervisedbyEnglishLanguageDistrictOfficersandCourseCoacheswhovisitedschoolsandstagedworkshops.

    Therefore, the researchers investigated, collected and analyzed the data pertaining to the teaching andlearningapproachesusingtheICT(courseware)utilizinganestablishedform.TheinstrumentusedinthisstudyfordatacollectionisaCoursewareEvaluationFormmodifiedfromtheCAIEvaluationFormproducedbyPeterDesbergfromCaliforniaStateUniversity (availableathttp://www.csudh.edu/soe/ged535/CEF.html).However,the instrumentwasadaptedforthelocalenvironmentandtheobjectivesofthisstudyinordertoensureitwastailoredtothepurposesoftheresearchandthesuitabilityoftherespondents.ThequestionnairesweredistributedduringtheannualmeetingofAKRAM(December2009)andalsoatthePanelofMathematicsandScienceTeachersMeeting(October2009).

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    4.ANALYSISANDFINDINGS

    Basedonthedataanalysis,theresearchersfoundthattheteachersshowedfavorableperceptiontowardthecoursewarewithanoverallmeanof2.73,andstandarddeviationof0.31.ThecoursewarecontentswerefoundusefulandsupportedtheirteachingprocesswithMean=3.01,SD=0.269.Moreover,theteachersperceivedthatthecontentsweredesignedproperlyandappropriatelyfortheteachingandlearningprocess(M=3.00,SD=0.33).

    Meanwhile,71.7%ofthemnotedthatrubricsoftheteachingprocedureswereincluded,79.1%ofthemfeltthattheywereclearlywritten,76.2%oftheteachersagreedthatthecoursewarewaseasytocustomizeandprepare,88.1%ofthemalsonoticedtheuseofvarietyindisplays,soundandcolorinthecoursewarereallyhelptheteachersinteachingthesubject;83.8%ofthemagreedthatuserscouldnavigatethecoursewarecontenteasilyand60.6%oftheteachers felt that studentswereable tounderstand the learning topicsbetterusing thecourseware.Furthermore,98.6%ofteachersinthestudybelievedtheuserswouldbeabletounderstandthecontenteasilyasthelessonswerepresentedincontextandrelatedtotheirpriorknowledge;83.6%oftheparticipatingteachersfeltthatthecontentswereconciseandwellgrouped,while94.2%oftheteachersnotedthatthemainpointsofthetopicswereemphasizedto enhance student understanding. Based on the openedendedquestions, Figure 1 shows that the respondentsrevealedthatthefailureofETeMSwasdueto:Interferenceofpoliticalagenda10(16%),Teachersfactors(masteringEnglish37 (59%),Textbooks/ICT8 (12.7%),Studentsfactors (weak inEnglish8 (12.7%)).Next,Figure2showsthatScienceteachersusedthecoursewaremoreoftenthantheMathematicsteachers;however,alargemajorityofbothgroupshardlyusethecourseware.

    Opened-ended-Questions The failure of ETeMS is due to: Interference of political

    agenda 10 (16%),Teachers factors (mastering English 37 (59%), Text books/ ICT 8 (12.7%), Students factors (weak in English 8 (12.7%)

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    30

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    Political agendaTeachers factors

    Text books/ ICT

    Students factors

    Figure1.ReasonsforfailureofETeMS.

    How often do you and your colleagues use the teaching courseware in the classroom?

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    Maths Science

    Always

    Sometimes

    Seldom

    Figure2.UsageoftheETeMSteachingcoursewareintheclassroom.

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    The teaching courseware which consists ofMathematics and Science topics (according to textbooks andworkbooks)andEnglishtopicswereusedaccordingtotheweeklyandmonthlytimetable.Thecourseware is fullofanimation and presented in exciting ways incorporating games, sound effects and integrative questionanswerresponses.Theteachersalsogivevariousperceptionsonotherrelatedmatters;intermsofcoursewaremanagementaspecttheyfounditlessimpressivewithMean=2.59,SD=0.39.Some72.1%oftheteachersbelievedthatuserscouldutilizethecoursewareindependently;itprovesthatitmightbeoneofthereasonsteacherswerereluctanttousetheteachingcourseware;39.2%oftheteachersfeltthatthecoursewarecannotbeusedeffectivelyingroupswhile44.1%ofteacherscommentedthatthecoursewarecouldnotholdstudentattentionandkeepthemontask.Nearly80%oftheteachersadmittedthattheypracticedcodeswitchingthroughoutthelessonsduetotheirpoorstandardofEnglish.Besidesthat,73%oftheteacherssaidthatthecoursewarewasunsuitableforLEP(LimitedEnglishProficiency)students,astheywereunabletounderstandthe languageusedtodeliverthecontent.Finally,50%oftheteachersexpressedconcernedoverissuesofmaintenanceandsecuritybecausethese,tothem,havenotyetbeenadequatelyaddressedbytheauthorities.Theywerealsoworriedaboutequipmentmalfunctioning.

    Evidently,thefindingsshowtheteachersinabilitytodeliverthecontenteffectivelyduetolackofexpertise(intermsof terminology)andproficiency in the language.The lackofskills inusing the technologymayhavenegativeeffectsonthestudents.Thesemayleadtomultipleeffects,whichmayincludetestingthestudentsenduranceleadingtolackofconcentrationamongthem.Andthismightresultinlackofinterestinthesubjectwhichwilleventuallycausepoorperformanceinthesubject.Withinthelimitedtimeforimplementation,thegoodstudentswillnodoubtbecomebetterbutthelowmotivatedandsloworpoorlearnerswillfacealotofproblemsnotonlyincomprehendingthesubjectcontentbutalsotoscoreintheexaminations.Asaresultofthis,parentstrustintheteachersorschooltoomaydiminishasmanyparentsmightconcludethattheteachingofMathematicsandScienceinEnglishhascausedtheirchildrenspoorperformanceinthesesubjects.

    Intheopenendedquestions,theresearchersfoundthatthemajorityofrespondentsbelievedthatthechangeinteachingpracticewastheconsequenceofchangeinthelanguageofinstruction.TheteachersagreedthatinordertocompensateforstudentsweaknessintheEnglishlanguage,theyhadtotaketheroleofatranslatorinclass.Somuchso,theteachingenvironmentmovedtowardbilingualdelivery;eventuallyitdefeatedthepurposeofusingEnglishasthemediumofinstructionforbothsubjects.Theydescribedtheirteachingintheclassasusingfirstthesecondlanguage(English),andthentheyhavetorepeatandgivetheexplanationagaininMalayforthebenefitofstudentswithlimitedEnglishproficiency.So,moretimewillbeneededtoconveythesameconceptcomparedtowhenMalaylanguagewasusedas themediumof instruction.The respondentsalsoshared theiropinion that theystillneedmore training inpreparingthemselvestoteachScienceandMathematicsinEnglishespeciallyindeliveringinstructionofMathematicsand Science in English and conducting question and answer sessionswith students in English or in devising newstrategiesforteachingthetwosubjects.

    TherespondentsalsoagreedthatteachingtimeforScienceandMathematicsmayneedtobeincreasedinviewoftheETeMS.ItisrecommendedthatteacherscontinuetocarryoutcodeswitchingwhenconductingtheirScienceandMathematicslessons.ThishastobecarriedoutduetotheteacherslackofproficiencyinEnglish.Inaddition,teachingstrategiesmayneedtobemodifiedsothatstudentswillnotbedeniedaqualityScienceandMathematicseducation;atthesametime,theinterestoflearningbothsubjectscanbesustained.

    In summary, the findings shows that the respondents agreed on the importance of English Language ineverydaylifeaswellascareeropportunity;howevertheyfeltthatlearningScienceandMathematicswasverydifficultanddemandingduetotheir lackofability inunderstandingthesubjectmatterandthe languageof instruction.Thefindingsalso indicatethat learningScience ismoredifficultthan learningMathematics;therearechallengesfortheScienceandMathematicsteacherstoworkwiselyinordertoovercomestudentslearningdifficultiesandtopromoteeffective learning among students. Due to many teachers factors such as unable to comprehend the Englishterminologiesandrubrics,refusaltoget involved intheBuddySupportSystem, low languagemotivationandbeingreluctantreaders(toreadEnglishpreparedtexts),teachersfactorsseemtocontributemoretothisproblemcomparedtothatoftheteachingcourseware.

    5.CONCLUSIONS

    Therespondentsagreedthatcoursewareevaluation(upgradingandtheuseoflatestsoftware)isconsideredacrucialactivityinevaluatingtheuseofinformationtechnologyforeducationalpurposes.Teachersgenerallyexhibitedpositivereactionstowardsthe instructionalcontentandcoursewaredesign.Thesophisticatedandlatesttechnologywhichisportrayedindifferentelementsofcontentanddesignareabletopresentstimulatinginformationtomotivateandassistthelearnersforinformationretentionandrecall.However,theotherarisingproblemssuchascodeswitchingandteachersperceptionsonusing their first languagewhenteachingMathematicsandScienceshouldbeput into

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    considerationinthefirstplaceduringtheinitialyearsofETeMSimplementation.

    Analysisalsorevealedthatmostoftheteachersinvolvedinthisstudyagreedthatthecoursewareisusefulforteachingandlearning.However,someofthemthoughtthatcertaincoursewareaspectsandcomponentsneedtobeimproved.Basedonthefindingsfromthisstudy,thereisroomforimprovementtofulfillthestudentneedsthroughouttheETeMSpolicyimplementation;therefore,itisessentialtonotethattheteachingcoursewareneededtoberevised.Overall,someidentifiedweaknessesofthecoursewarearethetechnicalproblem,latedeliveryofthecoursewaretoschoolsand lessvarietyofteachingand learning levelsBUTthefailureofETeMS isnotduetoteachingcoursewareprovidedbyMOE;itisattributedmoretohuman(teacher)factors.Inotherwords,asshownbythisstudy,theteacherswere not competent enough to shoulder the responsibilities and also lacked selfconfidence in carrying out thismonumentaltask.

    The findings of this studymay be useful for policymakers and implementers to continue planning andmonitoring the future of critical subjects such asMathematics and Science. This is to ensure that theMalaysianeducationsystemwillnotbeleftbehindandthatVision2020aimedatmakingMalaysiaadevelopednationby2020willbesuccessfullyachieved.

    REFERENCES

    Alwis,C.D.(2005).AttitudeofFormTwostudentstowardlearningScienceinEnglish:AcasestudyofschoolsinKotaSamarahan.ProsidingSeminarPenyelidikanPendidikanMaktabPerguruanBatuLintang,1516September2005.

    Clarkson,P.C.(2004).TeachingMathematicsinMultilingualClassrooms:TheGlobalImportanceofContexts.InI.P.Cheong,H.S.Dhindsa,I.J.Kyeleve&O.Chukwu(Eds.),GlobalisationtrendsinScience,MathematicsandTechnicaleducation(pp.923).BruneiDarussalam:UniversitiBruneiDarussalam.

    Da Costa, L.A. (2003). Exploration guides for educational software:Are they helpful? Proceedings of theInternational Conference on MICTE 2003. [online] Retrieved from http://www.formatex.org /micte2003/micte2003.htm Little,J.W.(1999).Teachersprofessionaldevelopmentinthecontextofhighschoolreform:Findingsfromathreeyearstudyofrestructuringschools.PaperpresentedattheannualmeetingoftheAmericanEducationalResearchAssociation,Montreal,2022April.

    MinistryofEducation.(2002).Englishforteachingmathematicsandscience(ETeMS):Facilitatorsnote.KualaLumpur:EnglishLanguageTeachingCentre,TeacherEducationDivision.

    Ong,S.L.(2004).PreparingpreserviceteacherstoteachScienceinEnglish.DigesPendidikan,4(1),2331.

    Pandian,A.,&Ramiah,R.(2004,December).MathematicsandScienceinEnglishTeacherVoice.TheEnglishTeacher,33.MELTA[Online]Retrievedfromhttp://www.melta.org.my/ET/2004/200450.pdf

    Pillay,H.,&Thomas,M.(2004).ANationonthemove:Fromchalkfacetolaptops.Malaysia:EnglishLanguageTeachingCentre,MinistryofEducation[Online]Retrievedfromhttp://eltcm.org/eltc/Download/paperbank

    Putnam,R.,&Borko,H.(1997).Teacherlearning:Implicationsofnewviewsofcognition.InB.J.Biddle,T.L.Good& I.F.Goodson(Eds.),The internationalhandbookofteachersandTeaching(pp.12231296).Dordrecht,TheNetherlands:Kluwer.

    SEAMEOLibrary.(2003).SEAMEOAustraliaProjectonPreServiceTeacherTrainingandTeacherProfessionalDevelopment in the Use of ICT in the Teaching of Mathematics and Science. Retrieved fromhttp://www.seameo.org/vl/library/dlwelcome/projects/ictmath03/useofict.htm

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    Spillane,J.P.(1999).Externalreform initiativesandteacherseffortstoreconstructpractice:Themediatingroleofteacherszonesofenactment.JournalofCurriculumStudies,31,143175.

    ZarinaSuriyaRamlan.(2009).ChangeinthelanguageofinstructionintheteachingofScienceinEnglish.Ph.Dthesis,FacultyofEducation,UniversityofMalaya.

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