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CSEP-Certified Personal Trainer (CSEP-CPT). Musculoskeletal Fitness Theory. Basic Anatomy Key Concepts: 3.23-3.25. Force & Levers. 1 st class seesaw muscles that extend neck 2 nd class loaded wheelbarrow plantar flexion  force at the expense of speed & distance 3 rd class - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • CSEP - CPT M-S Theory2006 Version 2.0*CSEP-Certified Personal Trainer (CSEP-CPT)Musculoskeletal Fitness Theory

    CSEP - CPT M-S Theory

  • CSEP - CPT M-S Theory2006 Version 2.0*Basic AnatomyKey Concepts: 3.23-3.25

    CSEP - CPT M-S Theory

  • CSEP - CPT M-S Theory2006 Version 2.0*Force & Levers1st classseesawmuscles that extend neck

    2nd classloaded wheelbarrowplantar flexion force at the expense of speed & distance

    3rd classflexion at elbow speed & distance at the expense of force

    RFAFRFAFRFAF

    CSEP - CPT M-S Theory

  • CSEP - CPT M-S Theory2006 Version 2.0*Fascicle Organization

    CSEP - CPT M-S Theory

  • CSEP - CPT M-S Theory2006 Version 2.0*Parallel MusclesFascicles are parallel to long axis

    Most muscles in body

    Functional characteristics similar to individual m. fibre

    Entire m. shortens by same amount

    CSEP - CPT M-S Theory

  • CSEP - CPT M-S Theory2006 Version 2.0*Convergent musclesFibres come together (spread out) to a common attachment site

    Ex: pectoralis major m.

    Direction of pull can be changed by stimulating different fibres of m.

    Less strength than parallel m. of same size

    CSEP - CPT M-S Theory

  • CSEP - CPT M-S Theory2006 Version 2.0*Pennate M.1+ tendons run through body of muscles & fascicles form an oblique angle to tendon

    Contain more m. fibres than a parallel m. of same size generates ______ tension

    UnipennateBipennateMultipennate

    CSEP - CPT M-S Theory

  • CSEP - CPT M-S Theory2006 Version 2.0*AttachmentsOrigin: less movable attachment of a mInsertion: more movable attachment of a minsertion is pulled toward the originDirect attachment: epimysium of muscle is fused to periosteum or perichondriumIndirect attachment: tendon or aponeurosisGross Anatomy

    CSEP - CPT M-S Theory

  • CSEP - CPT M-S Theory2006 Version 2.0*Primary ActionsPrime mover (agonist)Contraction is responsible for movement

    SynergistAssists prime mover

    Antagonist Oppose action of agonistTension adjusted to control speed of agonist

    CSEP - CPT M-S Theory

  • CSEP - CPT M-S Theory2006 Version 2.0*Assessment of Muscular StrengthKey Concepts: 4.16

    CSEP - CPT M-S Theory

  • CSEP - CPT M-S Theory2006 Version 2.0*DefinitionsMuscular strength: peak force or torque developed during a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)

    Muscular power: rate at which mechanical work is performedMaximal amount of force one can exert in the least amount of time (force/time)

    Muscular endurance: ability to exert sub-maximal force repeatedly, or sustain a static contraction without fatigue

    CSEP - CPT M-S Theory

  • CSEP - CPT M-S Theory2006 Version 2.0*Force GenerationAbility of a muscle or muscle group to generate force depends on Size of muscle Type of contractionNumber of muscle fibres activatedAbility of nervous system to activate muscle fibresMOTIVATION of the client!

    Strength potential is limited by geneticsNumber of fast-twitch fibres

    CSEP - CPT M-S Theory

  • CSEP - CPT M-S Theory2006 Version 2.0*Why Test Strength & Power?To develop profile of client To monitor training progressTo monitor the rehabilitation of injuriesTo assess health status????

    CSEP - CPT M-S Theory

  • CSEP - CPT M-S Theory2006 Version 2.0*Gender & AgingMen typically have greater muscle mass and cross-sectional area than womenRate and pattern of strength development and decline in age are similar for both gendersPeak strength: females late teens and males during their 20s.

    CSEP - CPT M-S Theory

  • CSEP - CPT M-S Theory2006 Version 2.0*Gender & Aging: StrengthDecline in strength begins at age 45 to 50 and progresses at a rate of 12-15% per decade25-40% of muscular strength is lost by the 6th or 7th decadeLarge portion of the decreased strength in old age is due to muscle atrophyWomen tend to have a higher percentage loss of strength than men

    CSEP - CPT M-S Theory

  • CSEP - CPT M-S Theory2006 Version 2.0*Gender & Aging: StrengthGrip Strength: Good indication of overall muscular strengthEarly screening of populations to identify those at higher risk for physical disability related to low muscle strengthCutoff score of 21.0 kg minimum level of old-age grip strengthIndividuals with scores close to this value are 8X the risk of developing muscular strength disabilitiesGood indicator of high and low levels of health statusWarburton et al. Can J Appl Physiol 26(2): 217-237, 2001.Warburton et al. Can J Appl Physiol 26(2): 161-216, 2001.

    CSEP - CPT M-S Theory

  • CSEP - CPT M-S Theory2006 Version 2.0*Theoretical relationship between musculoskeletal fitness and independence across the lifespan. Warburton et al. CMAJ 2006

    CSEP - CPT M-S Theory

  • CSEP - CPT M-S Theory2006 Version 2.0*Gender & Aging: Muscular EnduranceLoss in endurance with aging is also significantPeak partial curl-up scores: 13-15 yrPeak back extensor endurance scores: 20-29 yrAverage performance for endurance tests (push-ups, partial curl-ups and back extensor endurance) decline dramatically through to 60-69 yr range

    CSEP - CPT M-S Theory

  • CSEP - CPT M-S Theory2006 Version 2.0*Gender & Aging: Muscular EndurancePush-ups and partial curl-ups are less significant predictors of overall musculoskeletal health in comparison to grip strength for both gendersMales: Push-ups and grip strength are the strongest discriminators between high and low health Females: Grip strength and sit & reach are the strongest discriminators between high and low healthPayne et al. Can J Appl Physiol 25(2): 114-126, 2000.

    CSEP - CPT M-S Theory

  • CSEP - CPT M-S Theory2006 Version 2.0*Gender & Aging: PowerGreater loss in power with aging compared to muscular strength & enduranceMaybe due to the loss in FT fibresWomen have lower leg extensor power than menGender differences begin in the teens and continue throughout life

    CSEP - CPT M-S Theory

  • CSEP - CPT M-S Theory2006 Version 2.0*Musculoskeletal Fitness in MSF with age is not solely due to age itself but to physical inactivity and/or chronic diseaseStrength training can offset the loss in muscular strength and muscle mass associated with agingImproves the ability to perform activities of daily living, improve bone health and reduce the risk of falling

    CSEP - CPT M-S Theory

  • CSEP - CPT M-S Theory2006 Version 2.0*Strength TestingWhen choosing a strength test consider:Clients goals SpecificityEquipment Upper & lower body strength measure, and abdominal endurance

    Always ensure subject is warmed up & familiar with all equipment

    Keep motivation consistent!!!!

    CSEP - CPT M-S Theory

  • CSEP - CPT M-S Theory2006 Version 2.0*Absolute or Relative Strength?Absolute strength = MVC (in Newtons or kg)MVC = maximum voluntary contraction

    Relative strength = MVC / body mass

    CSEP - CPT M-S Theory

  • CSEP - CPT M-S Theory2006 Version 2.0*Isotonic ContractionsConcentric contractionMuscle shortens during tension developmentWeight is lifted

    Eccentric contractionMuscle lengthens during tension developmentWeight is loweredAble to generate higher forcesGreater risk for injury

    What is the maximal weight that can be lifted during a concentric contraction?

    CSEP - CPT M-S Theory

  • CSEP - CPT M-S Theory2006 Version 2.0*1-RMMaximal amount that can be lifted in one complete repetition with proper technique

    Can be used to rate health status, establish exercise prescription workloads, and/or monitor a resistance training program

    Limitations of 1-RM testInjury Technique Economy of test

    Outside of the Scope of Practice of a CSEP-CPT!

    CSEP - CPT M-S Theory

  • CSEP - CPT M-S Theory2006 Version 2.0*Predicting 1-RMMuscular endurance is directly related to muscular strength

    THEREFORE, 1-RM can be predicted without performing a maximal lift

    Usually 6 to 10-RM test

    CSEP - CPT M-S Theory

  • CSEP - CPT M-S Theory2006 Version 2.0*Submaximal Predicted 1-RMSingle SetWarm up at 40-60% of estimated 1-RM for 5-10 reps

    Stretch during 1 min rest period

    1 set of 10 reps at 60-80% of estimated 1-RM>10 reps completed, then client gets a 3-5 min rest

    Increase weight client attempts up to 10 reps

    CSEP - CPT M-S Theory

  • CSEP - CPT M-S Theory2006 Version 2.0*Predicted 1-RM (Baechle & Earle)determine %1-RM from # of reps completed

    divide weight lifted by % 1-RM

    EXAMPLE: client performed 8 repetitions of 100 lbs

    8 repetitions = 80% 1-RM1-RM = 100 lbs lifted/.80 1-RM = 125 lbs

    Reps Completed% 1-RM11002953934905876857838809771075

    CSEP - CPT M-S Theory

  • CSEP - CPT M-S Theory2006 Version 2.0*PRACTICE!Groups of 3-41 person client; 1 acts as appraiser; 1 observesCalculate results for different muscle groups

    CSEP - CPT M-S Theory

  • CSEP - CPT M-S Theory2006 Version 2.0*Muscle BalanceA strength imbalance between opposing muscle groups may compromise joint stability & increase risk of injuryMuscle balance ratios differ between muscle groupsCrude index can be obtained by comparing 1-RM

    Muscle GroupsRatioHip extensors/ flexors1:1Elbow extensors/ flexors1:1Trunk extensors/ flexors1:1Ankle inverters/ everters1:1Shoulder flexors/ extensors2:3Knee extensors/ flexors3:2Shoulder internal/ external rotators3:2Plantarflexion/ dorsiflexion3:1Strength ComparisonRight & left side10-15%Upper to lower body40-60%

    CSEP - CPT M-S Theory

  • CSEP - CPT M-S Theory2006 Version 2.0*Sources of ErrorClient

    Equipment

    Technician Skill

    Environment

    CSEP - CPT M-S T

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