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ENERGY OF CREATION

HIGH RATES OF THE COUNTRY’S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ARE MAINLY ACHIEVED DUE TO PLENTY OF INEXPENSIVE ELECTRIC POWER
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tured by the Austrian-Hungarian Hans Company with the total capacity of 1.2MWt were installed at the power plant. It may seem amazing but the first hydroelectric power plant ever built in this region (eventually, a unique museum exhibit of Turkmen power industry) successfully operates nowadays.
The Turkmen power industry was further developed under the rule of the new super- power, which was founded in the early XX cen- tury and existed almost till the end of it. All of Turkmen power engineers’ achievements were indissolubly linked to the grandiose plans on electrification of the state stretching out on one sixth of the continent. In Turkmenistan on the eve of the Great Patriotic War the total capacity of the existing energy sources increased 17 times and power production – 35 times as against the memorable year of 1913 (app. 86 million kWt/hour in total).
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Over almost a century-long develop- ment the Turkmen power industry has made a hard but extremely pro-
ductive path from primitive diesel engines pro- ducing an insignificant amount of power to high-capacity gas-turbine units.
Though, an electric power unit driven by a diesel engine was first used at the railroad car repair plant in the town of Kyzylarvat (present day Serdar) in 1906, the Turkmen power indus- try’s year of birth is considered 1913, when construction of Hindu Kush hydroelectric power plant was completed on the Murghab River.
First of all, the station supplied electric energy to the monarchic manor built for the Russian tsar in the very south of his vast empire – in the town of Bairamali. The plant had been built in five years. The Hungarian firm Tami and Deitchman performed the erect- ing works. Three hydraulic turbines manufac-

! LET THERE BE LIGHT!
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power plant (3,200 kWt) put into operation in 1948 and 1954-1957 accordingly enabled to create the first power network connecting the power plants by the power transmission lines in Turkmenistan in 1950s.
To develop the sector of profound signifi- cance for the national economy as well as varying energy priorities (applying of thermal power plants actively was necessary) the necessity to establish a specialized depart- ment to administer the energy facilities emerged. It was done in 1957. Such accumu- lation of all energy facilities under the central- ized supervision played the role of a catalyst in the process of developing Turkmen power industry. It was since then when the network of small power stations affiliated with particular departments was placed under the supervision of the relevant energy department that the planned development of Turkmenistan’s power system began.
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As is known, World War II turned into the endless war of technologies rapidly increasing the demand for fuels and lubricants in 1941- 1945. Therefore, the construction of diesel power plants was carried on in the oil produc- ing regions of Turkmenistan in spite of the hardships. Hence is the natural result – even during the war years the rise in power produc- tion in Turkmenistan made up 13 percent!
In the postwar years Turkmenistan’s devel- oping economy demanded more electric power, the deficit of which the numerous small and low-capacity power plants were unable to meet.
In late 1940s-early 1950s the hydraulic power plants with the hydraulic turbines start- ing up the electric generators to transform mechanical energy of the water flow into elec- tric energy began to be operated more active- ly. Kaushutbent hydroelectric power plant (600kWT) and Kolkhozbent hydroelectric
Uniting the separate energy facilities into the integrated system predetermined intensifi- cation of power production capacity in the country in accordance with the increased needs of the national economy. A decision to construct a thermal plant in the major industri- al area of Turkmenistan – the town of Bezmeyin (present day Abadan) was made at that time. The first turbines of the new power station put into operation in 1958 considerably improved energy supply in the Turkmen capi- tal and its suburbs.
Eight years later a thermal power plant was put into operation in Chardjow (present day Turkmenabat) to supply energy and heat to the large chemicals plant, the second heat and power plant was built in Krasnovodsk (present day Turkmenbashi). Mary Power Station – still the largest in Turkmenistan to this day – was constructed in 1969.
After installation of the sixth power generat- ing unit at Mary Power Station, the additional amount of electric power was supplied to con- sumers in the eastern region of Turkmenistan, industrial district in Ashgabat and the Turkmen capital. Besides, the integrated power system of Central Asia received 43 percent of electric power. Putting the eighth power unit at Mary power plant into operation that enabled to increase its total capacity to 1,685 MWt became an important event for the Turkmen power engineers in the 1980s.
Such were the achievements gained by the Turkmen power engineers throughout the XX century, at the very end of which a new stage in the development of Turkmenistan’s power industry began.
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high-voltage power lines and five electric power plants have been built. It was more than the country had had before the period of sov- ereign development.
The first major step the young state made on the way of enhancing its energy might was establishing the Kuwwat Power Engineering and Technology Corporation in 1992. At that time an important energy facility – the first power unit of Seydi thermal power plant (80MWt) was put into operation, the newly- established educational institution – the High Technical School started to train local special- ists for electrical power engineering, chemical industry and machine building.
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Anew landmark stage in the develop- ment of the Turkmen power industry began after gaining independence.
Striving to achieve complete economic inde- pendence and appropriate rates of industrial growth the country had to considerably increase energy production. The Turkmen power engineers managed to satisfy com- pletely the needs of domestic consumers and to export energy to the neighbouring countries.
During the years of independence uninter- rupted work of the sector has been achieved and electric power exports turned into an ever growing income item of the state budget; mod- ern energy facilities including multi-kilometer
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and full-scale testing of finished products. However, the effect of the activities of subdivi- sions affiliated with the Concerns spread far beyond the power engineering sector. The diversified industrial base within the power engineering system performed the orders of enterprises from other sectors as well as pro- duced consumer goods.
In the first half of 1990s a certain amount of electric power was imported from neighbour- ing Uzbekistan to the eastern regions of Turkmenistan. However, after gaining sover- eignty to live at the expense of external energy feeding was costly enough, and dependence even partially on energy did not strengthen the country’s independence. Therefore, the Turkmen power engineers concentrated efforts on the achievement of complete inde- pendence in electric energy for Turkmenistan. After completion of the construction of 378-km Seydi-Dashoguz high-voltage power line in 1996 Dashoguz province was connected to the integrated power system of Turkmenistan and the settlements, industrial and agricultural enterprises in the province were provided with locally produced electric power.
The 40-km Kerki-Voshod high-voltage power line with the technically complicated passage across the region’s largest Amu
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Having considered pros and cons, the Government of Turkmenistan, unlike other countries in the post-Soviet space, gave up the idea of privatizing the energy facilities regarding them of strategic importance for the country and sustainable development of the national economy. Preserving the control over the important sector in the difficult period of transition Turkmenistan was able to provide the population with free electric power (water and gas as well) from January 1, 1993. This unprecedented action of social assistance is in effect in Turkmenistan up to the present. Later on, these benefits were replenished with table salt.
In early 1995 the Ministry of Power Engineering and Industry including the Turkmenenergo Corporation (reorganized from the Kuwwat State Corporation) and the newly-established Concerns – Turkmenenergogurlysyk and Turkmenmashingurlushyk were established. Turkmenenergogurlushyk performed the works on capital construction, repair and reconstruction of energy facilities and Turkmenmashingurlushyk was a machine building complex with the complete production cycle from producing cast-iron and steel cast- ing blocks and pressed parts to assembling
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of electric power export to the Central Asian countries. The rise in power production enabled to open a new article of Turkmen export – sales of electric power abroad. Currently, Turkmen electric power is exported to Afghanistan, Iran, Turkey and Tajikistan.
In 2000 the Turkmen Government made a decision to construct electric power facilities in Afghanistan, and a year later Andhoi- Shiberghan power transmission line was put into operation. According to the schedule, the Turkmen builders laid the high-voltage power
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Darya River was started up two years later. This project allowed Turkmen power engineers to stop importing electric power from Uzbekistan and to supply locally produced electric power to the right bank of the Amu Darya River where the lands of Turkmenistan rich in natural resources stretch out.
At that time the first high technology gas- turbine unit produced by the General Electric Company was put into operation in Turkmenistan. This company was one of the first foreign core partners on the very promis- ing Turkmen energy market. Putting the first gas-turbine unit with the capacity of 123 MWt vividly demonstrated the advantages of this kind of equipment over the steam-turbine units. Subsequently, the General Electric installed two gas-turbines at Abadan power plant, three gas-turbine units at Turkmenbashi Oil Refineries Complex and three of them at Balkanabat power plant.
In 2001 the 500 kV Serdar Substation – the largest in Turkmenistan and one of the largest in the region, functioning through two high- voltage power lines Mary Power Station - Serdar (Turkmenistan) - Karakul (Uzbekistan) under the voltage of 500 kV and Promyshlennaya-Serdar-Dashoguz under the voltage of 220 kV were put into operation in the record short time (6 months!).
What are the advantages of the new sub- station that the specialists have talked so much about?
It enabled to distribute electric power via the networks from Mary power plant to Lebap and Dashoguz provinces more efficiently and cost-effectively as well as increase the volume
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operation in 1999, the Iranian-Turkish section was built only in late 2003. Foreign consumers receive electric power produced at the plants in Balkan province via this energy corridor.
In 2004 one more transnational power line – Serahs (Turkmenistan)-Serahs (Iran) supply- ing electric power produced at Mary power plant to the northeastern province of Iran was put into operation.
As for the eastern direction, Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov and Emomali Rakhmon agreed that Tajikistan would purchase 1.2 bil- lion kWt/h of electric power in fall and winter for five years. Such power deliveries started last November. Thus, Tajikistan became the fourth importer of Turkmen electric power, but there is every reason to suppose that not the last. Turkmenistan’s current energy potential
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line (220 kV) from Serhetabat substation to Herat substation that enabled Turkmenistan to supply electric power to the southern neighbor uninterruptedly.
The energy bridge Turkmenistan – Iran – Turkey started to work in December 2003 after the first trilateral agreement on supply and transit of 300 million KWt/h of electric power had been signed. Three months later the Turkish partners expressed the wish to consid- erably upscale purchases of Turkmen electric power.
Power export to Iran and Turkey became possible through connecting the power sys- tems of three countries via Balkanabat (Turkmenistan)-Gonbad (Iran)-Hoi-Bashkale (Turkey) power line. However, if the Turkmen- Iranian section of the energy route was put into
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Turkmen land is rich in. Gas is delivered from the nearest fields, and black oil and diesel fuel from the local oil refineries are used as reserve fuel.
In the past three years the growth rates of power production have exceeded 7 percent and power export has annually increased by over 15 percent in 2005-2007.
Highly qualified specialists have profoundly contributed to the success of the Turkmen power industry. At present, the State Power Engineering Institute trains specialists in such fields as power industry, computer technolo- gies, manufacturing machinery and equip- ment, economy and enterprise management.
Thus, the years of independence have become a special period in the history of Turkmen power industry that, having made a breakthrough, was able to satisfy completely the domestic needs and to ensure increased power exports to the neighbouring countries.
Such is the present day of the Turkmen power industry. What will it be tomorrow?
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enables to considerably expand export by the existing as well as newly planned routes.
And this field of investment activity, accord- ing to experts, is very promising.
Currently, export of Turkmen electric power makes up over 12 percent of the total output. However, this volume is not insignificant…
In February 2006 a gas-turbine power plant with two high-powered units started to work in the outskirts of Ashgabat and last December a gas-turbine power plant – in Dashoguz. Turkmen President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov and his Turkish colleague Abdullah Gul took part in the ceremony of starting up the plant.
Dashoguz power plant produces 1.5 billion kWt/h of electric power. It is much more than the whole eastern region consumes, therefore a major amount of electric power is transmitted to the integrated electric power system of Turkmenistan.
This year an important stage in construc- tion of the ring power system has been com- pleted in Lebap province. The high-powered energy facilities – the 220 kV Farap trans- former substation feeding Farap-Samandepe and Samandepe-Yashyldepe power lines, were built on the right bank of the Amy Darya River – the region with the huge resource and industrial potential. Yashyldepe transformer substation and LEP-110 Yashyldepe-Burdalyk power line – the node points of the project of creating a large industrial center – the Yashyldepe Gas Processing complex on the right bank of the Amudarya, were put into operation there.
Completely satisfying the domestic needs in electric power and supplying electric power abroad, Turkmenistan’s power system includes 9 thermal and 1 hydraulic power plants. Five power plants have been built and the production capacity of the heat and power plants in Mary and Seydi has been increased in the years of independence.
Commissioning of the highly powered ther- mal stations maintaining the high and ultrahigh parametres provided an opportunity to identify and apply the most optimal operation condi- tions of the energy sources as well as the Turkmen power system as a whole. Along with it, the advanced pace of development of Turkmenistan’s power system enabled to take low capacity and obsolescent power units out of service.
The power plants use cheap raw material in the local conditions – natural gas that the
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plants that will make the functioning of the country’s power production complex more reliable and the operation of steam-turbine equipment more efficient. These measures will reduce fuel consumption for producing electric power, cut production costs and, more importantly, mitigate the negative impact on the environment.
Power plants, power transmission lines and substations will be constructed along with recon- struction and modernization of the existing power units to satisfy steadily increasing needs in elec- tric power and export in accordance with the Strategy of Economic, Political and Cultural Development of Turkmenistan till 2020.
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Last year the Turkmen power engi- neers produced the record amount of electric power; though the long-term
target – 20 billion kWt/h of electric power – is considerably higher. The new level is quite high but achievable.
The priority tasks set to the sector is to establish the power system meeting the mod- ern requirements with due regard of the coun- try’s rapid industrialization and implementation of the rural development programs.
According to the Turkmen power engi- neers, new power generating capacities will be exploited through applying flexible capaci- ties of gas-turbine (steam-to-gas) power
LOOKING INTO THE FUTURE
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Recently, the power units – the node points of the project of the integrated ring power sys- tem in the eastern region, have been put into operation in Lebap province. In the nearest future this high capacity ring power system will ensure uninterrupted power supply to the set- tlements in the valley of the Amu Darya River, major oil and gas production and processing facilities’ construction sites and a number of modern plants to be built in the next few years for commercial production of mineral resources in the Magdanly-Garlyk area.
The considerable growth of electric power production is expected in the nearest future after commissioning of two power plants in Ahal province, Avaza settlement and Balkanabat.
The power plant in Ashgabat will enable to increase power supply to the city and create reliable conditions for the accident-free opera- tion of the power system of the rapidly develop- ing capital, the other one in Avaza will supply power to the national tourist zone on the Caspian Sea coast and the third one will meet the demands in electric power of the rapidly developing oil and gas and chemical complex- es of Balkan province. These high capacity units to be put into operation in 2010 will increase the number of power plants in Turkmenistan to 12.
Along with the construction of power plants, the considerable reserves are hidden in technology modernization of Mary Power Plant – one of the largest in the region. After reconstruction, the capacity of Balkanabat power plant will be increased. It is of particular importance for uninterrupted power supply to newly-built oil and gas facilities in the western region of the country.
Upon fulfilling of these plans Turkmen power engineers will be able to produce the annual rates of power production exceeding the last year’s record by a third.
Some analysts assume that boosting the potential of power industry as set forth in the National Program will provide the opportunities for creating the multiple Turkmen power export routes system.
Turkmenistan’s power system exploits enough power transmission lines (about 54,300 km), and if the lines were laid along the equator they would encircle our planet almost 1.5 times. Nevertheless, in accordance with the National Program new power lines are to be built.
For example, a 220kV ring power line will be built in Ashgabat to enhance the reliability of the electric link of the power plants with the main power network. To improve the capacity of power trans- mission lines and to increase power export to Afghanistan a VL-220 high-voltage power line will be laid from Mary power plant to Yolotan substation.
The national program of the electric power industry development elaborated on the basis of the present and future economic realities stipulates for task-oriented intensification of the generating capacities through construct- ing modern energy facilities, reconstructing and modernizing the existing power units aimed at increasing the export volumes as well. In accordance with the abovementioned Strategy, by 2020 the domestic electric power consumption is to increase up to 20 billions of kWt/h and its export – up to 10.23 billion.
Though ambitious, these large-scale plans are quite feasible. This is a task for the future. Nowadays, each manifestation of the Turkmen engineers’ creative activity is anoth- er evidence of the indisputable truth that this sector, developed dynamically in the past, in our days never stops at what has been accomplished and looks into the future with confidence.
Yarmuhammet ORAZGULIEV, Deputy Minister of Power Engineering
and Industry of Turkmenistan
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THE THERMAL POWER PLANT IN MARY IS A LEADER OF THE NATIONAL POWER GENERATING SECTOR
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the station reached the projected level of 1200 mWt.
Taking into account the capabilities of power generating facilities’ construction of those times, one can state Mary Power Station was con- structed quickly, with good quality and high relia- bility. In the years of independence of Turkmenistan, the power engineering capacity of the station has continued to grow. In 2005, spe- cialists of Russian Siloviye Mashiny Open Joint Stock Society (OAO) helped modernize the sec- ond power unit. The modernization improved the turbine control process and considerably increased the degree of its reliability. The plans envisage further upgrading of the remaining power units that will allow the administration to reduce the fuel consumption and significantly increase the nominal capacity of the station.
The Turkmen power engineering specialists intend to take advantage of the capabilities of
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When in the second half of 1960s the progress of economic development of the region started to prompt the
urgent necessity of creating of a mighty power station in central Turkmenistan, it was decided to start its construction on the bank of the Karakum canal 10 km to the south of Mary.
The selected place met all requirements set to a location of the high-capacity thermal power station: presence of labor force, proxim- ity to water and gas deposits, etc. The con- struction, which was considered the immense one at the time, started in 1969.
In 1973, the first power unit of the station was commissioned, and a year later – the second one. The capacity of each of them equaled 210 mWt. During the next seven years, another four power generating units were put into operation. After commission- ing of the sixth unit in 1981 the capacity of
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become a unique model of a big modern indus- trial enterprise with the comprehensive develop- ment of the industrial and social infrastructure.
Nowadays, the Power Station in Mary pro- vides hundreds of jobs at the station itself and subordinate enterprises. It is a well-estab- lished system of labor organization, rest and recreation for its workers.
The Turkmen power workers are proud of their brainchild that has become a leader of the national power engineering sector. They also strongly believe Mary Power Station has played a role of the universal model that was followed when creating large production complexes in other sectors of the national economy.
Jumanazar KARADJAEV, Chairman of Trade Unions of Power
Engineering Workers of Turkmenistan
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Mary Power Station. They put forward an idea of creating a unified power grid system of ECO member countries. It will enable the countries to increase the quality of power supply at the expense of interstate exchange of power dur- ing peak loads that fall on the different time in different countries located on this vast area. According to experts, the high reliability of such power generating system will be ensured by mutual reserving of power stations, and the capacity of Mary Power Station, a leader of the Turkmen power engineering sector, will no doubt become a dependable guarantee of suc- cess of the whole process in general.
As is known, Turkmenistan and other Central Asian states already develop stable cooperation in this field. So, the existing power transmission lines and those to be constructed may be used for the further expansion of bor- ders of the single power generating system.
The Turkmen specialists have developed the feasibility study of the international power transmission grid on the route Mary-Shibargan- Kabul-Peshawar, the implementation of which will allow supplying about 10.5 billion kWt/h of Turkmen power to Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Such are the realities and possible directions of activities of one of the biggest power produc- ers of the region. However, the importance of Mary Power Station is not limited to its power generating capacity only. The station has
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SIEMENS
SIEMENS IN TURKMENISTAN
THE LONG-TERM PARTNERSHIP CONNECTS TURKMENISTAN AND SIEMENS – THE KNOWN GERMAN COMPANY
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Siemens implemented a large number of sig- nificant comprehensive projects for various sectors of economy of Turkmenistan.
The first project implemented in Turkmenistan became delivery of equipment to S. Niyazov’s International Medical Center which is now the leading cardiologic clinic of the coun- try. Clinic of internal parts of a body, diagnostic center in Ashgabat and later diagnostic centers in all other four provinces of Turkmenistan were equipped with medical devices of Siemens Company. It was followed by implementation of the project for delivery of medical equipment for clinic of mother and child in Ashgabat. At pres- ent the similar clinics are being constructed in all four regional centers of Turkmenistan.
Energy sector received the order for deliv- ery and assembly of electric and power equip- ment for construction of engineering and com- munication networks on Archabil shaely in Ashgabad.
In accordance with the Resolution of the President of Turkmenistan, at present recon- struction of airport in Turkmenbashi com- menced, within the frames of which the Industry sector supplies light equipment for air strip as well as for navigation and other spe- cific equipment. The site is expected to be put into operation in fall, 2009.
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