dyslexia training

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  • 1. DyslexiaTraining Presented by: Rebecca McKeever Charlotte Murdock Sarah Gabrielson RandolphTownship Schools Randolph, NJ

2. What do these creative, successful people have in common ? 3. Introductionpre assessment activity Legislation/Definition Simulation Activity 1 Screening Myths Characteristics of Dyslexia Simulation Activity 2 Interventions Accommodations Technology for use with students with reading disabilities, including dyslexia Post assessment activity/share 4. Introduction On December 8, 2008, legislation was introduced by the Senate in New Jersey authorizing the establishment of the New Jersey Reading DisabilitiesTask Force. 5. Introduction (cont.) The Reading Disabilities Task Force enabling legislation declared that: 1) Approximately 85% of all children who receive special education services have basic deficits in language and reading; 2) Many students with reading disabilities are never properly diagnosed and do not receive the necessary specialized educational programs, and 3) It is in the public interest for the State to establish a Reading DisabilitiesTask Force to study instructional practices and strategies that benefit students with reading disabilities and examine the way in which current NJ State policies affect this population. 6. Adopted Definition Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge Source: International Dyslexia Association, 2002 7. Screenings It is possible to identify boys and girls at a high risk for dyslexia BEFORE they fall behind. Two methods of screenings: large population screenings to determine at risk students, and individual in-depth evaluations of children with specific concerns Large population screenings include: - DIBELS (Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills) is designed for PreK through grade three students, and helps identify students at risk for reading difficulties Individual evaluations include: - tests to evaluated phonologic skills and reading readiness for grade K-adult Source: Shaywitz, S. (2003) Overcoming Dyslexia, Random House, Inc. 8. Simulation Activity #1 Comprehension questions: 1) Why are images good forWeb accessibility? 2)Who would be negatively impacted by a text-only site? 9. The Unmodified Paragraph Would a text-only site be ideal for someone with a reading disorder? Hardly. Images are not bad for accessibility. They actually increase comprehension and usability for most audiences. 10. Unmodified Paragraph (Cont) What many people do not know, though, is there is much more to the accessibility of an image than just its alt text. Some people wrongly assume that images are bad for accessibility, since alt text essentially replaces the image with a text-only version of that image. By Paul Bohman http://webaim.org/simulations/dyslexia-sim.html 11. EarlyWarning Signs/ Characteristics of a Dyslexic Preschool Age: - Trouble learning nursery rhymes (Humpty Dumpty, etc.) - Difficulty learning/remembering names of letters - Difficulty knowing letters in own name - Lack of appreciation of rhymes 12. Characteristics, cont. Kindergarten/ 1st Grade: - Failure to understand that words come apart into sounds (phonemes) - Failure to associate letters with their sounds - Difficulties sounding out simple one-syllable words (cat, map) - Reading errors that show no connections to the sound of the letters - Family history of reading struggles 13. Characteristics, cont. Second Grade through Middle School: Speaking: - Speaks with pauses, umms - Cant come up with specific words, uses thing or stuff frequently - Confuses words that sound alike (ocean-lotion) - Requires extra think time to respond 14. Reading Very slow in acquiring reading skills. Reading is slow and awkward Trouble reading unfamiliar words, often making wild guesses because he cannot sound out the word. Doesnt seem to have a strategy for reading new words Avoids reading out loud 15. General School & Everyday Life: - Trouble remembering names, dates - Pronounces names incorrectly - Messy handwriting - Trouble finishing tasks on time 16. Strengths of People with Dyslexia Creative, out of the box thinkers- great imaginations Strong comprehension of stories told/read to them Good at puzzles, building models Able to get the big picture- good conceptual skills Able to link abstract ideas together Often good at math, visual arts source: http://dyslexia.yale.edu/PRNT_signs.html 17. Interventions Poor phonological awareness is associated with dyslexia. Phonological awareness is the ability to perceive and manipulate the sounds that make up the words in a persons language. For most children, development of phonological awareness is automatic. 18. The 44 Phonemes of English A phoneme is a speech sound. It is the smallest unit of sound that distinguishes one word from another. The 44 English phonemes are represented by the 26 letters of the alphabet individually and in combination. 19. PhonemicAwareness abilities Blending (Decoding) If I put these sounds together, what word am I saying? /f/ /i/ /sh/ Segmentation (Encoding) Tell me the three sounds you hear in the word fish? 20. Accommodations Accommodations and modifications are designed to level the playing field and provide equal opportunity to students with dyslexia, not to provide an unfair advantage. Students with dyslexia are provided with extra time because they need this extra time to demonstrate their knowledge. Source: Mather &Wendling, 2012 21. Accommodations TIME EXTRATIME, EXTRATIME, EXTRATIME! 22. Accommodations NOISE Many dyslexic students find background noise helps them to concentrate. In the classroom noise from other students or a very quiet classroom can be distracting. Using an MP3 player or IPOD may be helpful. 23. Accommodations TESTING Test orally if handwriting is slow or difficult to read. Permit use of a computer for written assignments. Design questions and assignments around a given conclusion or fact. Dyslexic students think in concrete wholes. 24. Accommodations WRITING Do not base grades on spelling, grammatical errors or punctuation. Do not expect the dyslexic student to use a dictionary. Look for ideas and concepts. 25. Andrew Says: Andrew is a 13 year-old student with dyslexia. When asked what modifications have helped him, he responded with the following: Extra time. But I really dont like being singled out for extra time and have refused it going into high school. It was OK in elementary school. 26. Andrew says: Notes ahead of time. Copying from the board is difficult and takes a lot of time. Assignments available on line. Not unusual to get home and not be able to read the assignment or it might be incomplete. Extra set of books at home. Reading ahead and practicing is very helpful. 27. Andrew says: Math assignments on vertical lined or graph paper helps. Steps highlighted. Step one is always a specific color, step two always another color, etc. 28. What can you do to help the dyslexic student? Encourage build self esteem. Answer questions often precisely and specifically. Chunk assignments. Turn written assignments into projects. 29. Talk about a subject, rather than requiring the student to read about it. When they look like they are day dreaming, they may be learning by listening. Use as few words as possible to explain a concept. 30. Try to keep lessons short and to one concept. Use concrete pictures and diagrams. 31. Resources International DyslexiaAssociation : http://www.interdys.org TheYaleCenter for Dyslexia and Creativity : http://www.dyslexia.yale.edu