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  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 1

    ESD PhenomenaESD Mitigation Techniques

    Cyrous Rostamzadeh

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 2

    Opening Question:

    It has Failed, Why?

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 3

    Engineers get involved into System Level ESD through questions likeHow to Fix an ESD problem on a DUT?

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 4

    Which Design Choices will preventESD problems? Or...

    How do I optimize an IC design for the

    Best System level ESD Performance?

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 5

    Is there a Correlation between

    System level and IC level ESD?

    To help to answer such questionsWe need to understand the fundamentals of ESD.

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 6

    Immediate Concern:Semiconductor Devices Fail when Exposed to ESD.

    Why should We care about ESD?

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 7

    It is one of the most importantReliability problems in theIntegrated Circuit Industry.

    ~ 50% of all Field Failuresare due to ESD. It cannot be ignored.

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 8

    Requires Knowledge, and Right Tools to Resolve ESD Problems.

    SolutionSolution

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 9

    There is a purpose for every tool.Can I use soldering iron in place of screw driver? May be someone does! We should not!

    ToolsTools

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 10

    Knowledge is the key tool.Instrumentation is necessary.Critical Measurement is essential.

    Knowledge, ToolsKnowledge, Tools,,

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 11

    Microelectronic industry has led to an interest in ESD.Last 35 years, with the growth of Semiconductor industry, ESD has become a discipline of significant interest.

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 12

    In 1970s as a result of concerns in the Cold War, EMP (Electromagnetic Pulses)

    Excellent Physical Models were produced to understand the ESD Robustness of Electrical Components.

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 13

    In the 1980s with the growth of Semiconductor Fabrication andthe Semiconductor Industry, ESD remained an issue as:Human handling, tooling, shipping and garments, influenced the reliability of Semiconductor Components.

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 14

    In 1990s, tremendous growth in ESD understanding, as new fields and new issues continued to emerge...Transition from -Electronics to Nanostructures, Semiconductors, Magnetic Recording Devices, -Machines, MEMs Huge concern with ESD

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 15

    2000 - 2008, huge growth in ESD understanding, as new fields and new issues continue to emerge...Further transition in Nanostructures, High K Dielectric processors, High Density FPGA, DSPMobile Phones, Portable Electronics.

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 16

    ESD means different things to different people

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 17

    For System User it means presence

    or absence of Spark

    ESD means different things to different people

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 18

    For Manufacture Engineer, it means wrist strap, ground mat, air ionizer, ESD shoe, ESD Garment, ANSI/ESD S20.20

    ESD means different things to different people

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 19

    For Semiconductor Engineer, it means Conductive Packaging

    ESD means different things to different people

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 20

    For Test Engineer, it means ESD GunsESD means different things to different people

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 21

    ESD means different things to different people

    For you Design Engineers, it means:

    Bulletproof Design, or ESD ROBUST DesignESD ROBUST Design.

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 22

    For ESD testing, as for reliability

    testing, the purpose of the test is

    to verify that the item tested will

    operate acceptably in actual use.

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 23

    In order to achieve this purpose

    the test must achieve both

    Realism and Repeatability.

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 24

    If not repeatable, then it cannot

    be trusted to detect problems,

    or judge the success of solutions.

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 25

    If the test is not representative

    of the reality, then it will not be

    successful as a predictor of the

    Reliability of the device in the

    Real world.

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 26

    To be considered realistic, an ESD TESTESD TEST

    must Recreate the key components of an

    actual ESD Threat.

    ICs fail due to Excessive Voltage or EnergyEnergy

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 27

    Excessive VoltageExcessive Voltage can cause

    Dielectric BreakdownDielectric Breakdown in ICs

    such as Oxide Barriers.

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 28

    Excessive Energy can cause Thermal Failure

    by Melting Silicon or Metallization of IC.

    Melting Temperature of Silicon ~ 1,420Melting Temperature of Silicon ~ 1,42000CC

    Melting Temperature of Metallization ~ 600Melting Temperature of Metallization ~ 60000CC

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 29

    One might expect metal would always be damaged first.

    Thermal Conductivity of Metal is >> Thermal Conductivity of Silicon.

    Short, Intense Pulse may deposit Energy in

    Silicon more quickly than Silicon can

    spread and dissipate the resulting Heat.

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 30

    Metallization

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 31

    Metallization

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 32

    Metallization

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 33

    Pre-ESD Capacitor Characteristics

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 34

    Post-ESD Capacitor Damage

    DC 20 kHz

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 35

    Post-ESD Capacitor Damage

    DC 20 kHz

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 36

    IC Level ESD Standards DO NOT Test for Soft-Errors (Bit Errors, Upsets, Resets, etc..). They only test if the ICs are Damaged by ESD

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 37

    System Level ESD Test Standards applied to operating systems while observing the functionality of the system in addition to observing for any damages.

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 38

    System Level Human ESD Model is based on a Discharge of a Human via a piece of Metal.

    IC Level ESD Model is based on a Discharge from the Skin to Grounded IC

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 39

    ESD is Not only a Broadband Event, but an ESD test is a Combination of Different Physical Stresses to a System.

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 40

    Electrostatic Problems:

    Manufacturing.Field Operation.

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 41

    ESD Solutions:

    Manufacturing ESD Control Program

    Field Failures ESD Robust Design

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 42

    Important DistinctionESD Control Program during

    Manufacturing Does NOT

    imply ESD Robust Product !

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 43

    Hard FailuresJunction burnoutIC metal burnoutDielectric breakdownTransient Interference

    Soft FailuresLogic ErrorsSystem ResetLost DataLost program Flow

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 44

    Direct Connection

    Secondary Arcing

    Electric Field

    Magnetic Field

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 45

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 46

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 47

    ESD voltages as high as 30 kV has been observed in automotive environment.ESD is rich in high-frequency (> 3 GHz) !ESD event can create currents in excess of 30 Amps!ESD currents can destroy ICs, PCB traces and other

    components.ESD can create time-varying Magnetic Field: 25 A/m.ESD can create time-varying Electric Field as high as: 10 kV/m.ESD can create Susceptibility Problems.

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 48

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 49

    ESD phenomena involves Electrical & Thermal Electrical & Thermal

    TransportsTransports on the Scale of nanometers (nm), Circuits

    and Electronics on the Scale of micrometers (m),

    Semiconductor Chip designs range from picoseconds

    (ps) to microseconds (s), Electrical Currents of interest

    range from mA to 10s of Amperes.Voltages range from

    Volts to kiloVolts (kV). Temperatures vary from room

    temperature to melting temperatures of 1000s 0K.

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 50

    Must Quantify the Scale in Space & TimeSpace & TimeESD phenomena involves:

    Microscopic to Macroscopic Scales.

    ESD is a Thermo-Electric Transport of Material Physics

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 51

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 52

    Electrostatic Equilibrium, Post-ESD

    =|| Er

    Electrostatic Field, Pre-ESD

    0E ,0 ==r

    ESD Physics

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 53

    Tribos - Greek for "rubbing"

    The triboelectric effect is a type of contact

    electrification in which certain materials become

    electrically charged after they come into contact

    with another different material and are then

    separated.

    ESD Physics

  • April 2, 2008 Cyrous Rostamzadeh 54

    Positive (+)1) Air

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