Chapter 1 – Early Civilizations

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Chapter 1 Early Civilizations. 8000 BCE to 600 CE. Terms of Times. B.C. : Before Christ B.C.E. : Before Common Era (non-Christian) A.D. : Anno Domini (After the year of our Lord) C.E. : Common Era. Paleolithic Age. The Old Stone Age ICE AGE! Crude stone tools and weapons - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 1 Early Civilizations

Chapter 1 Early Civilizations8000 BCE to 600 CE

1Terms of TimesB.C. : Before ChristB.C.E. : Before Common Era (non-Christian)A.D. : Anno Domini (After the year of our Lord)C.E. : Common EraPaleolithic AgeThe Old Stone AgeICE AGE!Crude stone tools and weaponsNomads

Cave Man

We move to about 8,000 BCwhen village life began in the New Stone Age. . . Also known as the Neolithic Revolution.

NEW STONE AGE 4A TOTALLY new way of living: From

Hunter-Gatherersto Agriculture

5INVENTION OF AGRICULTUREMesopotamians first to engage in agriculture Around 8000 BCCereal cropsWheatBarley Herd animalsSheepGoatsWoman probably first farmerGrain-collecting then noticed that stored wild grain could be grown on purpose

6Agriculture changed how people lived Agriculture (Farming)

Growth of Cities

Division of Labor (Specialization)

Trade

Writing and Mathematics

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8Self-actualization(self-knowledge, fulfillment of personal potential)Esteem(autonomy, achievement, recognition)Social(belonging, affection)Safety(security, protection from harm)Physiological(Hunger, thirst, shelter)Maslows Hierarchy of NeedsWhat does it mean to be civilized?Characteristics of a Civilization:Advanced CitiesComplex institutionsGovernment, Religion, EconomySpecialized OccupationsRecord Keeping / WritingAdvanced Technology

10CitiesRivers provided:water supply transportation food supply from animals Rivers provided challenges:floodingirrigation Required organized, mass labor (corvee)Construction and repair of canals and irrigation ditches

Euphrates River11Institutions: GovernmentCentral authority needed to control:LaborStorage of grainDispersion of foodstuffs among populationEarly governments first led by priestsLater controlled by warrior chiefs or kings

12Institutions: GovernmentGovernments became more complex as new responsibilities arose such as:tax collectinglaw makinghandling public works projectsorganizing systems of defense

13Complex ReligionsGenerally polytheisticMany gods represented natural forcesOthers controlled human activitiesPriests and worshippers tried to gain gods favor through complex rituals and sacrificeDirected by unquestionable ruling class of priestsKing regarded as a god or as a gods agent14Complex ReligionsTemples often built to honor specific gods and goddesses

Egyptian temple

Mesopotamian ziggurat

Mayan temple15OCCUPATIONS

Needs of agriculture and stabilityClay potteryWoven basketsWoolen and linen clothingSophisticated tools and weaponsPlow

Job Specialization or OccupationsArtisans specialized in various jobs, such as:BricklayersBlacksmithsProduction of luxuries (Things You Dont Really Need)Metal technology

17WritingProbably first used by priestsEarliest writing used pictograms

Mesopotamian cuneiform

Egyptian hieroglyphs

Chinese calligraphy18WritingSymbols later added to represent words and then soundsScribes were specially trained to read, write, and record informationReligionTradeGovernmentLearning became cumulative

19Social ClassesPeople ranked according to their profession

Egyptian social structureChiefPriestsNoblesWealthy merchantsArtisansPeasants/farmersSlaves20Priestly class is part of the beginning of social differentiationClass structure based on specialization of laborGenerated class differencesPriests (We talk to god, you dont.)Aristocrats/warriors (We have weapons, you dont.)Common people (I guess we work...?)Slaves (Uh, oh!!!)Social Classes21BRONZE AGEAround 3000 BC in SumerUse bronze (not stone or copper)Gives people advantages in warfareMesopotamia Fertile CrescentSumer The Earliest of the River Valley Civilizations

Sumerian Civilization grew up along the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in what is now Kuwait.

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Sumer: City of UrOn the banks of the Euphrates RiverReligious: PolytheisticAgricultural EconomyIrrigation SystemBartered for goodsSumerians invented:Brick technologyWheelBase 60 using the circle . . . 360 degreesTime 60 minutes in an hour, 60 seconds in a minute12 month lunar calendararchrampZiggurat (pyramid shape)26Ziggurat Mountain of God

Click on the pictures for more information on ziggurats.27Sumerian Writing: Cuneiform

Cuneiform is created by pressing a pointed stylus into a clay tablet.28

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