everyday multiculturalism

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What is multiculturalism from below? What makes people live well with diversity in everyday life? How do ‘transversal enablers’ assist in situations of everyday multiculturalism? In what ways do multicultural subjects react to those who deny them a space in contemporary ‘super diverse’ societies? In what ways do people live their multiculturalism ‘from below’?

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  • 1. EVERYDAY MULTICULTURALISM EVERYDAY LIFE, WEEK 11 DR ALANA LENTIN A.LENTIN@UWS.EDU.AU Thursday, 10 October 13

2. Overview Thursday, 10 October 13 3. Overview Why multiculturalism? Critiques of multiculturalism The harmonious multicultural nation? Everyday, lived multiculture Problem multiculturalism Theyre taking over Good and bad diversity Thursday, 10 October 13 4. Pathways to multiculturalism Thursday, 10 October 13 1. Multicultural realities: At the turn of the 20th century, Australia was becoming a multicultural society. Although, the country was 98% white, the discovery of gold (the gold rush) was leading to immigration from around the world. Between 1850 and 1870, 50,000 Chinese had settled in NSW. Workers from the Pacic Islands were being brought in to work as indentured labourers, e.g. on sugar plantations. Before Federation in 1901, the possibility existed for Australia to become an immigration nation. 2. White Australia Policy: Real name: Immigration Restriction Act - one of the rst pieces of legislation passed by new federal parliament in 1901 (one of the 1st pieces of immigration legislation in the world). Edmund Barton, the prime minister, argued in support of the Bill with the following statement: "The doctrine of the equality of man was never intended to apply to the equality of the Englishman and the Chinaman." The Bill put in place a similar policy to that in Sth Africa: But Australia could not be openly offensive to other members of the British Empire (e.g. India) or to the Japanese, so a dictation test was introduced to weed out the unwanted. The test was impossible to pass (sometimes other European languages than English were used). The White Australia Policy persisted throughout the Second World War, during which Prime Minister Curtin defended the policy saying, "This country shall remain forever the home of the descendants of those people who came here in peace in order to establish in the South Seas an outpost of the British race." It only is challenged after the war when the realisation that Australia must populate or perish takes hold. 3. The path to Multiculturalism is opened because of the realisation of the need to populate or perish 1966: Migration Act - effectively dismantled White Australia Policy. 1973: Ofcial dismantling of the policy. 1975: Introduction of Racial Discrimination Act (linked to MC) but racial discrimination towards Aboriginals is still rife at this time. Policy/attitude towards Indigenous people and migrants continues along two separate tracks. MC is considered to be for migrants - Aboriginals, as original inhabitants of the land do not, therefore, consider themselves to be multicultural subjects 5. Pathways to multiculturalism Multicultural realities White Australia Integration Thursday, 10 October 13 1. Multicultural realities: At the turn of the 20th century, Australia was becoming a multicultural society. Although, the country was 98% white, the discovery of gold (the gold rush) was leading to immigration from around the world. Between 1850 and 1870, 50,000 Chinese had settled in NSW. Workers from the Pacic Islands were being brought in to work as indentured labourers, e.g. on sugar plantations. Before Federation in 1901, the possibility existed for Australia to become an immigration nation. 2. White Australia Policy: Real name: Immigration Restriction Act - one of the rst pieces of legislation passed by new federal parliament in 1901 (one of the 1st pieces of immigration legislation in the world). Edmund Barton, the prime minister, argued in support of the Bill with the following statement: "The doctrine of the equality of man was never intended to apply to the equality of the Englishman and the Chinaman." The Bill put in place a similar policy to that in Sth Africa: But Australia could not be openly offensive to other members of the British Empire (e.g. India) or to the Japanese, so a dictation test was introduced to weed out the unwanted. The test was impossible to pass (sometimes other European languages than English were used). The White Australia Policy persisted throughout the Second World War, during which Prime Minister Curtin defended the policy saying, "This country shall remain forever the home of the descendants of those people who came here in peace in order to establish in the South Seas an outpost of the British race." It only is challenged after the war when the realisation that Australia must populate or perish takes hold. 3. The path to Multiculturalism is opened because of the realisation of the need to populate or perish 1966: Migration Act - effectively dismantled White Australia Policy. 1973: Ofcial dismantling of the policy. 1975: Introduction of Racial Discrimination Act (linked to MC) but racial discrimination towards Aboriginals is still rife at this time. Policy/attitude towards Indigenous people and migrants continues along two separate tracks. MC is considered to be for migrants - Aboriginals, as original inhabitants of the land do not, therefore, consider themselves to be multicultural subjects 6. Pathways to multiculturalism Multicultural realities White Australia Integration Thursday, 10 October 13 1. Multicultural realities: At the turn of the 20th century, Australia was becoming a multicultural society. Although, the country was 98% white, the discovery of gold (the gold rush) was leading to immigration from around the world. Between 1850 and 1870, 50,000 Chinese had settled in NSW. Workers from the Pacic Islands were being brought in to work as indentured labourers, e.g. on sugar plantations. Before Federation in 1901, the possibility existed for Australia to become an immigration nation. 2. White Australia Policy: Real name: Immigration Restriction Act - one of the rst pieces of legislation passed by new federal parliament in 1901 (one of the 1st pieces of immigration legislation in the world). Edmund Barton, the prime minister, argued in support of the Bill with the following statement: "The doctrine of the equality of man was never intended to apply to the equality of the Englishman and the Chinaman." The Bill put in place a similar policy to that in Sth Africa: But Australia could not be openly offensive to other members of the British Empire (e.g. India) or to the Japanese, so a dictation test was introduced to weed out the unwanted. The test was impossible to pass (sometimes other European languages than English were used). The White Australia Policy persisted throughout the Second World War, during which Prime Minister Curtin defended the policy saying, "This country shall remain forever the home of the descendants of those people who came here in peace in order to establish in the South Seas an outpost of the British race." It only is challenged after the war when the realisation that Australia must populate or perish takes hold. 3. The path to Multiculturalism is opened because of the realisation of the need to populate or perish 1966: Migration Act - effectively dismantled White Australia Policy. 1973: Ofcial dismantling of the policy. 1975: Introduction of Racial Discrimination Act (linked to MC) but racial discrimination towards Aboriginals is still rife at this time. Policy/attitude towards Indigenous people and migrants continues along two separate tracks. MC is considered to be for migrants - Aboriginals, as original inhabitants of the land do not, therefore, consider themselves to be multicultural subjects 7. WHY MULTICULTURALISM? Multiculturalism emerged from the realisation... that the melting pot doesnt melt and that ethnic and racial divisions get reproduced from generation to generation. (Anthias and Yuval-Davis, 1992: 158) Thursday, 10 October 13 Early policies for the inclusion of migrants in society emphasised assimilation and integration. Migrants were encouraged to forget their cultural background, traditions, customs, etc. and become full members of the nation. US-American idea of the melting pot Anthias and Yuval-Davis: MC rst emerges in the late 1960s (in Canada) based on the realisation that (1) it is unrealistic to expect people to forget everything about their past and (2) even if they wanted to, discrimination from the members of the majority of society (e.g. whites in Australia) means that it is very difficult. Immigrants are never considered Australian enough, and this persists over generations (connected to racism next week). Multiculturalism originated as a strategy for resisting disadvantage and create equality. Australia: Multiculturalism was originally developed in Canada and was exported to Australia in response to the increasing demands of well-organised groups of people from migrant backgrounds, Italians and Greeks in particular, to be equally recognised in the Anglo dominated landscape of Australia. Multiculturalism, as opposed to the melting pot metaphor of assimilation, may be compared to a salad bowl where every ingredient is distinct. Cultural pluralism was seen as integral to social equality. In 1973, Immigration minister Al Grassby said My concept of a society able to sustain growth and change without disintegration is a society based on equality for all. The state policy of multiculturalism involves working to support the preservation of minority cultures by giving funding to the initiatives of community groups, or through promoting knowledge of non-dominant cultures in education, broadcasting, and so on. Australian MC policy: The 2011 Multicultural Policy of Australia declares The Australian Government is unwavering in its commitment to a multicultural Australia. Australias multicultural composition is at the heart of our national identity and is intrinsic to our history and character. In that sense it is quite unique in comparison to other countries. The emphasis of the policy is on shared values, seen as Australian values - most importantly fairness - and respect for cultural difference, and the permission to practice diversi

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