comparison of alternative community water supply technologies in developing countries

Download Comparison of alternative community water supply technologies in developing countries

Post on 14-Aug-2015

132 views

Category:

Documents

9 download

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

An investigation into community water supply solutions and management.

TRANSCRIPT

Imperial College LondonFaculty of Natural Sciences

Centre for Environmental Policy

Comparison of alternative community water supply technologies in developing countries. A Case Study - Buea, Cameroon

by

BRENDAN SHERRY

A report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the MSc Environmental Technology, and Diploma of Imperial College

September 2009

DECLARATION OF OWN WORK

I declare that this thesis

Comparison of alternative community water supply technologies in developing countries. A Case Study - Buea, Cameroonis entirely my own work and that where any material could be construed as the work of others, it is fully cited and referenced, and/or with appropriate acknowledgement given.

Signature:.....................................................................................................

Name of student : BRENDAN SHERRY

Name of supervisor: Dr. Mike Templeton / Dr. Nick Voulvoulis

AbstractThis case study is an investigation into community water supply solutions in the Bonduma area of Buea, a town in Cameroon. The project was proposed by Helps International (HINT), a community NGO based in Buea, and approved as an Engineers without Boarders UK research project. For a community of 1500, spread across 3 Villages, the collection of water for daily life represents a significant social burden, especially for women and children. A field study was conducted to identify potential water sources. Using that data, and existing research, the different sources were evaluated against environmental, technical, financial, and management feasibility criteria, to ascertain the potential of each to serve the communities water needs. Research indicated several community water schemes in the area are struggling due to lack of management, and these issues were discussed, and recommendations made for consideration by the community of Bonduma. Of the identified potential sources, the Ndongo Spring and Rainwater Harvesting presented as the most appropriate for exploitation. Some consideration was also given to the existing public water supply capacity, and potential to augment that source. An overriding theme of the environmental assessment is the lack of water source protection, which impacts on the ability of the community to harness natural sources for potable use. These concerns were presented, along with suggested strategies for addressing the issue. Results of the study, which include a multi criteria analysis, provide grounds for endorsement of household roof water collection and storage, to provide the community with a sustainable, safe, supplementary water supply.

AcknowledgementsI wish to acknowledge all of the kind assistance provided by the wonderful folks in Buea, especially Pastor Genesis Tinshu and his family, along with the Helps International team.

For his guidance and patience, special thanks to Dr Mike Templeton.

Thanks to Uncle Willy Douglas, for making a fine research companion. And thanks to Eddy Nkehacha for his knowledge, support and enthusiasm. I am most grateful to the following individuals and institutions, who helped me negotiate a new learning arena;Mulla Lyonga Mr Fidelis Folifac Ms Lydia Lifongo Mr Ndumbe Ekema Stephen Mr Peter Kreuzinger Mr Fomanyi Pius Mr Charles Terence Nyongo

The Pan Africa Institute for Development, and diligent members of the Alumni

CONTENTS

Table of Contents1 Introduction................................................................................ 1 1.1 Background & Setting ............................................................................. 2 Cameroon ........................................................................................ 2 Buea ................................................................................................ 2 Bonduma ......................................................................................... 4

1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.2

Policy and Stakeholders .......................................................................... 4 Regulation ....................................................................................... 5 Institutions ....................................................................................... 5 Funding ........................................................................................... 6

1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.3

Project Focus & Approach ...................................................................... 7 Quantity Issues ................................................................................. 8 Quality Issues ................................................................................... 9

1.3.1 1.3.2 2

Research Aims........................................................................... 10 2.1 2.2 Quantitative Aims ................................................................................. 10 Qualitative Aims ................................................................................... 10

3

Methodology............................................................................. 11 3.1 3.2 Baseline Evaluation............................................................................... 11 Spatial Analysis and Hydrology............................................................. 12 Feasibility Study ............................................................................. 13 Existing water supply...................................................................... 14 Rainfall .......................................................................................... 14

3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.3 3.4 3.5 4

Environmental data............................................................................... 14 Existing Community Water Projects ...................................................... 14 Stakeholder identification and role appraisal .......................................... 15

Water and Technology in the Developing World ............................... 16

CONTENTS

4.1 4.2

Community mobilization ...................................................................... 16 Community Supply Quantity .............................................................. 18 Ground water extraction................................................................. 18 Surface water intake rivers, streams, dams .................................... 20 Spring water tapping....................................................................... 20 Rainwater harvesting ...................................................................... 22 Existing supply ............................................................................... 23

4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.3

Community Supply - Quality ................................................................ 23 Water Treatment ............................................................................ 24

4.3.1 4.4 5

Community Supply - Distribution ......................................................... 25

Results & Analysis ..................................................................... 26 5.1 Bonduma Survey Data ....................................................................... 26 Community Buildings .................................................................... 27

5.1.1 5.2

Buea Water Quantity ............................................................................ 28 Basic Demand forecasting for Project Design .................................. 29 Peak Hour Demand........................................................................ 30 Ndongo Spring Yield ...................................................................... 31 Rainfall .......................................................................................... 31 Rainwater Harvesting Calculations ................................................. 32 Required roof catchment area ......................................................... 33 Yield of roof rainwater harvesting ................................................... 35 Roofwater storage tank sizing. ........................................................ 36 Summary of water quantity calculations .......................................... 37

5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.2.4 5.2.5 5.2.6 5.2.7 5.2.8 5.2.9 5.3

Buea Water Quality .............................................................................. 38 Health Indicators ............................................................................ 38 Environmental appraisal ................................................................. 38

5.3.1 5.3.2 5.4 5.5

Rapid Environmental Assessment (Ndongo Spring) ............................... 39 Ndongo Sample Analysis ...................................................................... 41

CONTENTS

5.6 5.7

Water Quality Public Supply (CDE / CAMWATER) ......................... 42 Community Water Schemes .................................................................. 44 Local Community Schemes ............................................................ 45 Issues highlighted by neighbouring community schemes .................. 46

5.7.1 5.7.2 5.8 6

Construction Material Costs .................................................................. 52

Solutions and Discussion ............................................................. 54 6.1 Scope or Proposed Solutions ................................................................. 54 Assumptions .................................................................................. 54 Report Limitations ......................................................................... 54

6.1.1 6.1.2 6.2 6.3 6.4

T

Recommended

View more >