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CSEP - CPT M-S Prescription2006 Version 2.0 1

CSEPCSEP--Certified Personal TrainerCertified Personal Trainer (CSEP(CSEP--CPT)CPT)

Musculoskeletal Prescription

CSEP - CPT M-S Prescription2006 Version 2.0 2

Exercise Prescription for Improving Exercise Prescription for Improving Muscular Strength & EnduranceMuscular Strength & Endurance Key Concepts: 4.17 Key Concepts: 4.17 4.184.18

CSEP - CPT M-S Prescription2006 Version 2.0 3

Key Training PrinciplesKey Training Principles

Specificity principle Strength improvements are specific to the muscle

group trained

Progressive overload principle Achieved by changing INTENSITY, duration,

frequency, recovery

CSEP - CPT M-S Prescription2006 Version 2.0 4

Training Adaptations Training Adaptations Neural & CellularNeural & Cellular

Skeletal Muscle Adaptations number of contractile proteins (myofibrils)

- protein synthesis; protein breakdown

Number of muscle fibres DOES NOT INCREASE

Fast twitch fibres are most responsive to a strength stimulus

Connective tissue adapts

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Training AdaptationsTraining Adaptations

First 8-10 weeks Rapid increase in strength due to neural adaptations No difference in rate of progression b/w males and females

10 weeks + Continued strength gains mostly due to cellular adaptations Greater hypertrophy in males due to testosterone

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ResultsResults

Depends on initial strength level, training program, genetic factors

Usually takes 8-12 weeks of training to see significant strength gains

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Males, Females and StrengthMales, Females and Strength

Muscle quality is similar between genders

Males have greater number and larger muscle fibres

Males & females show similar % change in strength

CSEP - CPT M-S Prescription2006 Version 2.0 8

Designing Your Training ProgramDesigning Your Training Program

Purpose of program

Identify muscle groups to be exercised

Order of exercises

Determine appropriate starting loads

Set guidelines for progressively overloading muscle groups

CSEP - CPT M-S Prescription2006 Version 2.0 9

General intensity classification for resistance activities

IntensityClassification Resistance Activities (%1RM)

Very Light Effort 84

Maximal Effort 100

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Dynamic Training Prescription Basics Dynamic Training Prescription Basics

Frequency days/week

Intensity %1-RM

Time repetitions, sets

Type specific exercises; equipment

NOTE: training volume = sets * reps * weight lifted

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Typical Strength Prescription Typical Strength Prescription (Key Concept 4.17)(Key Concept 4.17)

Moderate weight: 50-69% 1-RM

Multiple sets: 1-2

Moderate repetitions: 8-12

Moderate rest b/w sets: minimum 3 min

Number of exercises: 8-10

CSEP - CPT M-S Prescription2006 Version 2.0 12

FrequencyFrequency

48 hrs rest b/w each muscle group workout

2-3 days / wk is optimal

Time constraints & advanced lifters may split routines (i.e., upper body 1 day, lower body next day)

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SetsSets

Optimal number of sets is controversial

1 set may achieve similar strength benefits as 3 sets in novice lifters

Health benefits are achieved with 1Health benefits are achieved with 1--2 sets2 sets

Advanced lifters may perform multiple sets

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ProgressionsProgressionsGoal = 1-2 sets of 8-12 repsProgressions made every 1-2 wks for adults (and 2-4

weeks in the elderly) The increases in resistance load should be gradual (e.g. a 5%

change).

Exampleperform 1 set of 8 repsPROGRESSION: number of reps to 12 (1 set)PROGRESSION: number of sets to 2; drop reps to 8PROGRESSION: number of reps to 12 (2 sets)PROGRESSION: load by 5%; drop reps to 8 (2 sets) 5% or ~5 lbs upper body, ~10 lbs lower body

PROGRESSION: number of reps to 12 (2 sets) load by 5%; drop reps to 8 and so on

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Guidelines for Rest Between SetsGuidelines for Rest Between Sets

Multi-joint exercises w/ heavy loads & using a large muscle mass 2-3 min

Smaller muscle mass 1-2 min

Muscle endurance 1-2 min

Power 4-5 min

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Exercise OrderExercise Order

At least 1 exercise per major muscle group

Usually recommend large muscle groups 1st

Alternate upper body/lower body exercises to maximize recovery

Alternate agonist/antagonist exercises

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ExercisesExercisesBody Segment Type Exercise Prime Movers/Synergists

1 Hip & thighs Multijoint Lunge Gluteus maximus, hamstrings, quadriceps

2 Chest Multijoint Bench press Pectoralis major, triceps brachii

3 Upper & mid back Multijoint Lat pull-downLatissimus dorsi, teres major, pectoralis major, trapezius, rhomboids

4 Legs Single joint Leg extension Quadriceps femoris

5 Shoulders & upper arms Multijoint Upright row Deltoid, supraspinatus, pectoralis major

6 Lower back Multijoint Back extension Erector spinae

7 Upper arms Single joint Triceps push-down Triceps brachii

8 Legs Single joint Leg curl Hamstrings

9 Upper arms Single joint Arm curl Biceps brachii, brachialis

10 Abdomen Single joint Trunk curl Rectus abdominus

CSEP - CPT M-S Prescription2006 Version 2.0 18

Basic Techniques for CPT Resistance Basic Techniques for CPT Resistance Training ExercisesTraining Exercises

Body Segment

Type Exercise Prime Movers

Technique

1 Hip & thighs Multijoint LungeGlut max, hamstrings, quadriceps

Use body weight only, dumbbells, barForward mvmnt: exaggerated step with lead leg with torso erect & perpendicular throughout. Plant lead foot on floor pointing forward (or slightly in) & let trailing knee slightly flex. Allow lead hip & knee to slowly flex keeping knee directly over lead foot. Lower trailing knee until 3-5 cm above floor.Backward mvmnt: forcefully push off floor with lead leg and maintain torso position.Alternate legs

2 Chest Multijoint Bench pressPec major, triceps

Supine position on bench with upper/lower back, both feet, and head in contact with benchClosed, pronated gripGrip slightly wider than shoulder-widthDownward phase: lower bar to chest (~ nipple level). Keep wrists rigid & directly above elbowsUpward phase: push bar until elbows extended with wrists rigid & directly above elbows

3 Upper & mid back MultijointLat pull- down

Lat dorsi, teres major, pec major, trap, rhomboids

Closed, pronated grip on barGrip is wider than shoulder-widthSeated, facing machineLean torso back & keep torso in position throughout mvmntDownward phase: bar to upper chestUpward phase: elbows slowly extend to starting position

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Basic Techniques for CPT Resistance Basic Techniques for CPT Resistance Training ExercisesTraining Exercises

Body Segment

Type Exercise Prime Movers Technique

4 Legs Single joint Leg extension Quadriceps femoris

Back against padAnkles in contact with foot roller padLegs parallelAlign knees with axis of machineUpward mvmnt: extend knees keeping torso erect & back against pad. Hips & buttocks should not lift off seat and knees should not lock out.Downward mvmnt: allow knees to slowly flex keeping back against pad

5Shoulders & upper arms

Multijoint Upright row Mid deltoid, trapezius

Closed, pronated gripGrip narrow than shoulder-widthFeet shoulder-widthUpward phase: pull bar up along ab & chest toward chin keeping knees & torso in same position. At top position, elbows are higher than wrists and even with (or above) shouldersDownward phase: bar lowers slowly to beginning position.

6 Lower back Multijoint Back extension Erector spinaeFollow CPAFLA back extension technique

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Basic Techniques for CPT Resistance Basic Techniques for CPT Resistance Training ExercisesTraining Exercises

Body Segment

Type Exercise Prime Movers

Technique

7 Upper arms Single jointTriceps push-down

Triceps brachii

Closed, pronated gripGrip is 6-12 inches wideFeet shoulder-width, knees slightly flexed, body close to machine to allow cable to hang straight down.Move bar to position upper arms against side of torso & flex elbows to position forearms perpendicular to floor or slightly higherDownward phase: push bar until elbows are extended keeping torso erect & upper arms stationary.Upward phase: allow elbows to slowly flex .

8 Legs Single joint Leg curl Hamstrings

9 Upper arms Single joint Arm curlBiceps brachii, brachialis

Closed, supinated gripGrip is shoulder widthUpward phase: flex elbows through ROMDownward phase: elbows slowly extend

10 Abdomen Single joint CurlRectus abdominus

Follow CPAFLA partial curl-up technique

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EquipmentEquipment

Machines

Free weight

Recommended

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