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  • 1. Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky Hause Martel If we could give every individual the right amount of nourishment and exercise, not too little and not too much, we would have found the safest way to health. Hippocrates, Greek physician and father of medicine (ca. 460-377 b.c.e.) HEALTHY COOKING C H A P T E R TWENTY-THREE
  • 2. 2 HEALTHYCOOKING Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky Hause Martel After studying this unit You will be able to: Identify categories of nutrients and explain their importance in a healthy diet Identify the characteristics of a nutritious diet for healthy adults Describe diet-planning tools available to consumers and chefs
  • 3. 3 HEALTHYCOOKING Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky Hause Martel After studying this unit (cont.) Understand the effects of storage and preparation techniques on the nutritional value of food Appreciate the use of alternative ingredients and substitutes in developing recipes and menus to provide guests with nutritious foods Understand the range of vegetarian diets and use a variety of protein products as alternatives to meat, poultry, fish or dairy
  • 4. 4 HEALTHYCOOKING Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky Hause Martel Nutrition The science that studies nutrients(chemical) substances found in food that nourish the body by promoting growth, maintenance and repair of the body and by and facilitating body functions such as digestion and metabolism (the chemical reactions that go on in the body); some nutrients also provide energy (calories)
  • 5. 5 HEALTHYCOOKING Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky Hause Martel Calories (kcal) The unit of energy measured by the amount of heat required to raise 1,000 grams of water one degree Celsius
  • 6. 6 HEALTHYCOOKING Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky Hause Martel Six Categories of Nutrients Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Vitamins Minerals Water
  • 7. 7 HEALTHYCOOKING Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky Hause Martel Essential Nutrients Provide calories or energy needed in larger quantities than other nutrients because body doesnt make them in sufficient quantity
  • 8. 8 HEALTHYCOOKING Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky Hause Martel Nonessential Nutrients Healthy, well-nourished bodies can make them in sufficient quantities to satisfy their needs
  • 9. 9 HEALTHYCOOKING Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky Hause Martel Macronutrients Provide calories for energy Needed in large quantities Carbohydrates Lipids Fats found in animal and plant foods Proteins Necessary for manufacturing, maintaining and repairing body tissue
  • 10. 10 HEALTHYCOOKING Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky Hause Martel Carbohydrates Simple Occur in naturally occurring sugars as well as in sweeteners Complex Occur in starch and fiber Found in fruit, vegetables and cereal grains such as wheat, barley and oats Soluble fiber forms a gel in the digestive tract Insoluble fiber increases fecal bulk
  • 11. 11 HEALTHYCOOKING Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky Hause Martel Lipids The fats in foods can be classified as Saturated Mainly animal foods Monounsaturated Primarily plants and plant food Polyunsaturated Found in plants and fish Cholesterol is only found in foods of animal origin Trans fats are found in hydrogenated fats
  • 12. 12 HEALTHYCOOKING Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky Hause Martel Proteins Protein chains consist of amino acids There are 20 amino acids 9 are essential for healthy adults Proteins regulate the balance of water, acids and bases and move nutrients in and out of cells
  • 13. 13 HEALTHYCOOKING Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky Hause Martel Micronutrients Needed in smaller amounts Vitamins Minerals
  • 14. 14 HEALTHYCOOKING Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky Hause Martel Vitamins Vital dietary substances needed to regulate the metabolism and normal growth and body functions Fat-soluble A, D, E and K are found in food containing fat Water-soluble C and the B complex vitamins are not stored to the extent of fat-soluble vitamins
  • 15. 15 HEALTHYCOOKING Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky Hause Martel Cooking Techniques Control Vitamin Retention Prepare vegetables close to serving time Steaming and microwaving helps retain water- soluble vitamins Roasting and grilling can preserve vitamins in animal foods Use airtight and opaque containers
  • 16. 16 HEALTHYCOOKING Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky Hause Martel Minerals Cannot be manufactured in the body Trace minerals Needed in small amounts Iron Major minerals Needed in relatively larger quantities Calcium
  • 17. 17 HEALTHYCOOKING Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky Hause Martel Water The human body is approximately 60% water Water is necessary for transporting nutrients and wastes throughout the body
  • 18. 18 HEALTHYCOOKING Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky Hause Martel Phytochemicals Non-nutritive components of plant foods which may be important in preventing some forms of cancer, diabetes, Alzheimers, heart disease and other degenerative diseases Brightly colored fruits and vegetables such as blueberries, pomegranates and green tea are high in flavonoids phytochemicals especially beneficial to health
  • 19. 19 HEALTHYCOOKING Copyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky Hause Martel Tools for Healthy Eating Recommendations from Federal regulatory agencies as well as health organizations