Creation and Salvation in tic Judaism and Early Christianity

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<p>By the Same Word: Creationand Salvation in HellenisticJudaism and EarlyChristianityRonald CoxWalter de GruyterRonald CoxBy the Same WordBeihefte zur Zeitschrift fr dieneutestamentliche Wissenschaftund die Kunde der lteren KircheHerausgegeben vonJames D. G. Dunn Carl R. HolladayHermann Lichtenberger Jens SchrterGregory E. Sterling Michael WolterBand 145Walter de Gruyter Berlin New YorkRonald CoxBy the Same WordCreation and Salvation in Hellenistic Judaismand Early ChristianityWalter de Gruyter Berlin New York Printed on acid-free paper which falls within the guidelinesof the ANSI to ensure permanence and durability.ISBN 978-3-11-019342-8ISSN 0171-6441Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataA CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress.Bibliographic information published by the Deutsche NationalbibliothekThe Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie;detailed bibliographic data are available in the Internet at http://dnb.d-nb.de. Copyright 2007 by Walter de Gruyter GmbH &amp; Co. KG, D-10785 BerlinAll rights reserved, including those of translation into foreign languages. No part of this bookmay be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical,including photocopy, recording or any information storage and retrieval system, without permis-sion in writing from the publisher.Printed in GermanyCover design: Christopher Schneider, BerlinTo Hugh and Elaine Gainey,Eric and Rikka Stewart,And, especially,Shelly Evans CoxAcknowledgementsI would like to thank Gregory Sterling, whose encouragement andinsight were of great help as I worked on this project. I thank DavidAune, Brian Daley, S.J. , and John Meier for their support and helpfulsuggestions. Other individuals to whom I am indebted are MichaelWaldstein, Sabina Dabrowski, Carsten Burfeind, Michael Anderson,Michael McCarthy, S.J. , Deborah Prince, Gregory Stevenson, RandallChesnutt, and Thomas Olbricht.I was supported in this endeavor by a number of communities. I amvery grateful for the financial assistance I received from the University ofNotre Dame, Rochester College, Pepperdine University, as well as theChristian Scholarship Foundation. My family and I received greatpersonal encouragement and much practical assistance from very manypeople as I worked on this, and I am particularly grateful to theDonmoyer and Word of Life churches. I am also mindful of thesacrifices made for me by my family, extending from my parents to myfour sons. They have more than earned my deep admiration.This book is dedicated to Hugh and Elaine Gainey and Rikka andEric Stewart for the love these four wonderful people showed to myfamily and me as we labored through this project. Finally, it is dedicatedto Shelly Evans Cox. I would not have finished the book if it were notfor her friendship, her strength, her faith, her , well, her everything.Epiphany, 2007Malibu, CaliforniaContentsChapter One Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1. The Fusion of Creation Myth and Salvation History . 11.2. Identifying the Vorleben of the Christological CreationMyth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.2.1. A Liturgical Vorleben . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.2.2. A Hebraic Sapiential Vorleben . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.2.3. A Hellenistic Jewish Vorleben . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121.2.3.1. Hellenistic Sapiential and Exegetical Traditions . . . . . . 121.2.3.2. Gnosticism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161.2.4. A Middle Platonic Vorleben . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201.3. One Cosmology, Three Soteriologies: A Study of theAppropriation of Middle Platonic IntermediaryDoctrine by Hellenistic Sapientialism, EarlyChristianity and Gnosticism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241.3.1. The Question behind this Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241.3.2. The Thesis of this Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241.3.3. Methods and Methodological Caveats . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251.4. Summary of Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27Chapter Two Middle Platonic Intermediary Doctrine . . . . . . . . 282.1. A Transcendent Supreme Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312.2. Demiurgic Activity and the Intermediate Principle . . . 352.3. Prepositional Metaphysics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432.3.1. Excursus #1: The Prepositional Phrase t di ox . . . . . 472.4. The Anagogic Function of the Intermediate Principle . 512.5. Summary of Chapter Two . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55Chapter Three Salvation as the Fulfillment of Creation: TheRoles of the Divine Intermediary in Hellenistic Judaism . . . . . . . 563.1. Wisdom of Solomon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 583.1.1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 583.1.2. Sophia as Cosmological Agent in Wisdom of Solomon610 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 613.1.2.1. Sophias Ontology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 643.1.2.2. Sophias Cosmogonic Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 703.1.2.3. Sophias Administration of the Cosmos . . . . . . . . . . . . 743.1.3. Sophia, Salvation and Anthropological Fulfillment . . . 773.1.3.1. She makes them friends of God . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 773.1.3.2. Sophia and the Unity of Creation and Salvation . . . 813.1.3.2.1. Excursus #2: Sophia and Salvation History inWisdom of Solomon 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 833.1.3.2.2. Excursus #3: The Mystical and Philosophical Aspects ofFriendship with God . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 843.1.4. Conclusion to Wisdom of Solomon . . . . . . . . . . . . . 873.2. Philo of Alexandria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 873.2.1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 873.2.2. The Questions of Intermediary Activity as they areRaised by Philo Sacr. 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 913.2.3. God? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 943.2.4. Between God and Creation: An Intermediary Nexus . 963.2.4.1. The Many Names of the Intermediary . . . . . . . . . . . . 963.2.4.2. The Ways of Being of the Philonic Intermediary . . . . 993.2.4.3. The Functions of the Intermediate Nexus: The Logosof Cosmology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1023.2.5. The Logos as Agent of Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1033.2.5.1. The Instrumental Use of the Logos: The Logos aseqcamom di ox t pm 1joslopoie? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1043.2.5.2. The Logos as Divider: The Logos as b toler t_msulpmtym . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1113.2.5.3. The Paradigmatic Use of the Logos: The Logos as eQjm 1163.2.5.3.1. This teaching is Moses, not mine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1183.2.5.3.2. The eQjm and the Form of Reason . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1223.2.5.3.3. Philos Cosmological Ideas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1253.2.5.4. The Stoic Aspect: The Logos and Cosmic diojgsir . . 1273.2.6. The Anthropological Role of the Logos . . . . . . . . . . . 1303.2.6.1. A Page from Stoic Anthropology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1303.2.6.2. The Logos and Psychic Anagogy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1333.2.7. Conclusion to Philo of Alexandria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1383.3. Summary of Chapter Three . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140Chapter Four Salvation as the Reparation of Creation: The Rolesof the Divine Intermediary in New Testament Christology . . . . . 1414.1. Ontology and Eschatology in Conflict 1 Corinthians8:6 An Introductory Case Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1414.1.1. The Origin and Nature of 1 Cor 8:6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141Contents X4.1.1.1. Function of Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1414.1.1.2. Origin of the Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1434.1.2. Whose Soteriology? Corinthian vs. Pauline Soteriologyin 1 Cor 8:6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1484.1.2.1. The Difficulty with Crediting Paul for Creating 1 Cor8:6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1484.1.2.2. The More Suitable Context: How 1 Cor 8:6 fits withthe Corinthians Thought . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1514.1.2.3. Seeking a Solution to the Question: From WhenceComes 1 Cor 8:6? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1564.1.3. Eschatological vs. Ontological Anthropology . . . . . . . . 1594.1.4. Conclusion to 1 Corinthians 8:6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1614.2. Colossians 1:1520 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1614.2.1. Structure and Origin of Colossians 1:1520 . . . . . . . . 1634.2.1.1. Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1634.2.1.2. Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1694.2.2. Cosmological Agency in Col 1:1520 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1724.2.2.1. The Sons Ontological Status in Col 1:15 . . . . . . . . . . 1724.2.2.2. Cosmogonic Functions of the Son in Col 1:16 . . . . . 1754.2.2.3. The Son as Continually Sustaining the Cosmos . . . . . . 1804.2.2.4. Summary of the Cosmology of the Colossian Hymn . 1824.2.3. Soteriological Agency in Col 1:1520 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1824.2.3.1. The Sons New Ontological Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1834.2.3.2. The Purpose (Clause) of the Second Strophe . . . . . . . 1844.2.3.3. The Sons Reparation of the Cosmos . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1854.2.3.4. Summary of the Soteriology of the Colossian Hymn . 1904.2.4. Interrelationship of Cosmology and Soteriology in Col1:1520 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1914.3. Hebrews 1:14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1934.3.1. Origin and Nature of Hebrews 1:14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1934.3.1.1. Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1954.3.1.2. Source(s)? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1994.3.2. Cosmology in Heb 1:2c and 3ab: The Son in relation toGod and the Cosmos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2044.3.2.1. Heb 1:2c: through whom he made the ages . . . . . 2054.3.2.2. Heb 1:3ab: he who is the effulgence of his glory andimpression of his nature bears all things by hispowerful word . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2074.3.2.3. Excursus #4: !pacasla and waqajtq in Philo and inHebrews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211Contents XI4.3.3. Soteriology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2194.3.3.1. Heb 1:2b: whom he appointed heir of all things . . . 2194.3.3.2. Heb 1:3cd:when he made purification for sins, he satdown at the right hand of the majesty on high . 2204.3.4. Interrelationship of Cosmology and Soteriology . . . . . 2234.4. The Johannine Prologue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2274.4.1. Origin and Nature of the John Prologue . . . . . . . . . . . 2274.4.2. The Prologues Cosmology: John 1:15 . . . . . . . . . . . 2324.4.2.1. Ontology: the Divine Status of the Logos ( John 1:1) . 2334.4.2.2. Cosmogony: the Creative Agency of the Logos ( John1:3, 10b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2354.4.2.3. Anthropological Sustenance: the Logos as Locus of Lifeand Light ( John 1:3c5 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2384.4.2.4. Excursus #5: Logos-centric Interpretation of Genesis 1in Philo of Alexandria and the Prologue to John . . 2424.4.3. Soteriology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2504.4.3.1. Soteriology in Strophe 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2514.4.3.1.1. The Logos in the World ( John 1:10) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2524.4.3.1.2. The Logos Among its Own ( John 1:11) . . . . . . . . . . . 2534.4.3.1.3. The Children of the Logos ( John 1:12ab) . . . . . . . . . . 2544.4.3.2. Soteriology in Strophe 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2554.4.3.3. From Cosmology to Radical Historicization . . . . . . . . 2574.4.3.4. Excursus #6: The Extent of Historicization ofHellenistic Sophialogical Intermediaries . . . . . . . . . 2584.4.3.4.1. Evidence from Proverbs, Sirach, 1 Enoch, Matthew,Gospel of Thomas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2584.4.3.4.2. The Advent of Sophia in Wisdom of Solomon . . . . . . 2614.4.3.4.3. Can the Philonic Logos Come Unto His Own? . . . . 2644.4.3.4.4. The Problem of the Sqn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2694.4.4. Interrelationship of Soteriology and Cosmology in theJohannine Prologue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2724.3. Summary of Chapter Four . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275Chapter Five Salvation as the Undoing of Creation: The Roles ofthe Divine Intermediary in Gnosticism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2765.1. Corpus Hermeticum 1: Poimandres . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2845.1.1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2845.1.1.1. The Content of Corpus Hermeticum 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 2865.1.1.2. The Religious and Intellectual Provenance of CorpusHermeticum 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288Contents XII5.1.2. Theology, Cosmology and Anthropology in the CorpusHermeticum 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2925.1.2.1. Who is the First Principle in Poimandres? . . . . . . . . . . 2925.1.2.2. Cosmogony in CH 1 and the Committee ofIntermediaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2955.1.2.2.1. The Will of God and Forethought . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2955.1.2.2.2. The Kcor and the Creation of the Formal Universe . 2965.1.2.2.3. The Dgliouqcr and the...</p>