Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 Chapter 13 States of Matter Gases, Liquids and Solids.

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Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 Chapter 13 States of Matter Gases, Liquids and Solids Slide 2 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 2 Figure 10.1 Schematic Representations of the Three States of Matter Slide 3 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 INDIVIDUAL MOLECULES FAR APART PARTICLES INTERACTING VERY LITTLE Slide 4 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 MOLECULES ARE VIRTUALLY LOCKED IN PLACE CAN VIBRATE ABOUT THEIR POSITIONS VERY ORGANIZED Slide 5 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 MOTION OF MOLECULES IS INCREASE GREATER MOVEMENT GREATER DISORDER Slide 6 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 6 Kinetic Molecular Theory Postulates A gas consists of a collection of small particles traveling in straight- line motion and obeying Newton's Laws. Slide 7 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 7 Postulates The molecules in a gas occupy no volume (that is, they are points). Slide 8 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 8 Postulates Collisions between molecules are perfectly elastic (that is, no energy is gained or lost during the collision). Slide 9 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 9 Postulates There are no attractive or repulsive forces between the molecules. Slide 10 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 10 Postulates The average kinetic energy of a molecule is 3/2 kT T is the absolute temperature. k is a constant Slide 11 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11 http://www.chm.davidson.edu/vce/kineticmole culartheory/basicconcepts.htmlhttp://www.chm.davidson.edu/vce/kineticmole culartheory/basicconcepts.html Slide 12 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 12 Liquids Particles in a liquid are attracted to each other. More dense than gases Slide 13 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13 Some Properties of a Liquid Surface Tension: The resistance to an increase in its surface area (polar molecules). Capillary Action: Spontaneous rising of a liquid in a narrow tube. Viscosity: Resistance to flow (molecules with large intermolecular forces). Slide 14 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 14 Liquids Conversion of a liquid to a gas is called vaporization. Evaporation versus Boiling? Slide 15 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 15 Surface Tension UNEVEN PULL OF MOLECULES AT THE SURFACE Slide 16 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16 Figure 10.6 Molecules in a Liquid Slide 17 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 17 Liquids Vapor Pressure: Measure of the force exerted by a gas above a liquid. Increasing Temperature increases vapor pressure. Slide 18 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 18 Solids Generally described as an orderly arrangement of particles in fixed positions. Slide 19 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 19 Types of Solids Crystalline Solids: highly regular arrangement of their components Amorphous solids: considerable disorder in their structures (glass). Slide 20 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 20 Crystalline Solid Lattice: A 3-D system of points designating the centers of components that make up the substance. Slide 21 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 21 Unit Cell Smallest repeating unit of the lattice. Slide 22 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 22 Crystalline Solid Unit Cell: The smallest repeating unit of the lattice. Three common types: 4 simple cubic 4 body-centered cubic 4 face-centered cubic Slide 23 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 23 Figure 10.9 Three Cubic Unit Cells and the Correspond ing Lattices Slide 24 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 24 Figure 10.12 Examples of Three Types of Crystalline Solids Slide 25 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 25 Allotropes Two or more different forms of the same element in the same physical state. Allotropes of carbon: diamond, graphite and buckminsterfullerene Slide 26 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 26 Diamond Slide 27 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 27 Graphite Slide 28 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 28 Buckminsterfullerene Slide 29 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 29 http://preparatorychemistry.com/KMT.html Slide 30 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 30 To answer that we need to know more about Gas Pressure. Slide 31 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 31 Pressure Force per unit area Pressure Slide 32 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 32 Gases. The gas molecules are in constant motion, and so they regularly hit the walls of the container. Slide 33 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 33 Gases. The force of the gas molecules hitting the walls of the container is called the Gas Pressure. Slide 34 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 34 Gases. The more gas molecules there are, the more often the walls of the container are hit, therefore the Gas Pressure is higher. Slide 35 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 35 Gases. If the temperature (energy) of the gas is increased the molecules move faster and so hit the walls harder causing the Gas Pressure to rise also. Slide 36 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 36 Measuring Pressure. Vacuum. Slide 37 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 37 Measuring Pressure. Vacuum. Gas Pressure. Slide 38 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 38 Measuring Pressure. Vacuum. Gas Pressure. Slide 39 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 39 Measuring Pressure. Pressure is enough to push 20 cm/H2Oor 10 mm/Hg.. Manometer. Vacuum. Gas Pressure. Slide 40 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 40 Space is a vacuum. Atmosphere is a gas (Air). Air molecules hit the surface of the earth. Slide 41 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 41 Slide 42 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 42 Atmospheric Pressure Pressure of the Air molecules hitting the earth. (or any other surface in the atmosphere). 14 lbs. per square inch Slide 43 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 43 Atmospheric Pressure. P atm = 760 mm/Hg (compared to a vacuum). Slide 44 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 44 We are so accustomed to Atmospheric Pressure that we forget its there. Slide 45 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 45 Atmospheric Pressure = Weight of the Air Results from the mass of the air being pulled toward the center of the earth by GRAVITY. Measures using a barometer. Slide 46 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 46 Figure 5.2 A Torricellian Barometer At sea level = 760 mm Hg At elevation of 9600 feet = 520 mm Hg Slide 47 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 47 Pressure 4 is equal to force/unit area 4 SI units = Newton/meter 2 = 1 Pascal (Pa) 4 1 standard atmosphere = 101,325 Pa 4 1 standard atmosphere = 1 atm = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr Slide 48 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 48 Pressure Units 1 atmosphere (atm) = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr = 101,325 Pa = 29.92 inch Hg = 14.7 lb/ in 2 (psi) Slide 49 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 49 CHANGES OF STATE (PHASE TRANSISTIONS) 1) MELTING: s l 2) FREEZING: l s 3) VAPORIZATION: l g 4) SUBLIMATION: s g 5)CONDENSATION: LIQUEFACTION: g l DEPOSITION: g s Slide 50 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 50 PHASE DIAGRAMS GRAPHICAL WAY TO SUMMARIZE THE PHASES OF A SUBSTANCE AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE ANE PRESSURE DIAGRAMS NOT DRAWN TO SCALE Slide 51 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 51 The Phase Diagram for Water Slide 52 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 52 Figure 10.52 The Phase Diagram for Carbon Dioxide Slide 53 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 53 TRIPLE POINT REPRESENTS TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE AT WHICH 3 PHASES OF A SUBSTANCE COEXIST IN EQUILIBRIUM FOR WATER, 0.016 C, 0.00603 atm (0.61 kPa). Slide 54 Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 54 CRITICAL POINT CRITCAL TEMPERATURE: TEMPERATURE ABOVE WHICH THE VAPOR CANNOT BE LIQUEFIED NO MATTER WHAT PRESSURE IS APPLIED CRITICAL PRESSURE: VAPOR PRESSURE AT THE CRITICAL TEMPERATURE WATER: 374C, 218 atm.

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