chapter 3 – part 2

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Body Tissues. Chapter 3 – Part 2. Histology 4 Tissue Types: 1. Epithelial – (covering) 2. Connective – (support) 3. Muscle – (movement) 4. Nervous – (control). Tissue. Lining, covering, & glandular Functions: Protections, absorption, filtration, & secretion. Epithelial Tissue. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 3 Part 2

Chapter 3 Part 2Body TissuesTissue Histology4 Tissue Types:1. Epithelial (covering)2. Connective (support)3. Muscle (movement)4. Nervous (control)Epithelial TissueLining, covering, & glandular

Functions: Protections, absorption, filtration, & secretionEpithelial Tissue, ContdSpecial Characteristics:Cells fit closely together to form sheetsHas a free surface (apical surface)Lower surface (basement membrane)Epithelial to connectiveAvascular no direct blood supplyDiffusionRegenerate easilyClassification of epitheliumNamed according to # of layers & shape of cells at the free surfaceLayers:Simple (1 layer)Stratified (2 or more layers)Shape:Squamous flatCuboidal cube shapedColumnar taller than wideEpithelial Tissue, ContdSimple Epithelium: absorption, secretion, & filtrationSimple Squamous Epithelium forms serous membranes (serosae - fluid)Lines body cavities & organsEpithelial Tissue, Contd

Simple Cuboidal glands & ducts

Epithelial Tissue, ContdSimple Epithelium, contd

Simple columnar epithelium forms mucus membranes (mucosae).Lines cavities open to exteriorEx. Respiratory Tracts, Digestive Tracts

Epithelial Tissue, ContdSimple Epithelium, contd

Epithelial Tissue, ContdSimple Epithelium, contd Pseudostratified Columnar EpitheliumLines Respiratory TractCiliated

Epithelial Tissue, ContdStratified Epithelialayered; protectsStratified Squamous Epithelium most common; high abuse & friction.Ex. Skin, mouth, esophagus

Stratified Cuboidal & Stratified Columnar:Rare; large ducts

Epithelial Tissue, ContdStratified Epithelia, contd

Transitional Epithelia: function is stretchingEpithelial Tissue, ContdStratified Epithelia, contdEpithelial Tissue, ContdGlandular Epithelia: glands; produces & secretes2 types:1. Endocrine Glands (ductless)Directly into the blood streamHormones (ovaries, testes, adrenal)2. Exocrine Glands (ducts)Sweat, oilLiver

Answers:A - simple columnar epithelium.B - simple columnar epithelium with cilia.C - stratified squamous epithelium.D - simple squamous epithelium.E - transitional epithelium.F - pseudostratified epithelium.G - stratified squamous epithelium.H - choanocytesI - stratified columnar epithelium with cilia.Functions: protection, support, & binding togetherMost abundant tissue typeFound everywhere in the body

Connective TissueCommon Characteristics:Some vascularSome avascular (cartilage) heals slowlyMany different types of cellsExtracellular Matrix: non-living substance outside of cell; can be liquid, semisolid or gel-like, or very hardExamples: Fat (soft); Bone (hard)Tissue can bear weight, withstand stretching & abrasions.Connective Tissue, ContdTypes of Connective tissue:Bone (osseous tissue) vascularBone cells surrounded by hard matrix of calcium salts & collagen fibersFunction: protect & support other organs

Connective Tissue, ContdCartilage avascularLess hard/more flexible than boneHyaline cartilage- voice box; covers end of bone; attaches ribs to sternum; skeleton of fetusElastic cartilage- more elasticity. Ex: ears, nose Fibrocartilage- highly compressible and cushion-like; between vertebrae

Connective Tissue, ContdTypes, ContdDense Connective Tissue (fibrous tissue)Mostly collagen fibersForms strong, rope-like structuresEx: Tendons; LigamentsConnective Tissue, ContdTypes, ContdLoose Connective Tissue- Softer & fewer fibersAreolar TissueSoft, pliable tissue that protects & wraps body organsUniversal packing tissue & connective tissue glue that helps hold internal organs togetherEdema- areolar tissue soaks up fluid in inflamed area; swells & becomes puffyConnective Tissue, ContdTypes, ContdLoose Connective Tissue, ContdAdipose Tissue fatForms subcutaneous layer below skin; insulates & protects from heat & cold.

Connective Tissue, ContdTypes, ContdReticular Connective TissueDelicate network of fibersFound in lymph nodesEx: Spleen and bone marrow.Connective Tissue, ContdTypes, ContdBlood vascular tissueBlood cells surrounded by blood plasmaProtein fibers in bloodBlood clottingConnective Tissue, ContdTypes, ContdMuscle TissueSpecialized to contract or shortenMuscle Cells (muscle fibers)Skeletal Muscle- (striated muscle)Attached to skeleton; forms fleshVoluntaryCells are long, cylindrical, multinucleate, & striatedTypes of Muscle Tissue (3 types)Muscle Tissue, ContdCardiac Muscle- (heart only)Has striations, uninucleate; fit tightly together; gap junctionsInvoluntary

Muscle Tissue, ContdTypes, ContdSmooth Muscle- (visceral)No striations, single nucleus & spindle-shaped (pointed at both ends)Found in walls of stomach, bladder, uterus & blood vessels (hollow organs)Contracts slowly Peristalsis wave-like motion through small intestineInvoluntary

Muscle Tissue, ContdTypes, ContdIV. Nervous TissueCells = NeuronsFunction = Irritability & ConductivityTissue Repair (Wound Healing)Defense at tissue level skin, mucous membranes, cilia, and acid in stomach glands.Inflammation body response to prevent further injury.

Immune Response specific to invaders2 Ways tissue repairs (depends on tissue type and severity of injury)Regeneration: replacement of destroyed tissue by same kinds of cellsFibrosis: repair by dense connective tissue (fibrous) forms scar tissue

IV. Nervous Tissue.contdProcess of tissue repair:Capillaries become permeable/allows clotting fibers to seep to injury (bleed)Blood Clot forms/then scabGranulation tissue forms (new skin)Epithelium regenerates/scab falls off (healed)**Scar Tissue cannot function as original cells.IV. Nervous Tissue.contdV. Development Aspects of Cells & TissuesGrowth through cell division pubertyReplacement of tissue exposed to friction lifetimeEpithelial Tissue MitoticConnective Tissue Mitotic (forms scar tissue)Muscle Tissue Amitotic after pubertyNervous Tissue Amitotic shortly after birthAging Caused by chemical and physical exposures and genetics, and stressNeoplasm: abnormal Cell division multiply wildly benign or malignant (tumor)Hyperplasia: enlarged tissue due to local irritant or conditionEx. Anemia/Bone marrow undergoes hyperplasia to produce more red blood cellsEx. Breast enlargement during pregnancyV. Development Aspects of Cells & TissuesContdAtrophy: decrease in size loss of stimulationEx. Muscle reduction from wearing a castV. Development Aspects of Cells & TissuesContd