Chapter 7a axial skeleton

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<ul><li> 1. PowerPoint Lecture Slides prepared by Vince Austin, University of Kentucky7a The SkeletonPart A - Axial SkeletonHuman Anatomy &amp; Physiology, Sixth EditionElaine N. MariebCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings</li></ul> <p> 2. The Axial SkeletonEighty bones segregated into three regions Skull Vertebral column Bony thoraxCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 3. The Skull The skull, the bodys most complex bony structure,is formed by the cranium and facial bones Cranium protects the brain and is the site ofattachment for head and neck muscles Facial bones Provide openings for the passage of air and food Anchor the facial muscles of expressionCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 4. Anatomy of the Cranium Eight cranial bones two parietal, two temporal,frontal, occipital, sphenoid, and ethmoid Cranial bones are thin and remarkably strong fortheir weightCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 5. Anterior Aspects of the SkullCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.2a 6. Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.2b 7. Parietal Bones and Major Associated SuturesFour sutures mark the articulations of the parietalbones Coronal suture articulation between parietal bones andfrontal bone anteriorly Sagittal suture where right and left parietal bones meetsuperiorly Lambdoid suture where parietal bones meet theoccipital bone posteriorly Squamosal or squamous suture where parietal andtemporal bones meetCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 8. Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.3a 9. Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.2b 10. Inferior Portion of the Skull1Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings98765324 11. Temporal Bones Form the inferolateral aspects of the skull and partsof the cranial floor Major markings include the zygomatic, styloid, andmastoid processes, and the mandibular fossae Major openings include the stylomastoid and jugularforamina, the external and internal auditorymeatuses, and the carotid canalCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 12. TemporalBoneCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.5 13. Sphenoid Bone Butterfly-shaped bone that spans the width of the middlecranial fossa Forms the central wedge that articulates with all othercranial bones Consists of a central body, greater wings, lesser wings, andpterygoid processes Major markings: the sella turcica, hypophyseal fossa, and thepterygoid processes Major openings include the foramina rotundum, ovale, andspinosum; the optic canals; and the superior orbital fissureCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 14. Sphenoid BoneCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.6a, b 15. Ethmoid Bone Most deep of the skull bones; lies between thesphenoid and nasal bones Forms most of the bony area between the nasalcavity and the orbits Major markings include the cribriform plate, cristagalli, perpendicular plate, nasal conchae, and theethmoid sinusesCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 16. Ethmoid BoneCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.7 17. Facial Bones Fourteen bones of which only the mandible andvomer are unpaired The paired bones are the maxillae, zygomatics,nasals, lacrimals, palatines, and inferior conchaeCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 18. Mandible and Its Markings The mandible (lower jawbone) is the largest,strongest bone of the face Its major markings include the coronoid process,mandibular condyle, and the mandibular and mentalforaminaCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 19. MandibleCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.8a 20. Maxillary Bones Medially fused bones that make up the upper jawand the central portion of the facial skeleton Facial keystone bones that articulate with all otherfacial bones except the mandible Their major markings include palatine, frontal, andzygomatic processes, inferior orbital fissure, and themaxillary sinusesCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 21. Maxillary BoneCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.8b 22. Zygomatic Bones Zygomatic bones - Irregularly shaped bones(cheekbones) that form the prominences of thecheeks and the inferolateral margins of the orbitsCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 23. Other Facial Bones Nasal bones thin medially fused bones that form thebridge of the nose Lacrimal bones contribute to the medial walls of the orbit Palatine bones two bone plates that form portions of thehard palate, the posterolateral walls of the nasal cavityCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 24. Other Facial Bones Vomer plow-shaped bone that forms part of thenasal septum Inferior nasal conchae paired, curved bones inthe nasal cavity that form part of the lateral walls ofthe nasal cavityCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 25. Anterior Aspects of the SkullCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.2a 26. Posterior Aspects of the SkullCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.2b 27. External Lateral Aspects of the SkullCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.3a 28. Midsagittal Lateral Aspects of the SkullCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.3b 29. Inferior Portion of the SkullCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.4a 30. Inferior Portion of the SkullCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.4b18765432 31. Orbits Bony cavities in which the eyes are firmly encasedand cushioned by fatty tissue Formed by parts of seven bones frontal, sphenoid,zygomatic, maxilla, palatine, lacrimal, and ethmoidCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 32. OrbitsCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.9b 33. Nasal Cavity Constructed of bone and hyaline cartilage Roof formed by the cribriform plate of the ethmoid Lateral walls formed by the superior and middle conchaeof the ethmoid, the perpendicular plate of the palatine, andthe inferior nasal conchae Floor formed by palatine process of the maxillae andpalatine boneCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 34. Nasal CavityCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.10b 35. Paranasal Sinuses Mucosa-lined, air-filled sacs found in five skullbones the frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and pairedmaxillary bones Lighten the skull and enhance the resonance of thevoiceCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 36. Paranasal SinusesCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.11 37. Hyoid Bone Not actually part of the skull, but lies just inferior tothe mandible in the anterior neck Only bone of the body that does not articulatedirectly with another bone Attachment point for neck muscles that raise andlower the larynx during swallowingand speechCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 38. Vertebral Column Formed from 26 irregular bones (vertebrae)connected in such a way that a flexible curvedstructure results Cervical vertebrae 7 bones of the neck Thoracic vertebrae 12 bones of the torso Lumbar vertebrae 5 bones of the lower back Sacrum bone inferior to the lumbar vertebrae thatarticulates with the hip bonesCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 39. Vertebral ColumnCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.13 40. Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.14a 41. General Structure of Vertebrae Body disc-shaped, weight-bearing region Vertebral arch composed of pedicles and laminaethat, along with the centrum, enclose the vertebralforamen Vertebral foramina make up the vertebral canalthrough which the spinal cord passesCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 42. General Structure of VertebraeCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.15 43. Cervical Vertebrae Seven vertebrae (C1-C7) are the smallest, lightestvertebrae C3-C7 are distinguished with an oval body, shortspinous processes, and large, triangular vertebralforamina Each transverse process contains a transverseforamenCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 44. CervicalVertebraeCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsTable 7.2 45. The Atlas (C1)Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.16a, b 46. The Axis (C2) The axis has a body, spine, and vertebral arches asdo other cervical vertebrae Unique to the axis is the dens or odontoid process,which projects superiorly from the body and iscradled in the anterior arch of the atlas The dens is a pivot for the rotation of the atlasCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 47. The Axis (C2)Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.16c 48. The Atlas (C2)Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.17a 49. Thoracic Vertebrae There are twelve vertebrae (T1-T12) all of which articulatewith ribs Major markings include two facets and two demifacets onthe heart-shaped body, the circular vertebral foramen,transverse processes, and a long spinous process The location of the articulate facets prevents flexion andextension, but allows rotation of this area of the spineCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 50. Thoracic VertebraeCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.17b 51. Lumbar Vertebrae The five lumbar vertebrae (L1-L5) are located in thesmall of the back and have an enhanced weight-bearingfunction They have short, thick pedicles and laminae, flathatchet-shaped spinous processes, and a triangular-shapedvertebral foramen Orientation of articular facets locks the lumbarvertebrae together to provide stabilityCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 52. Lumbar VertebraeCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.17c 53. SacrumSacrum Consists of five fused vertebrae (S1-S5), whichshape the posterior wall of the pelvis It articulates with L5 superiorly Major markings include the sacral promontory,transverse lines, alae, and sacral foraminaCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 54. CoccyxCoccyx (Tailbone) The coccyx is made up of four (in some cases threeto five) fused vertebrae that articulate superiorlywith the sacrumCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 55. Sacrum and Coccyx: Anterior ViewCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.18a 56. Bony Thorax (Thoracic Cage)Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.19a 57. Bony Thorax (Thoracic Cage)Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.19b 58. Sternum (Breastbone) A dagger-shaped, flat bone that lies in the anteriormidline of the thorax Results from the fusion of three bones the superiormanubrium, the body, and the inferior xiphoidprocess Anatomical landmarks include the jugular(suprasternal) notch, the sternal angle, and thexiphisternal jointCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 59. Ribs There are twelve pair of ribs forming the flaringsides of the thoracic cage All ribs attach posteriorly to the thoracic vertebrae The superior 7 pair (true, or vertebrosternal ribs)attach directly to the sternum via costal cartilages Ribs 8-10 (false, or vertebrochondral ribs) attachindirectly to the sternum via costal cartilage Ribs 11-12 (floating, or vertebral ribs) have noanterior attachmentCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 60. RibsCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.19a 61. Structure of a Typical True Rib Bowed, flat boneconsisting of ahead, neck,tubercle, and shaftCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.20 62. Appendicular Skeleton The appendicular skeleton is made up of the bonesof the limbs and their girdles Pectoral girdles attach the upper limbs to the bodytrunk Pelvic girdle secures the lower limbsCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 63. Pectoral Girdles (Shoulder Girdles) The pectoral girdles consist of the anterior claviclesand the posterior scapulaeCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 64. Pectoral Girdles (Shoulder Girdles)Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.22a 65. Clavicles (Collarbones)Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.22b, c 66. Scapulae (Shoulder Blades)Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.22d, e </p>