Changing Minds, Changing Organizations, Changing Technologies

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Academy of Management (AoM) 2012 Professional Development Workshop (PDW), hosted by the Managerial and Organizational Cognition Division (MOC) and organized by Gigi Johnson, EdD, Maremel Institute. This set of slides summarizes the discussions and data from a three-hour workshop for academics and practitioners who work toward changing organization stories around what is possible with technology.

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<ul><li> 1. Changing Minds, Changing Organizations, Changing Technologies Gigi L. Johnson, EdDMaremel InstituteMOC PDWAoM 2012</li></ul><p> 2. Who is telling what technology story? For what end?To get user to adopt? Or to change organizational beliefs, routines, and decisions? Our Adventure Today 3. Technology: A Fixed Answer? MeasuredMgmt. Selection Implementation PenetrationOf Use 4. Technology: Changing MindsFrames &amp; Intentional Pre-DecisionalAssumptions Selection(s) Narratives?Patterns (inc. Time) 5. Our Path TodayConceptsAffordances &amp; Brands Time/Place/Data ConnectionsOrganizational AssumptionsChanging Narratives 6. ConceptsConceptsAffordances &amp; Brands Time/Place/Data ConnectionsOrganizational AssumptionsChanging Narratives 7. Org. Structures Create/Created By Technology Frames Technology Frame LegitimizationOrganization SignificationStructuration Domination TechnologyTechnology Frame FrameTechnology Frames: Orlikowski &amp; Gash,1994Structuration: Giddens, 1979; Barley, 1986; Orlikowski &amp; Robey, 1991 8. Embracing a Nexus of Organizational Decision-Making Theories Bounded rationality(e.g., March, 1978; Technology Simon, 1956; Todd &amp; Adoption (e.g.,Benbasat, 2000) Burkman, 1987; Moore, Decision-making 1991; Rogers, 1962/1983; rubricsNarrative Analysis Rogers &amp; Shoemaker,(e.g., Beach &amp; Mitchell, 1971; Surry, 1997) 1978, on the(e.g., Clandinin &amp;Contingency Model)Connelly, 2000, Stories driving Pre-decisional factorsCzarniawska, 2004)(Payne, Braunstein, &amp; technology routines Seeking narrative Carroll, 1978)chunks Routines and values Patterns of Identity,Social Theories of Technology (Nelson &amp; Winter,power, role relations, Technology as tools, text, or1982; Pentland &amp;repetition.system (Nardi &amp; ODay, 1999; Feldman, 2008) Storytelling routines in Winner, 1977) Information andstories. Technology as recipe (Dosi &amp;stories in power and Nelson, 2009)behavior Affordances (Gibson, 1977)(Galbraith, 1971;Goldstein &amp; Technology Frames (Orlikowski &amp;Busemeyer, 1992; Gash, 1994)Hadfield, 2005; Technology as time and spaceOrlikowski, 1991) (e.g., Bowker, 1995; Horning et al., Values in second-order 1999)learning (Argyris &amp; Technology as politics and powerSchoenberg, 1996) (Bijker, 1995; Winner, 1977) 9. First 10. What istechnology? 11. "Technology is anything that was invented after you were born --Alan Kay, per Kevin Kelly, 2010What istechnology? 12. "Technology is anything that was invented after you were born --Alan Kay, per Kevin Kelly, 2010What istechnology? http://ngrams.googlelabs.com 13. What, then, is Technology? 14. What, then, is Technology? Tools that extend our abilities? Tools that we use in our given context(s)? System(s) including people, other tools, andunspoken rules? Yes, guided and defined in part by affordances Often not discussed.Technology as tools, text, or system (Nardi &amp; ODay, 1999; Winner, 1977)Technology as recipe (Dosi &amp; Nelson, 2009) 15. Changing Narratives, ChangingTechnologies, Changing MindsConceptsAffordances &amp; Brands Time/Place/Data ConnectionsOrganizational AssumptionsChanging Narratives 16. A Tale of Two CasesCase 1Case 2 K-12 School District Major University 2010-2011 (Johnson, 2011) 2012 (not yet published) 40 participants, both as 1-4 22 participants, 1-4 hour semi-hour semi-scripted interviews scripted interviews(20) and focus groupparticipants Participants in nearly every Participants from every school and major department;location and levelmostly staff and senior faculty Purposive sampling and Purposive sampling andsnowball sampling (Grinnell &amp; snowball sampling (Grinnell &amp;Unrau, 2007; Rubin &amp; Rubin, Unrau, 2007; Rubin &amp; Rubin,1995) 1995) 17. Affordances:Possible and Perceived UsesAll "action possibilities" recognizable in anenvironment Gibson, 1977, The Theory of AffordancesAll action possibilities of a technology orinterface as perceived by the user; based onlikelihood and perceptions of use Norman, 1988, The Design of Everyday Things 18. Brands: Online Tools Yah. I meanI shouldnt say, there is an online connection, I use Facebook.Um. Send a lot of email. Um. But Im not a huge Facebook user. I dabble.You know, go on a couple times a week and look at what other people aredoing. Everyone uses Google, I think. Im, Im not on TwitterI am on Facebook. Not as much, Ill use examples from Wikipedia, and stuff like that too,show students where they are supposed (to be going to). I Google lots of things. I probably wouldnt Google that. 19. Minimal narrative to expand affordances and options Brands become shortcuts in conversation and decisions,undiscussed as to affordances Closure on options and future change happens quickly Organization in Case 1 inadvertently locked into roles, structures, and habits around purchased Brands, and stopped considering and exploring cheaper, new alternatives Perceived affordances can become limited to what is designedinto the Brand and assumed to be the same between users 20. Case 1:Narrative Example:What is a cell phone? . G. What else is a cell phone? 02: Social network. 05: Its a camera. ((lots of gently overlapping 01: A reader. Like a Kindle. Access torestaurants,comments here, as people try to add something)) theater.hotels. G:((Gs cell phone alarm rings)) Its a stupid04: GPS.alarm clock.03: GPS. 01: Clock. Alarm. 01: Locator. 02: Its a way to consume and organize04: Tracking your children.personal media.01: Mapping. 05: Phone book.02: I just got this. This is a Droid. I just got this, like, I G:Watch purchases are down 30% this year.dont know, like a week ago, a week and a half ago. 05: Its also a phone book. And its just like I dont even call it a phone. Its a 03 and 01: Phone book.handheld computer. 01: Photo album.G: I havent heard any of you talk about it as a 05: Photo album.learning device for your students yet. ((muffled 01: Music library reaction))G: Well, NO, thats ((mumble))02: Distraction! ((laughter and loud multiple voices)) 26 21. Case 1: Identified Themes and Frictions Driver Stories Value We dont have time; technology My time, not yours; existing class timeTime costs moneystructures and routines Technology Brand name technology, limitedand Perceived Technology costs moneymeasurement and re-evaluationResources pathsIdentity;Technology Heroes and Pilots;Limited problem-based-learning or Power;student achievement narratives collaboration narratives; focus onTeaching and centered on testing andpresentation and measurement of Success measurementtextbook and test drivers 22 22. Time/Place/Data ConnectionsConceptsAffordances &amp; Brands Time/Place/Data ConnectionsOrganizational AssumptionsChanging Narratives 23. Technology Extends Senses Connects Time and Place Telephone Pen Clock Telescope Recording devices Cell phone Digital storage Technology as extensionsof embodiment (McLuhan, 1967);Technology as time and space (e.g.,Bowker, 1995; Horning et al., 1999) 24. Technology connects wholeindustries Where and When Time Space Connections Time of Capture Time of Place of Capture Consumption and Rules of PurchaseCapture/Editing/ Place ofContextConsumption and Purchase Metaphors/rules of13 consumption 25. Case 1: Time = Value = NarrativesEXSTENSIVE Stories of Time Time as a scarce resource limits being externally applied efforts to push back uses and obligations of time Few stories about saving time or new technologies saving time Few stories about using time WELL together to adopt new technologies Only one story of understanding time needed to teach differently or digest different content with new technologies. Lots of stories of decisions made without any consideration of other peoples time or valuing time as a decision resource across the system, including in wiki implementation, email systems for enhanced communication, SMART Board content needed for visuals, etc. Value in play and time to play as learning Past stories about extensive stories of how things used to be as reasoningfor present Future stories about hopes and aspirations , which mostly were limited inscope 26. Case 2: Consideration of Time Buy, Build, and Share Internal time with non-hourly staff NOT counted in any work of any kind Time for Information No time to look outside program, department No value for that connection no time delegated or valued Open Source: Internal Time not measured or valued SUNY Academic Commons also big internal benefits of shared time, but not valued or measured for boundary spanners (Rothwell &amp; Zegveld, 1985; Swanson, 1994; Tushman &amp; Scanlan, 1981) 27. Organizational AssumptionsConceptsAffordances &amp; Brands Time/Place/Data ConnectionsOrganizational AssumptionsChanging Narratives 28. Unspoken Pre-Decisional Routines How do we improve the flow of information aboutgreat ideas while valuing time? Who do we assume makes decisions? How does the prior decision affect the next? How do we measure decisions and results to adjustthem for further improvement? Or stop them? Who gets rewarded? How do we set up healthy decision processes thatlearn from past events? 29. Corbin (1980): Paths of Decisions,broken into assumptions Problems? Or Opportunity formulation? Who is allowed to identify opportunities? Who feels they can? Eval./measurement? What are the sources of new ideas? Spread and measurement of pilots? 30. Pre-Decisional FocusThese Two Cases: Focusing on Pre-decisions Who brings what into consideration? How are alternatives filtered andencouraged? When is a decision closed? Who decides? 31. Muddy Mix on How We DecideCyert &amp; MarchCohen, March,Witte (1972)(1963) Mating&amp; Olsen (1972)Iterative, notTheory of garbage canLinear Search passive method matchupMintzberg, et al. Nutt (1984) rare (1976) normativeoverlapping andpatternsnon-linear 32. Technology is a human construct, created by engineers, marketing teams, andconsumers who buy it and modify it Bijker, 1995; Winner, 1977Sociotechnical ensembles where relevant social groups look at problems andsolutions, and in that friction in-between, come up with interpretive flexibility andcraft new meanings Bijker, 1995The reality of the technology and the needs for it differ by group Hrd, 1993Power struggles can start a technology change and closure in technology relates tothose power struggles Hrd, 1993Technology: Politics &amp; Power 33. How can we help leaders look at flow of organizational change narratives? Trace ideas Who can have an idea? What paths do innovations flow? (Hellstrm, C., &amp;Hellstrm, T., 2002) Where do new ideas come from? Map change Where has change come from in the past? Closure Who makes the decision that change is done? When is it done? 34. Closure: Case 1Time ends upon delivery and short training Minimal measurement and fine-tuning except for DataDirector No visible thought process on developing users long-term skills (or students long-term skills) in embracingtechnology into work/lives No apparent re-evaluation processes Adoptions seen as one-time events instead of as acontinuum of resources and systems Minimal apparent transparent evaluation of pilots orpropagation of good uses 35. More Identity and Role: Case 1Learning stories of how I workFrom peers, tutorials, learning networksand engageProfessional development assumed to be a -1 day training on user interfaces of a specific technologyStories of past district leadershipabout Ghosts and HeroesWho we are in stories,illustrated with district andschool descriptions and how we know what they areHeroes (pseudonyms): Franklin (middle school teacher); Marcy (elementary principal); Jerry (secondary principal)People as Symbol StoriesPeople as Functions (by name, not role)People as Symbols: New CTO; District Office; PrincipalsGhosts: 2006 CTO, past Superintendent; 2 past principals 36. Case 1: Metaphor-driven stories onassumptions, limits, and rulesTechnology as an undefined thing, Definitions of Tech: Brands as shorthand for unspoken conceptstool, etc. (e.g., we need technology,we cannot afford technology, we are Certain techno-ecological systems are better without discussionbehind in technology) (e.g., Dell, Apple, Smart, Mobi/Interwrite)Email as uncontrolled use of time and attention Conformity stories, in conjunctionwith School Loop and Pacing Guides; tacitly accepting conformity as an organizational norm Technology costs and does not save money. Technology is hardware and software purchases, not systemTechnology as limited by the system implementations across social processes.(money, budget, measurement, Money is driven by grants, their assumptions, and their related information) social systems; spending by grant parameters instead of seekingown opportunities for development except by one participant(who is leaving at the year-end). 37. Case 1: Missing or Thin Stories My Job -- No participants Seeking teaching resources claimed that their job is Taking Time -- UnderstandingEconomic considerations (for use with enhanced responsible for educationalconnecting to resources(have &amp; have nots; teachers technologies) or curriculumtechnology in the classroom; takes time and/or time of also were have-nots as well planning stories other thaneach of the 22 pointed toothers in decision-makingas half of the students)pacing guidessomeone elseCollaboration or inclusionCollaboration except inInvisible technologies with school technologyInnovationinformal teachers teaching(printers, overheads, support personnel or school teachers speakers, phone)librarianLeaving others behind/non- Information seeking andinclusion: Ethnicity of Student Creation or sharing as a collaborative community and families; Inclusions Stories (2 storiesaction; minimal knowledge Library/librarian or Reward or Success Stories about student use out of 22management for teaching or technology aide as resource; interviews) decision-makingsecond class citizen, non- inclusion or consideration 38. Changing NarrativesConceptsAffordances &amp; Brands Time/Place/Data ConnectionsOrganizational AssumptionsChanging Narratives 39. Narrative Drivers Can Limit Choices Action and Leadership Internal Perspectives Personal actionExternal Perspectives Information Information routines STEP, especially Time New narrative fuel budget/policy Identity and roles Routinesreduce perceived Nature of Competition Unclear and uncertainties and frames choice; technology simplifycontradictory social and social context limit alternatives through Valuesperspectives information, search, role and Information reinforcement assignments in choices, Belief reinforcementTechnology recognition of gaps, lack of Choice: narratives MissingConsiderations feedback of Alternatives 40. Technology-Specific Narrative Drivers Action andShifts power Leadershiprelations Internal Perspectives Personal actionExternal Perspectives Information Information Transparency routines STEP, especially social elements TimeTime, Place, New narrative fuel budget/policyinvisible to many Identity and rolesand People: Competitionsocial elements Nature ofRealigns Unclear andbecome technol...</p>

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