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Download Chapter 17 Atmosphere Page 365 Page 365 What does the photograph show? What does the photograph show? How does the quality of the air in the photograph

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Chapter 17 Atmosphere Page 365 Page 365 What does the photograph show? What does the photograph show? How does the quality of the air in the photograph compare to that of your community today? How does the quality of the air in the photograph compare to that of your community today? How might the photograph be different if it was taken on the following day? How might the photograph be different if it was taken on the following day? What makes up the atmosphere? What makes up the atmosphere? How do human activities affect the atmosphere? How do human activities affect the atmosphere? Slide 2 Chapter 17.1 Slide 3 The composition of the Atmosphere Slide 4 The atmosphere in Balance The early atmosphere of the earth was primarily created through volcanic eruptions. The early atmosphere of the earth was primarily created through volcanic eruptions. Consisted mostly of CO 2, SO 2, H 2 O, and Nitrogen Oxygen was thought to have been created in the upper atmosphere by the destruction of water molecules through Photosynthesis Oxygen was thought to have been created in the upper atmosphere by the destruction of water molecules through Photosynthesis Todays atmosphere (99%) is mostly nitrogen and oxygen Todays atmosphere (99%) is mostly nitrogen and oxygen Slide 5 Recycling of Atmospheric materials Composition of the atmosphere changes very little because it is an efficient recycling system Composition of the atmosphere changes very little because it is an efficient recycling system P. 367 Picture explains the O 2, CO 2, and H 2 O cycles P. 367 Picture explains the O 2, CO 2, and H 2 O cycles Slide 6 Slide 7 Slide 8 Slide 9 A Delicate Balance The atmosphere may become unbalance by both natural and human origins The atmosphere may become unbalance by both natural and human origins e.g. CO 2 levels in Hawaii have rose 16% between 1959 and 1999 Slide 10 Environmental Consultant Environmental Consultant Median annual earnings of environmental scientists were $51,080 in May 2004. The middle 50 percent earned between $39,100 and $67,360. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $31,610, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $85,940. Median annual earnings of hydrologists were $61,510 in May 2004, with the middle 50 percent earning between $47,080 and $77,910, the lowest 10 percent earning less than $38,580, and the highest 10 percent earning more than $94,460. Median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest number of environmental scientists in May 2004 were as follows: Federal Government$73,530Management, scientific, and technical consulting services51,190Architectural, engineering, and related services49,160Local government48,870State government 46,850 Slide 11 Chapter 17.2 Page 696 Page 696 Convert 70F Celsius Convert 70F Celsius When is the Fahrenheit Scale used? When is the Fahrenheit Scale used? The Celsius Scale? The Celsius Scale? Which do you prefer? Which do you prefer? Slide 12 Heat and the Atmosphere Energy from the sun drives the atmosphere Energy from the sun drives the atmosphere Slide 13 How Heat Moves Radiation transfer of energy through space in the form of visible light Radiation transfer of energy through space in the form of visible light does not require a medium pass through a vacuum Conduction transfer of heat energy by touch Conduction transfer of heat energy by touch e.g. air bough warm ground becomes warmer Convection Transfer of heat energy in a liquid or gas caused by differences in density Convection Transfer of heat energy in a liquid or gas caused by differences in density e.g. warm air heated by the surface of earth becomes less dense and rises Slide 14 Heat and Temperature Temperature is the measure of the average K.E. of the atoms in the substance Temperature is the measure of the average K.E. of the atoms in the substance Heat is the total KE of all the particles in a substance Heat is the total KE of all the particles in a substance e.g. A tablespoon of water at 100 Celsius has less heat than a cup of water at 100 Celsius Thermometer is used to measure temperature Thermometer is used to measure temperature At sea level water freezes at 0 Celsius and Boils at 100 Celsius Slide 15 Structure of the Atmosphere is divided into 4 layers based on temperature p. 371 is divided into 4 layers based on temperature p. 371 Slide 16 Troposphere lowest layer of the atmosphere where all weather occurs Temperature decreases with height Temperature decreases with height Slide 17 Stratosphere clear dry layer above the Troposphere Contains the Ozone(O 3 ) Which absorbs UV radiation Contains the Ozone(O 3 ) Which absorbs UV radiation Temperature increases with increased height Temperature increases with increased height Slide 18 Mesosphere - the 3 rd layer Temperature decreases with height Temperature decreases with height Slide 19 Thermosphere 4 th layer very thin and separated by layers of different gasses very thin and separated by layers of different gasses due to the intense solar radiation temperature increases with height due to the intense solar radiation temperature increases with height contain the ionosphere contain the ionosphere Auroras are formed when electrically charged particles are attracted to the earths poles Auroras are formed when electrically charged particles are attracted to the earths poles Auroras are formed when electrically charged particles are attracted to the earths poles Auroras are formed when electrically charged particles are attracted to the earths poles Slide 20 Insulation and the Atmosphere Incoming solar radiation is called insulation Incoming solar radiation is called insulation Earth receives only two-billionths of the suns rays Earth receives only two-billionths of the suns rays Of 100 units (p. 373) of suns energy 30 reflected back into space, 19 Absorbed by the atmosphere, 51 absorbed by Earths surface Of 100 units (p. 373) of suns energy 30 reflected back into space, 19 Absorbed by the atmosphere, 51 absorbed by Earths surface Unequal insulation caused temperature differences Unequal insulation caused temperature differences Slide 21 Discussion Global Heat Budget Page 373 Page 373 Explain why most of the atmospheres heat energy comes indirectly from the sun. Explain why most of the atmospheres heat energy comes indirectly from the sun. Slide 22 Chapter 17.3 Which surface is likely to be hotter on a sunny day: Which surface is likely to be hotter on a sunny day: A parking lot blacktop One with crushed white gravel Slide 23 Local Temperature Variations Caused by insulation (energy) heats Earths surface and atmosphere unequally Caused by insulation (energy) heats Earths surface and atmosphere unequally Slide 24 Intensity of Insulation The angle at which the suns rays strike the earth, the more overhead (90 ) the more energy The angle at which the suns rays strike the earth, the more overhead (90 ) the more energy Time of day - Suns rays are closest to vertical at noon. However, the highest temperature occur later in the day because of time needed for the surface to create heat using the insulation Time of day - Suns rays are closest to vertical at noon. However, the highest temperature occur later in the day because of time needed for the surface to create heat using the insulation Latitude and equator 90 more insulation where as high latitude sun rays strike at more of an angle less insulation Latitude and equator 90 more insulation where as high latitude sun rays strike at more of an angle less insulation Slide 25 Time of year mid latitude locations have higher temperatures in summer because the rays are more direct than in winter Time of year mid latitude locations have higher temperatures in summer because the rays are more direct than in winter Time of year mid latitude locations have higher temperatures in summer because the rays are more direct than in winter Time of year mid latitude locations have higher temperatures in summer because the rays are more direct than in winter Years maximum insulation occurs in June but max temperate are in July, weakest sunlight in December but lowest temps are in January Cloud Cover more insulation on clear days because clouds reflect sunlight. However, they hold the heat in at night. Cloud Cover more insulation on clear days because clouds reflect sunlight. However, they hold the heat in at night. Slide 26 Heating of Water and Land Water and land warm up and cool off at different rates. Water warms more slowly than land and cools more slowly. Water and land warm up and cool off at different rates. Water warms more slowly than land and cools more slowly. Suns energy penetrates water deeper spreading it out Some energy is used in evaporation Water has a higher specific heat Different hard surfaces absorb radiation differently Different hard surfaces absorb radiation differently light colored surfaces absorbs less than dark e.g. blacktop gets warmer than grass e.g. blacktop gets warmer than grass Slide 27 Temperature Maps (p. 377) Temperature Maps (p. 377) Land heats and cools off faster than water therefore continents are warmer than nearby oceans in summer and cooler than nearby oceans in winter Land heats and cools off faster than water therefore continents are warmer than nearby oceans in summer and cooler than nearby oceans in winter Isotherm lines on a map connect places of equal temperatures Isotherm lines on a map connect places of equal temperatures Slide 28 Chapter 17.4 Slide 29 Human impact on the Atmosphere Human impact on the Atmosphere Slide 30 Common Air Pollutants Air Pollution any airborne gas or particle that occurs at a concentration capable of harming humans or the environment Air Pollution any airborne gas or particle that occurs at a concentration capable of harming humans or the environment Air Pollution any airborne gas or particle that occurs at a concentration capable of harming humans or the environmen