Building Services II Assignment

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<ol><li> 1. 1 SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING AND DESIGN BACHELOR IN QUANTITY SURVEYING (HONOURS) Building Services II (QSB 2714) Lecturer: Dr. Kam Kenn Jhun Case Study : First Subang Mall Name Student ID Cecilia Tie Sing Lu 0314050 Vivian Tan Fui Vun 0318270 Lau Sii 0319027 Stephanie Yeoh Sze Wei 0318954 Cassandra Wong Xin Yue 0313365 Muhammad Haziq bin Hj Abd Zariful 0314131 </li><li> 2. 2 Table of Content Content Page Acknowledgment 3 Abstract 4 1.0 Introduction 5 2.0 Part 1 (Purpose of the building as case study) 5 3.0 Part 2 (Existing types of system) 3.1 Mechanical and Air-conditioning System 3.2 Electrical Supply System 3.3 Fire Protection System 3.4 Vertical Transportation System 6 12 17 29 4.0 Part 3 (Problems and Recommendations) 4.1 Fire Protection System 4.2 Vertical Transportation System 36 44 5.0 Conclusion 52 6.0 References 53 </li><li> 3. 3 Acknowledgment We would like to express our sincere gratitude to everyone who has helped and guided us in the completion of this assignment. First and foremost, we would like to thank our lecturer, Dr. Kam Kenn Jhun, who has encouraged and guided us while doing the assignment, especially in the preparation of our case study report. Furthermore, we would like to show our appreciation to Ms Sarryan from the divisional office for providing the approval letter for our site visit. Lastly, thanks to the group mates Cecilia Tie, Vivian Tan, Stephanie Yeoh, Cassandra Wong, Haziq and Lau Sii who compiled the parts and also contributed suggestions for the assignment. We also need to thank our leader, Cecilia for having the initiative and worked hard to gain approval for site visit and also her encouragement in order to ensure that our progress works are on track. </li><li> 4. 4 Abstract Building services play a vital role in the function of the building. The function of the building services affects how the building functions, the comfort of occupants and also the safety of occupants. This report basically contains the case study of building services in First Subang Mall, which includes the different type of systems used in the building and the purpose of the building. From the case study, the types of system used are identified, the problems in the existing building is analyzed, and suitable recommendation are given to further improve the building services of the building are given based on Uniform Building By-Laws 1984 (UBBL). The report covers the topic of building services such as fire protection system, mechanical and air conditioning system, vertical transportation system and electrical supply system in the First Subang Mall. </li><li> 5. 5 1.0 Introduction Our group members who are Cecilia Tie, Lau Sii, Vivian Tan, Stephanie Yeoh, Cassandra Wong and Haziq had chosen First Subang Mall as our case study. We are requested to observe and comment on the building services systems in this building. First Subang Mall consists two office towers, five floors of parking and three retail floors. We visited three retail floors which include the supermarket, bank, restaurants, and KTV rooms only, because we were unable to access the office towers without any permission. 2.0 Part 1 (Purpose of the Building as Case Study) The purpose of choosing First Subang Mall as our case study is because our applications for site visit had been rejected by several shopping malls which are Giant Hypermarket USJ, AEON Big Subang Jaya, Giant Kelana Jaya Mall, and Paradigm Mall. In addition, we had chosen this building as a case study is because First Subang Mall is under renovation now and it is convenient for us to observe the building services systems in this building. Besides that, the existing types of system that can be found in this building are mechanical and air conditioning system, electrical supply system, fire protection system, and vertical transportation system. These systems are all included in our case study. Figure 1: First Subang Mall </li><li> 6. 6 3.0 Part 2 (Existing Types of System) 3.1 Mechanical and Air-conditioning System Ventilation is the process whereby air in an enclosed space is replaced with new fresh air. Extraction and supply of air can be through mechanical or natural ventilation. The purpose of ventilation is to control temperature, moisture, air circulation and maintain the freshness of air. In Malaysia, where the climate is hot, ventilation is important to keep the building and its occupants cool. In this section, the mechanical ventilation, which is ventilation by use of fan or air-con system, of the First Subang Mall will be analyzed. Ducting System In the ground floor area, an exposed ceiling is used and thus the ducting was exposed. The presence of ducting shows that the building uses centralized system and that chilled air is transferred to various parts of the building from the AHU room through ducting. The ducting system consists of duct components, diffusers, return air grilles and fire dampers. The ducting in the First Subang Mall is insulated to reduce heat loss and reduce installation cost. It can be seen that the ducting was designed to have an equal velocity through the ducts as volume of air is diffused out with equal volume. Figure 2: Ducting system in the building. </li><li> 7. 7 Extraction Ventilation Through observing the ducting works in the First Subang Mall, we also found that the building uses extraction ventilation system, a system where the ductwork is equipped with extraction grilles strategically located in marginal locations, where the extracted air is then removed from the building through extract fan. It functions to reduce odors &amp; smoke in the room. Centralized System Components Cooling Tower For centralized system air conditioning, there is a cooling tower, which is used to rapidly cool the water used for the cooling coil by rejecting the heat from the chilled water taken from the rooms. Figure 3 &amp; 4 &amp; 5: Extraction ventilation system in the building. Figure 6: Details of cooling tower. </li><li> 8. 8 AHU Room The Air Handling Unit (AHU) Room is a plant room where it is used to condition and circulate the air. Air Handling Units connect to the ductwork that distributes the conditioned air throughout the areas of the building &amp; the warmed air is returned to the AHU room to be cooled after going through the cooling coil &amp; filter. The chilled water from the cooling coil taken from the cooling tower is supplied and returned in grey pipes as shown in Figure 6. Diffusers Other components of the centralized system can also be seen throughout the building, such as the supply air diffuser and the return air diffuser. The supply diffuser is used to discharge chilled air from the AHU room through ducting while the return air diffuser is used to return the warm air back to the AHU room to be chilled and supplied again. There are many types of supply &amp; return diffusers used in the building, which will be stated thenceforth. (A) Supply Diffuser As stated therein, Supply Diffusers are used to discharge air to rooms, where different types are used according to the area, space or the ceiling of the room in order to sufficiently diffuse air by discharging it in different directions or speed. There are many types of diffusers that are used in First Subang. One of which is the cone diffuser, which can be seen next to the parallel escalator area, where the ceiling is voided in order for the escalator to be placed. The cone diffuser, which can be raised or lowered, is used to cool the space of the escalators for the users comfort. Figure 7 </li><li> 9. 9 For the suspended ceiling, the 4-way diffuser seen in Figure 8 &amp; 9 is typically used in various parts of the building such as the lower ground floor. This type of diffuser is typically used in many buildings as it discharges chilled air in 4 directions, hence spreading the air around the space efficiently. Another type of diffuser used for suspended ceiling is the linear diffuser. This diffuser is used for open plan rooms, in this case, found on the ceiling of the elevator lobby area, to avoid interference of the ceiling pattern. Its direction of air discharge can be changed to suit the room conditions. Figure 8: Cone diffusers in the building. Figure 10Figure 9 Figure 11: Linear diffuser </li><li> 10. 10 For the exposed ceiling, there are two types of supply diffusers, one of which is seen to be straight from the ducting and another type is the multi-direction diffuser as seen in Figure 11. The design of the ducting, which reduces the size of the ducting, allows the same volume of air to be discharged at every opening. (B) Return Diffusers The return diffusers on the other hand, have two types depending on the ceiling. The suspended ceiling uses the typical return diffuser grill as seen in Figure 12. Figure 12 Figure 13: Return diffuser is attached to the ceiling. </li><li> 11. 11 For exposed ceilings, the return diffusers are seen to be a side-wall inlet type, which is used when there is no false ceiling such as the case here. It can be seen on both suspended and exposed ceilings that the return diffusers are placed high from the ground. This is because warm air rises when it diffuses and hence it is ideal for return diffusers to be placed in high places. This is however a different case when it comes to cooler climate areas, where return diffusers are placed on lower ground for cool air to be heated. Figure 15: Source from http://sustainabilityworkshop.autodesk.com/buildings/zones- air-distribution-equipment Figure 14: Side-wall inlet type return diffuser is attached to the wall. </li><li> 12. 12 3.2 Electrical Supply System Tenaga Nasional Berhad is the largest electric utility company in Malaysia. It serves over 8.4 million customers throughout Peninsular Malaysia and also the eastern state of Sabah through Sabah Electricity Sdn. Bhd. TNBs core activities are in the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity. Distribution Panels Two distribution panels are found by us. One of the distribution panels is mounted on the wall at the ground floor of the building and another is located at the basement parking. Distribution panel is a panel distributes power to the consuming loads. The Figure 17: Distribution panel is mounted on the wall inside the building. Figure 18: Distribution panel is mounted on the wall at the basement. Figure 16: Wall that is painted with TENAGA NASIONAL BERHAD. </li><li> 13. 13 distribution panels are enclosed and are sheet steel fabricated. The function of distribution panel is as an assembly of switches and circuit protection devices that serve final distribution point. A distribution panel consists of circuit breakers and busbars. Circuit breakers functions are almost same as fuses. Circuit breakers are able to protect for high current incomes and feeders power supply. It must remain closed connection when short-circuits happen. The purpose is to let the downstream circuit breaker cut off the faults (Lemau 2011). Moreover, switchboards also contain a set of busbars which is used to transmit high electrical current in a distribution panel. Busbars connect to switchgear to clear faults and de-energize equipment (Andrea nd). Fault Indicator type EASI-R A fault indicator type EASI-R is placed on the external wall of the First Subang Mall. Fault indicator is a device which can point out the passageway of fault current. The Figure 19: Details of distribution panel. Figure 20: Fault indicator type EASI-R mounted on the wall. </li><li> 14. 14 feature of the EASI is the indication of an earth-fault by one LED indicator and one flag indicator. If the fault indicator is properly applied, it can reduce operating costs and reduce service interruptions by identifying the section of cable that has failed (Cooper Power System nd). In open ring systems, the damaged line section can be disconnected from the network, as soon as a fault is found. The rest of the network can be powered up when the technical team repairs the damaged cable (Elektro-Mechanik GmbH nd). Cable Troll 2310 Indicators Cable Troll 2310 indicators are placed on the external wall of the building. Cable troll indicators are devices for detection of earth faults on multi-core and single core cable terminations. The unit uses Nor Troll type current sensor (CT). The Cable Troll indicators are fault current indicators for the underground medium voltage distribution network (6-36kV). They are installed in Ring Main Units in distribution substations (Nor Troll nd). Figure 21: Cable Troll 2310 indicators are mounted on the wall. </li><li> 15. 15 Electrical Conduit Tee Conduit can protect the cable physical damage and heat. Conduit tee fitting also provides continuous support. PVC electrical conduit is rigid and lightweight. It is also durable and readily cut. PVC electrical conduit is less cost than its metallic counterparts (Elliott Electric Supply nd). Main Switchboard Room Main switchboards are in the main switchboard room. Main switchboard is an assembly of switches and circuit protection devices from which power is distributed. It is considered low voltage as the current has been stepped down to 415V. It can transmit electricity from one source to another. Transformers Room Figure 22: Electrical conduit tee with wires. Figure 23: A DANGER sign board is placed on the door of main switchboard room. </li><li> 16. 16 Transformer room is where the step-down transformers are placed. A transformer is a machine used to step down high voltage current from 11kV to low voltage 415V. The 415V current will then be transferred to the main switchboard for distribution. A DANGER sign board is placed on the door of the door. Meter Room The electricity meter room is a room that consists of many electricity meters. Electricity meter is a device that measures the amount of electric energy consumed by the First Subang Mall. Normally, electric meter is typically calibrated in billing units which is the kilowatt hour (kWh). Figure 24: A DANGER sign board is placed on the door of transformers room. Figure 25: A DANGER sign board is placed on the door of electricity meter room. </li><li> 17. 17 3.3 Fire Protection System Fire protection is the measures taken to prevent fire from becoming destructive, reduced the impact of uncontrolled fire and saves life and property. There are 3 factors in order to start a fire, which includes the oxygen, fuel and heat. If any of the elements absent, fire cannot be start up. Fire protection methods are subdivided into two, which includes the active fire protection method and passive fire protection method. 3.3.1 Active Fire Protection Method Active fire protection methods require mechanical, electric or electronic activation. It is the manual or automatic fire protection systems such as fire alarms, detectors, (heat and smoke) wet and dry risers, hose reels and carbon dioxide fixed installation. Fire Extinguisher Fire extinguishers are intended to extinguish small scale of fire to prevent the escalation of fire into full-scale fire before the fire department arrives (Natur...</li></ol>