Dich te hoc

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Dch t hc c bn l mt ti liu tham kho rt tt trong hc tp, ging dy v nghin cu trong lnh vc Y t cng cng

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<ul><li> 1. Dch t hcDch t hc c bnc bn Dch t hc c bn l mt ti liu tham kho rt tt trong hc tp, ging dy v nghin cu trong lnh vc Y t cng cng. Phin bn 2 ca cun sch ch ra nhng l do ti sao mn dch t c bn li cn thit cho tt c nhng hc vin mun hiu v ng dng nhng nguyn tc trong xc nh cn nguyn v phng nga bnh tt. Cun sch ny cung cp nhng phng php chnh yu ca dch t hc, c bit nhn mnh vo nhng ng dng dch t hc trong y t cng cng ti cc nc ang pht trin. Cun sch ny ch ra nhng cch thc c th ng dng dch t hc trong phng nga bnh tt v nng cao sc kho, nhm s dng cc ngun lc u t cho sc kho mt cch hiu qu nht v cng khuyn khch vic thc hnh lm sng tt khi n gii thiu kh chi tit nhng khi nim dch t hc ng dng trong lm sng. Cun sch gip sinh vin c th m t c nhng nguyn nhn gy bnh, t vong, chn thng v tn tt thng gp trong cng ng; vch ra nhng thit k nghin cu dch t ph hp v cc nh gi y vn c tnh ph phn Mt s nhn xt v phin bn u tin: y l cun sch hay nht v ch ny m ti tng cTi c bit gii thiu cun sch ny ti tt c cc gio vin dch t v cc sinh vin khp mi ni John Last, Ch bin cun t in Dch t hc Gio s danh d - Khoa dch t hc v Y t cng ng Trng i hc Ottawa, Canada c th trnh by c ht nhng l thuyt v ng dng ca dch t hc trong mt cun sch ngn gn l mt nhim v khng n gin, cun sch ny ca T chc Y t th gii thc s l mt thnh cng ng ca ngi Tp ch y khoa Vng quc Anh, S khc bit mi m, cng vi mt phng php v cch tip cn mi trong ging dy v hc tp mn dch tTi c bit gii thiu cun sch ti cc bn Tp ch nghin cu y khoa n Mt cun sch v dch t hc cn phi d c, d hiu, bao hm nhng thng tin c ngha, c th khuyn khch ngi c tip tc nghin cu mn hc ny v coi nh mt ti liu tham kho hu ch. Dch t hc c bn tho mn c tt c nhng yu cu ny v cn hn th na Tp ch ca Hi y khoa Thu in </li></ul><p> 2. Dch t hc c bn 3. Th vin T chc y t th gii Bonita, Ruth. Basic epidemiology / R. Bonita, R. Beaglehole, T. Kjellstrm. n phm ln hai. 1.Dch t hc. 2.Hng dn. I.Beaglehole, Robert. II.Kjellstrm, Tord. III.T chc Y t th gii. ISBN 92 4 154707 3 (Phn loi NLM: WA 105) ISBN 978 92 4 154707 9 T chc Y t th gii 2006 ng k bn quyn. C th nhn c cc n phm ca T chc Y t th gii t Trung tm bo ch ca T chc Y t th gii, 20 ng Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Thy S (T.: +41 22 791 3264; fax: +41 22 791 4857; e-mail: bookorders@who.int). Cc yu cu xin php in hoc dch cc n phm ca T chc Y t th gii cn gi ti Trung tm Bo ch T chc Y t th gii theo a ch trn (fax: +41 22 791 4806; e-mail: permissions@who.int). Th bc v cc ni dung trnh by trong n phm ny khng hm bt c kin no ca T chc Y t th gii v tnh trng lut php ca nc, lnh th, thnh ph, khu vc no hay c lin quan n phn nh bin gii hay ranh gii. ng k t trn bn l ng bin gii c lng c th cha c thng nht hon ton. Nhng ni dung lin quan n mt s cng ty hay nh sn xut c th khng hm l h c T chc y t th gii khuyn co hay hn nhng cng ty/nh sn xut khc khng c nhc n. Tr khi b li hoc b st, c th phn bit tn ca sn phm bng ch ci u tin l ch hoa. T chc y t th gii rt ch xc nhn nhng thng tin trong n phm ny. Tuy nhin, khng c bt c m bo no khi xut bn ti liu. Vic s dng v phin gii ty thuc vo trch nhim ca ngi c. T chc Y t th gii s khng chu trch nhim vi bt c tn tht no c th ny sinh do vic s dng n phm ny. In ti n . 4. Mc lc iii Mc lc Li ni u...........................................................................................................1 Gii thiu .............................................................................................................1 Chng 1 Dch t hc l g? .........................................................................................1 Thng ip chnh.................................................................................................1 Bi cnh lch s...................................................................................................1 Ngun gc ..............................................................................................1 Cc pht trin gn y ca dch t hc..................................................1 nh ngha, phm vi v ng dng ca dch t hc..............................................3 nh ngha ..............................................................................................3 Phm vi...................................................................................................3 Dch t hc v y t cng cng .............................................................................5 Nguyn nhn gy bnh ..........................................................................5 Lch s t nhin ca bnh......................................................................5 Tnh trng sc khe ca qun th .........................................................6 nh gi can thip..................................................................................6 Thnh tu ca dch t hc...................................................................................7 u ma.................................................................................................7 Nhim c Methyl thy ngn..................................................................8 St thp tim v bnh tim.........................................................................9 Bnh thiu It .......................................................................................10 Ht thuc l, aming v ung th phi ..................................................10 V xng chu ....................................................................................11 HIV/AIDS ..............................................................................................12 SARS....................................................................................................13 Cu hi ..............................................................................................................13 Ti liu tham kho .............................................................................................14 5. Mc lciv Chng 2 o lng sc khe v bnh tt...............................................................17 Thng ip chnh...............................................................................................17 nh ngha sc khe v bnh tt ......................................................................17 nh ngha ............................................................................................17 Tiu chun chn on..........................................................................17 o lng tn s bnh trng ..............................................................................19 Qun th nguy c.................................................................................19 Hin mc v mi mc...........................................................................19 T l cht mc ...................................................................................23 Mi lin quan gia cc o lng tn s bnh trng ............................24 S dng cc thng tin sn c o lng sc khe v bnh trng................25 T vong ................................................................................................25 Hn ch ca giy chng t..................................................................25 Hn ch ca nhng h thng ghi nhn................................................25 Hng ti c lng c th so snh c.........................................26 T sut t vong..................................................................................................27 T vong s sinh ...................................................................................28 T sut t vong tr em .........................................................................29 T sut t vong m...............................................................................30 T sut t vong tui trng thnh........................................................30 Tui th trung bnh ...............................................................................30 T sut chun ha theo tui.................................................................31 Tnh trng bnh tt ............................................................................................33 Tn tt ..................................................................................................33 Cc yu t quyt nh, ch s sc khe v cc yu t nguy c...........34 Cc o lng sc khe qun th tng hp khc ................................35 So snh s xut hin bnh ...............................................................................36 So snh tuyt i..................................................................................36 So snh tng i................................................................................37 6. Mc lc v Cu hi ..............................................................................................................38 Ti liu tham kho .............................................................................................39 Chng 3 Cc thit k nghin cu ............................................................................41 Thng ip chnh...............................................................................................41 Quan st v thc nghim ..................................................................................41 Cc nghin cu quan st .....................................................................42 Cc nghin cu thc nghim...............................................................42 Dch t hc quan st..........................................................................................42 Cc nghin cu m t .........................................................................42 Nghin cu sinh thi ............................................................................43 Ngy bin sinh thi...............................................................................45 Nghin cu ct ngang..........................................................................45 Nghin cu bnh chng.......................................................................46 Nghin cu thun tp...........................................................................49 Tm tt cc nghin cu dch t............................................................52 Dch t hc thc nghim ...................................................................................52 Th nghim phn b ngu nhin c i chng ...................................53 Th nghim thc a ............................................................................53 Th nghim cng ng ........................................................................54 Sai s tim tng trong cc nghin cu dch t hc ...........................................55 Sai s ngu nhin.................................................................................55 C mu.................................................................................................56 Sai s h thng.....................................................................................56 Sai lch do chn hay sai s chn.........................................................56 Sai s o lng....................................................................................57 Nhiu .................................................................................................................58 Kim sot nhiu....................................................................................59 Tnh gi tr.............................................................................................60 7. Mc lcvi Vn o c....................................................................................61 Cu hi ..............................................................................................................63 Ti liu tham kho .............................................................................................64 Chng 4 Cc thng k sinh hc c bn..................................................................67 Thng ip chnh...............................................................................................67 Tng hp s liu................................................................................................67 Cc bn v th..................................................................................68 th hnh bnh v th cu phn hnh ct nm ngang ...................69 Bn chm v bn t l................................................................69 th hnh ct ......................................................................................70 th hnh dy .....................................................................................71 Phn b tn s v biu hnh ct......................................................71 Cc phn b chun ..............................................................................72 Tng hp cc s liu.........................................................................................72 Trung bnh, trung v v mode ...............................................................72 Phng sai, lch chun v sai s chun ........................................72 Cc khi nim c bn ca suy lun thng k ...................................................73 S dng cc mu suy lun ca qun th........................................74 Khong tin cy......................................................................................74 Kim nh gi thuyt, gi tr p, lc thng k.........................................76 Gi tr p.................................................................................................76 Lc thng k.........................................................................................76 Cc phng php kim nh c bn.................................................................78 Kim nh t............................................................................................78 Kim nh Khi bnh phng cho bng cho.........................................79 Tng quan..........................................................................................79 Hi quy .................................................................................................80 Hi quy tuyn tnh.................................................................................81 8. Mc lc vii Hi quy logic.........................................................................................82 Phn tch sng v m hnh hi quy Cox hazard ..................................83 ng cong Kaplan Meier................................................................84 Cc vn c mu ..............................................................................85 Phn tch tng hp............................................................................................86 Cu hi ..............................................................................................................87 Ti liu tham kho .............................................................................................88 Chng 5 Tnh nguyn nhn trong dch t hc........................................................89 Thng ip chnh...............................................................................................89 Khi nim v nguyn nhn................................................................................89 Nguyn nhn hay cn .....................................................................89 v cn .......</p>