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  • Managingtropicalforestsinaneraofchange:SoutheastAsia

    Saturday5December2015

    MichaelGalante&RobertNasi

  • Tropicalforestsinaneraofchange:SoutheastAsiaMichaelGalante&RobertNasi

    WhyproducDonforests?-GloballyproducDonforestsaccountfor30%ofalldesignatedforesttypes;and24%accountformulDple-use.

    -TropicalforestsconsDtute~400millionha,affecDng~1billionpeople.

    -Ifsustainedandmanaged,theycanconDnuetoproducegoodsandservices,i.e.,Dmber,NTFP,protecDonofsoilandwater,conservaDonofbiodiversity,andprovisionofsocialservices.

    -HoweverthemaintenanceofgoodsandservicesarepossibleonlyunderdifferentparadigmsthanaregenerallybeingpracDcedtoday.

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    Galante!

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    Chapter 9

    Progress towards sustainable forest management

    INTRODUCTIONChapters 2 to 8 of this report focus on the results for each of the seven thematic elements of sustainable forest management. As indicated in those chapters and illustrated in Figure 9.1, forests are managed for a variety of uses and values. But how well are they managed? What does the information provided in FRA 2010 tell us about the overall progress towards sustainable forest management since 1990 at global, regional and subregional scales?

    The analysis presented in this chapter focuses first on the status of forest management and then on progress towards sustainable forest management more broadly, by illustrating aggregated findings from FRA 2010 covering all seven thematic elements of sustainable forest management.

    The purpose of this analysis is to shed more light on some of the complexities of sustainable forest management and stimulate additional analyses and debate, thus promoting decision-making and action for further progress.

    STATUS OF FOREST MANAGEMENTIn addition to reporting on the area of forest designated for specific functions, countries were asked to report on four additional variables to illustrate the status of forest management:

    the area of forest in protected areas; the area of permanent forest estate; the area of forest with a management plan; the area of forest under sustainable forest management.The analysis of the data for the first variable can be found in Chapter 3 on Biological

    Diversity. The remaining three variables are discussed here. Country-level data can be found in Table 6 in Annex 3.

    FIGURE 9.1Designated functions of the worlds forests, 2010

    (%)

    Production 30

    Protection of soil and water 8

    Conservation of biodiversity 12

    Social services 4

    Multiple use 24

    Other 7

    Unknown 16

    FAO, 2010!

  • Tropicalforestsinaneraofchange:SoutheastAsiaMichaelGalante&RobertNasi

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    1990 2000 2005 2010

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  • Tropicalforestsinaneraofchange:SoutheastAsiaMichaelGalante&RobertNasi

    TrendsofforestscoveronBorneo

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    FAO, 2015!FAO, 2015!

    55.8Mha(76%ofBorneo)

    38.9Mha(53%ofBorneo)

    Gaveauetal.2014

    17.8Mhaloggedforests

    21Mha(42%produc

  • Tropicalforestsinaneraofchange:SoutheastAsiaMichaelGalante&RobertNasi

    AchangingcomposiDonofdiversityanddynamic

    5

    -Manyforestshavealreadybeenharvestedatleastonce,withmanyareasmulDpleDmes.

    -AlargeproporDonoftropicalforestsinSoutheastAsiahavechangedincomposiDon.

    -PrimaryforestshavebecometheexcepDon,andtradiDonalapproachestomanagementmustbereconsidered.

    -ConDnueddegradaDonwilllimittheforestmanagementopDonsavailable,andconsequently,theassociatedmulDpleenvironmental,socialandeconomicbenefits,therebyincreasingtheriskofnon-forestacDviDesinthearea. Galante!

  • Tropicalforestsinaneraofchange:SoutheastAsiaMichaelGalante&RobertNasi

    Lessonslearned:Approachestoforestmanagement

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    -Thereisanurgentneedfornewmanagementsystemsforlogged-overforestsastheexisDngoneswillnotworkinthecurrentandfuturecondiDons.

    -Improvedapproachesshouldsupporttheflowofbenefitsforthepeople,theforestanditsbiodiversity,inthecontextofglobalchange.

    -MoreneedstobelearnedabouttheconsequencesofintervenDons,otherthanjustground-basedselecDveloggingwithreduced-impactlogging.

    Galante!

    Galante!

  • Tropicalforestsinaneraofchange:SoutheastAsiaMichaelGalante&RobertNasi

    Lessonslearned:Concessionmanagement

    7

    -Newmodelsareneedtocreatetheenablingenvironmentforbeaerconcessionmanagement

    -WellmanagedtropicalforestsrepresentamiddlewaybetweendeforestaDonandtotalforestprotecDon

    -ConcessionsareagoodmodeltodevolveDmberorforestproductrightstooperators(whocanbelocalcommuniDes)

    -RatherthanexpecDngsustainedDmberyield,withoutchangesinspeciesorquality,emphasisshouldassureproducDonforestsremaininthebestpossiblecondiDon.

    Galante!

    Galante!

  • Tropicalforestsinaneraofchange:SoutheastAsiaMichaelGalante&RobertNasi

    Lessonslearned:Thevalueoflogged-overforest

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    -TheintegrityofthecomposiDonoftropicalforestsisintegraltothegeneDcdiversityfoundinSoutheastAsia.

    -MaintainingmulD-Deredforeststructuressupportscomplexecosystemdynamicsforboththeintegrityoftheforest,andthebiodiversitywithin.

    Galante!

    Galante!

    Galante!

    Sustaining tropical forests with forestry F. E. Putz et al.

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    Figure 1 What is sustained in logged tropical forests? Three elementsof sustainability based on simple meta-analyses of studies that reported:(a) merchantable timber volumes after one or two government-specifiedcutting cycles of 2040 years each if the same tree species is harvested(Same)oradditional speciesareharvested (Same+); (b) carbon in living

    tree biomass approximately one year after selective logging; (c) speciesrichnessof birds, invertebrates,mammals, andplants in selectively loggedforests compared to undisturbed old-growth forests.Means and standarderrors in a, b and c are based on 59, 22, and 109 studies, respectively (seeSupplemental Tables in Supporting Information for data and sources).

    the longer term impacts of low-intensity logging on awide variety of taxa averaged over large spatial scalesthat include enclaves of un-harvested forest. Also, dis-turbance often allows generalist species to enter closedforests where they were previously absent, thus increas-ing local diversity (Bongers et al. 2009). These limitationsnotwithstanding, a meta-analysis based on 109 studiesof selective logging of primary tropical forest carried out1100 years after a single harvest (Table S4) revealedmodest impacts on species richness of birds, mammals, in-vertebrates, and plants (Figure 1). Birds represented themost severely affected of the groups studied; selectivelylogged forests supported, on average, only 84% of thespecies richness of unlogged forest (P < 0.001; Table S5).For plants, mammals, and invertebrates, average speciesrichness of harvested and not-yet harvested forests didnot differ significantly. These results are in agreementwith those of Gibson et al. (2011), who reported onlyslightly reduced biodiversity in selectively logged forests.Remarkably, reports from Borneo suggest substantial bio-diversity retention after extremely intensive exploitativelogging (Cannon et al. 1998; Edwards et al. 2011) as wellas after heavy logging followed by strip planting with na-tive timber species (Ansell et al. 2011). These overall fa-vorable results are especially impressive given that fewstudies were conducted in forests with third-party cer-tification for good management (van Kuijk et al. 2009),

    which suggests that further improvements are possible(Meijaard et al. 2005).

    In addition to noting the substantial variability in theresults of the studies we reviewed, we recognize thatspecies richness data cannot reveal changes in speciescomposition. Furthermore, the mostly near-term effectstudies we reviewed cannot account for the possibilityof longer-term species losses (i.e., extinction debts). Inregard to changes in species composition in response tologging, we note that because of differences in harvestintensities and techniques as well as changes in the har-vested tree species, the reported impacts on disturbance-sensitive, rare, or otherwise noteworthy species aremixed (Putz et al. 2001; Meijaard et al. 2005; Fisher et al.2011a; Nasi et al. 2012). We also note that populations ofold-growth species are more likely to rebound than to de-cline with time after a selective harvest as long as huntingand fire are excluded (Poulsen & Clark 2010) and prema-ture reentry logging is prohibited. We base this hopefulprediction on the observation that biodiversity research istypically carried out soon after logging in the areas mostheavily affected and not in the substantial areas that areregenerating after previous harvests. Also disregarded areforest patches within designated cutting blocks that re-main unscathed because of lack of harvestable timber orrestrictions on harvesting near rivers, on steep slopes, orin designated high conservation value areas.

    298 Conservation Letters 5 (2012) 296303 Copyright and Photocopying: c2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    Putzet.al.,2012