digital cameras digital cameras 1. point and shoot cameras most digital cameras designed for the...

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SLR Cameras (Single Lens Reflex) With an SLR camera, you see exactly what the lens sees You can change the lens on a digital SLR ◦ You choose the lens based on the type of photography; example: portrait photography vs. sporting events vs. landscape photography, etc. SLRs produce higher-quality photos than point and shoot cameras An SLR has a near-zero lag time, and is ideal for action photography 3

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Digital Cameras Digital Cameras 1 Point and Shoot Cameras Most digital cameras designed for the consumer (vs. professional) are point and shoot cameras They fall into three categories: subcompact, compact and super zoom The camera lenses are built-in (not removable) Basic features typically include auto focus, auto exposure and built-in flash Not appropriate for action photography because of lag time 2 SLR Cameras (Single Lens Reflex) With an SLR camera, you see exactly what the lens sees You can change the lens on a digital SLR You choose the lens based on the type of photography; example: portrait photography vs. sporting events vs. landscape photography, etc. SLRs produce higher-quality photos than point and shoot cameras An SLR has a near-zero lag time, and is ideal for action photography 3 Other points to consider When purchasing a camera, you should also research the following specifications: Storage Capacity Transferring Images Power Source LCD vs. Optical View Finder Zoom Image Stabilization The Exposure Triangle (Aperture, ISO, Shutter Speed) 4 Storage Devices Memory Card Internal Memory (RAM ) The number of pictures you can take before sending them to your computer is determined by two things: The resolution of the image The type of storage 5 Transferring Images Card reader USB cable Bluetooth 6 Power Source Regular Batteries Rechargeable batteries Alkaline Nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) Lithium-ion (Li-Ion) AC 7 LCDs vs ViewFinder LCDPros Shows you the exact image that will be recorded Easy to view delete images, etc. Displays menu LCDCons Drains batteryuses life of battery Difficult to see in bright light 8 View FinderPros Uses less battery Easier to see images in bright light View FinderCons Shows close approximation of the final imagenot the real thing Difficult for some people to see Zoom Optical zoom actually enlarges the imagemeasured in X example: 8Xincreases an image 8 times Digital zoom takes a portion of an image an enlarges it electronically; the image loses resolution when the camera enlarges it; also measured in X Macro zoom allows you to take close-up pictures of objects that are small and enlarge them so they appear larger. 9 10 The Exposure Triangle Exposure is the total amount of light you let into your camera. Too much light results in an over-exposed image where there are areas of bright white or blow-outs. These areas contain no detail or color. Too little light and an under-exposed image leaves parts of your image too dark to make out details. The three components to exposure are ISO, shutter speed and aperture 11 ISOthe measurement of how sensitive the image sensor in the camera is to light. Measured in numbers 100, 200, 400, 800, etc. Use a lower number when smooth crisp images are need and you have plenty of light. Higher numbers are used when light is limited, you do not want to use a flash, or the subject is moving; may result in grainy images 12 13 The picture on the left is taken at 100 ISO and the one of the right at 3200 ISO. The higher the ISO you choose the noisier shots you will get. 100 ISO is generally accepted as normal and will give you lovely crisp shots (little noise/grain). Auto Mode where the camera selects the appropriate ISO setting depending upon the conditions youre shooting in it will try to keep it as low as possible. The Exposure Triangle Shutter Speedthe amount of time the shutter is openwhich determines how much light is captured in the recording process Measured in seconds: super fast 1/2000 second to 30 seconds The slower the speed, the longer light can enter the camera. Appropriate for shooting pictures in darker situations; also great for freezing action and movement 14 15 16 To freeze action use faster shutter speed. To capture motion use a slower shutter speed. The Exposure Triangle Aperturethe camera feature that regulates the amount of light that passes through the lens by controlling the size of the opening in the lens Described as the f/stop (a stop is a change in setting) The smaller the number the wider the lens will open 17 18 The first picture was taken with an aperture of f/22 and the second one was taken with an aperture of f/2.8. The difference is quite obvious. o The f/22 picture has both the flower and the bud in focus and youre able to make out the shape of the fence and leaves in the background. o The f/2.8 shot has the left flower in focus (or parts of it) but the depth of field is very shallow and the background is thrown out of focus and the bud to the right of the flower is also less in focus due to it being slightly further away from the camera when the shot was taken.