The Axial Skeleton

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The Axial Skeleton. This structure is composed of 27 bones and is formed from cranial and facial bones. The cranial bones protect the brain and allow attachment for the neck and head muscles. The Skull. The facial bone have several functions: Form the frame work for the face - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<p>PowerPoint Presentation</p> <p>The Axial Skeleton</p> <p>The SkullThis structure is composed of 27 bones and is formed from cranial and facial bones.</p> <p>The cranial bones protect the brain and allow attachment for the neck and head muscles.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.The SkullThe facial bone have several functions:Form the frame work for the faceContain cavities for the sensesProvided openings for air and foodSecure the teethAnchor the facial musclesCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.SuturesWith the exception of the mandible all bones of the adult skull are interlocked by joints called sutures.The major sutures are theCoronalSagittalSquamousLambdoid</p> <p>Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 7.2a The skull: Cranial and facial divisions and fossae.</p> <p>Bones of cranium (cranial vault)LambdoidsutureFacialbonesSquamoussuture(a) Cranial and facial divisions of the skullCoronalsutureCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.The FloorThe floor is divided into theanterior , middle and posterior fossaeCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 7.2b The skull: Cranial and facial divisons and fossae.</p> <p>Anterior cranialfossaMiddle cranialfossaPosterior cranialfossa(b) Superior view of the cranial fossaeCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.External FeaturesCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Anterior and Posterior Aspects of the SkullSupraorbital margin is a throw back to our simian cousinsFor us it supports our eye browsThe Supraorbital foramen is the path for the supraorbital nerve and vessels</p> <p>Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Anterior and Posterior Aspects The superior nuchal and inferior nuchal lines serve as attachment points for muscles and ligaments.</p> <p>Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 7.5a Bones of the lateral aspect of the skull, external and internal views.</p> <p>Coronal sutureFrontal boneSphenoid bone(greater wing)Ethmoid boneLacrimal boneLacrimal fossaNasal boneZygomaticbone MaxillaAlveolarmargins MandibleMental foramenParietal boneLambdoidsutureSquamoussutureOccipitalboneOccipitomastoidsutureExternal acousticmeatusMastoid processStyloid processMandibular condyleMandibular notchMandibular ramus(a) External anatomy of the right side of the skullMandibular angleCoronoid processZygomaticprocessTemporal boneCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 7.7b The floor of the cranial cavity.</p> <p>SphenoidAnterior cranial fossaMiddle cranialfossaTemporal bone(petrous part)Posteriorcranial fossaParietal boneOccipital boneForamenmagnum (b) Superior view of the skull, calvaria removedEthmoidboneHypophyseal fossaof sella turcicaLesserwing Greaterwing Cribriformplate Crista galli Frontal boneOlfactoryforamina Optic canalForamenrotundum Foramen ovaleForamenspinosum Jugular foramenForamen lacerumViewCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 7.6b Inferior aspect of the skull, mandible removed.</p> <p>Hard palateMandibularfossaMastoidprocessZygomaticarchForamen ovaleForamen lacerumCarotid canalStyloid processJugular foramenOccipital condyleForamen magnumSuperior nuchalline(b) Photo of inferior view of the skullForamen spinosumCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Skull Fractures</p> <p>Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 7.11a Detailed anatomy of the mandible and the maxilla.</p> <p>CoronoidprocessMandibular foramenMentalforamenMandibularangleRamusofmandibleMandibularcondyleMandibular notchMandibular fossaof temporal boneBody of mandibleAlveolarmargin(a) Mandible, right lateral viewTemporomandibularjointCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Broken Jaw</p> <p>Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.The Hyoid BoneThis is a U shaped bone. It is not connected to the skull.</p> <p>It forms the base for the tongue.</p> <p>Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.The Spinal ColumnThe vertebral column consists of 26 irregular bones.</p> <p>It provides the main axial support for the skeleton.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 7.16 The vertebral column. </p> <p>Cervical curvature (concave)7 vertebrae, C1C7Thoracic curvature(convex)12 vertebrae,T1T12Lumbar curvature(concave)5 vertebrae, L1L5Sacral curvature(convex)5 fused vertebrae sacrumCoccyx4 fused vertebraeAnterior viewRight lateral viewSpinousprocessTransverseprocessesIntervertebraldiscsIntervertebralforamenC1Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.The Spinal ColumnThere are 7 cervical vertebrae 12 Thoracic vertebrae 5 Lumbar vertebrae 5 Sacral vertebraeCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Anterior and Posterior Aspects of the Skull You have breakfast at 7</p> <p>Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Anterior and Posterior Aspects of the Skull You have lunch at 12</p> <p>Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Anterior and Posterior Aspects of the Skull You have dinner at 5</p> <p>Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Anterior and Posterior Aspects of the Skull You have to go to the bathroom at 5 am</p> <p>Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.The Spinal ColumnThe major supporting ligaments are the anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments.</p> <p>Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 7.17a Ligaments and fibrocartilage discs uniting the vertebrae.</p> <p>Supraspinous ligamentIntervertebraldiscAnteriorlongitudinalligamentIntervertebral foramenPosterior longitudinalligamentAnulus fibrosusNucleus pulposusSectioned bodyof vertebraTransverse processSectionedspinous processLigamentum flavumInterspinousligamentInferior articular process Median section of three vertebrae, illustrating the composition of the discs and the ligamentsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.The Spinal ColumnThe anterior ligament attaches to the vertebrae and discs.It prevents hyperextension (bending backward)</p> <p>The posterior ligament is weak and resists hyperflexation.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.The Spinal ColumnThe Intervertebral discs accounts for 25% of your height and acts as a shock absorber.</p> <p>A herniated or slip discs is a common cause of back injuries.</p> <p>Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 7.17c Ligaments and fibrocartilage discs uniting the vertebrae.</p> <p>Vertebral spinous process(posterior aspect of vertebra)Spinal nerve rootAnulus fibrosusof discHerniated portionof discNucleuspulposusof discSpinal cord(c) Superior view of a herniated intervertebral discTransverseprocessCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 7.17d Ligaments and fibrocartilage discs uniting the vertebrae.</p> <p>Nucleuspulposus ofintact disc(d) MRI of lumbar region of vertebral columnin sagittal section showing herniated discHerniatednucleuspulposusCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Scoliosis Scoliosis is an abnormal curvature of the spine which can occur during adolescence, old age or during pregnancy.</p> <p>Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Scoliosis Lordosis. Also called swayback, the spine of a person with lordosis curves significantly inward at the lower back.</p> <p>Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Kyphosis. Kyphosis is characterized by an abnormally rounded upper back (more than 50 degrees of curvature).</p> <p>Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Scoliosis. A person with scoliosis has a sideways curve to their spine. The curve is often S-shaped or C-shaped</p> <p>Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.The Cervical VertebraeThese are the smallest with C1 and C2 modified for the skull.In general cervical vertebrae haveAn oval bodyA short spinous process which is split except for C7A transverse foramen for the vertebral arteries. </p> <p>Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.</p> <p>Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.The Thoracic VertebraeThere are12 (T1-T12)These have :1) Circular vertebral foramen2)A long spinous process that points downward.3) Transverse processes have facets for the ribs</p> <p>Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.</p> <p>Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 7.20b Posterolateral views of articulated vertebrae.</p> <p>TransverseprocessSpinousprocessSuperior articularprocessTransversecostal facet (fortubercle of rib)BodyIntervertebraldiscInferior costalfacet (for headof rib)Inferior articularprocess(b) Thoracic vertebraeCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.The Lumbar VertebraeThere are 5(L1-L5)These have :1) Spinous process is short &amp; flat2) Vertebral foramen is triangular 3) articular processes face medially or laterally</p> <p>Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.</p> <p>SuperiorarticularprocessTransverseprocessSpinousprocessIntervertebraldiscBodyInferiorarticularprocess(c) Lumbar vertebraeFigure 7.20c Posterolateral views of articulated vertebrae.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.The Sacral VertebraeThere are 5 (S1-S5)These are fused and articulates with L5 and the ileum</p> <p>Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 7.21 The sacrum and coccyx. </p> <p>CoccyxCoccyxAnteriorsacralforaminaApexPosteriorsacralforaminaMediansacralcrestSacralpromontory SacralcanalSacralhiatusBodyFacet of superiorarticular processLateralsacralcrestAuricularsurfaceAlaAla(b) Posterior viewBodyof firstsacralvertebraTransverseridges (sites of vertebralfusion)(a) Anterior viewCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.The Thoracic CageThis is composed of the ribs, thoracic vertebrae dorsally andsternum ventrally.Ribs 1-7 are true ribs because they attach directly to the sternum.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.The Thoracic CageThis is composed of the ribs, thoracic vertebrae dorsally andsternum ventrally.Ribs 1-7 are true ribs because they attach directly to the sternum.Ribs 8-10 are false ribs because they attach indirectlyCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.The Thoracic CageThis is composed of the ribs, thoracic vertebrae dorsally andsternum ventrally.Ribs 1-7 are true ribs because they attach directly to the sternum.Ribs 8-10 are false ribs because they attach indirectlyRibs 11 &amp; 12 are floating and are NOT attached to the sternumCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 7.22 The thoracic cage.</p> <p>Intercostal spacesXiphisternaljointHeartSternalangle Jugularnotch Trueribs(17)Falseribs(812)Jugular notchClavicular notchManubriumSternal angleBodyXiphisternal jointXiphoid processL1VertebraFloatingribs (11, 12) (b) Midsagittal section through the thorax, showing the relationship of surface anatomical landmarks of the thorax to the vertebral column (a) Skeleton of the thoracic cage, anterior viewSternumCostalcartilage Costalmargin Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 7.23c Ribs.</p> <p>Junction withcostal cartilageShaftHeadNeckArticularfaceton tubercleCostal angleCostal grooveFacets forarticulationwith vertebrae(c) A typical rib (rib 6, right), posterior viewCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.</p>