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BUILDING CONSTRUCTION II

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION IISKELETAL CONSTRUCTION : TEMPORARY BUS SHELTER

LIEW JINNATALIE KI XIAO XUANRYAN KERRY JEE JIN YIINGSHARON LIM YU JUNGSONIA MANCXIATANG PEI KEI

TUTOR : AR CHIN TUCK HENG

CONTENTSDESIGN DERIVATIVE | PRECEDENT STUDIES| DESIGN INSPRATION & CONCEPT| WEATHER RESISTANCE & TEMPORALITY | ACCESS

CONSTRUCTION| TECHNICAL DRAWINGS | COMPONENTS| MATERIALITY| JOINTS & DETAILS | PROCESS

TEST RESULTS | FORCES STUDIES & STRUCTURAL MOVEMENT| ANALYSIS & CONCLUSION

| DESIGN DERIVATIVE |

3

| PRECEDENT STUDIES

Kengo Kumas Prostho Museum

A soft filter of light to provide shade and allow ample of light to diffuse in. Good natural ventilationas air flows into the space. Lattice can use for hanging/ installation/ trellis for plants.

Austrian Bus Stop by 7 famous architects Typical Austrian bus stop with vernacular wooden structure.Linear seating with view framing. Wang Shu + Amateur Studio

Air flow throughout the space. Good human interaction as the seats are on opposite sides.Visually unobstructed.The Healing Space Bus Shelter

Cleared pathway for boarding.

Non-obstructed views of approaching buses. BUILDING CONSTRUCTION II / DESIGN DERIVATIVE

4

Calatravas Organic Concepts

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION II / DESIGN DERIVATIVE

| DESIGN INSPIRATION & CONCEPT

The design inspiration came from the lily plant. The stigma of the lily branches out from the style which creates an interesting organic form. The organic form is then deduced as part of the design and the structural component of the bus shelter. The bus shelter comprises of 2 geometrical shapes which is a cylinder and an upside down square base pyramid. The curved element of the cylinder is used to give the curved shape roof while the structural skeleton is formed by two square based pyramid.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION II / DESIGN DERIVATIVE

| WEATHER RESISTANCE & TEMPORALITY

The materials and type of construction used are able to withstand the uplift of the strong winds. The structure of the roof extends to the point where the rainwater can fall outwards rather than into the shelter. A curved roof is used to allow the rain to run smoothly down the roof. This keeps the shelter from being wet. The structure is designed to last for an approximate span of 4-5 years and hence making its presence temporary.

Rainwater that falls on the roof will slide along the sides of the roof. The deep overhangs of the roof will lead the rainwater to flow outwards.

The roof is pinned on at several points to make sure it stays when lateral forces acBUILDING CONSTRUCTION II / DESIGN DERIVATIVE

| ACCESS

The bus shelter is designed in a way that there are no obstruction during the process of boarding. The users can enter through all sides of the bus shelter. This helps in the efficiency of the bus shelter. As the obstructions are minimized, the users have a non-obstructed views of approaching buses in which promotes safety.

Free, unobstructed access to the seating.

Supporting system blocks the access of the bus shelter.

Arrangement of the support system minimizes the visibility of the approaching buses.BUILDING CONSTRUCTION II / DESIGN DERIVATIVE

| CONSTRUCTION |

| TECHNICAL DRAWINGS

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION II / CONSTRUCTION

PLANSIDE ELEVATION

FRONT ELEVATION

10

| COMPONENTS

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION II / CONSTRUCTIONLATITUDINAL ROOFING RAFTERSTIMBER TRELLIS SEATINGSFLOORING JOISTSTIMBER DECKING FLOORSTRUCTURAL COLUMN STUMPROOFINGLONGITUDINAL ROOFING RAFTERSSKELETAL STRUCTURAL COLUMNMETAL FLANGE CONNECTORBENCH SEATING JOISTSMILD STEEL PLATE ANGLE CONNECTORSTRUCTURAL COLUMN CAPITALThe entire build up structure consists of mainly the roofing and the roofings support system, the column which in this sense is depicted as the glulam skeletal structure and also the PVC concrete-infilled column stump and last but no least the flooring which is constructed as a basic timber joist flooring system. The sub components also include the seating which allows the build up structure to function as a bus shelter, and also the joinery components which connects all component of the build up structure entirely.

| MATERIALITY

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION II / CONSTRUCTION

6mm THK STAINLESS STEEL FLANGE50mm THK GLULAM SKELETAL STRUCTURAL COLUMNS80mm THK SEMI-CIRCULAR GLULAM ROOF RAFTERS 75mm THK TIMBER SEATING TRELLISES50mm THK TIMBER DECKING TRELLISES

50mm PVC PIPE COLUMN STUMP INFILLED W/ CONCRETE50 mm THK STAINLESS STEEL C- CHANNEL PURLINS SUPPORTING ROOFING SHEET5mm THK TRANSPARENT POLYCARBONATE CORRUGATED ROOFING SHEET100mm THK TIMBER BENCH JOIST10mm THK MILD STEEL PLATE ANGLESTAINLESS STEEL COLUMN CAPITAL CONNECTOR BOLTED INTO CASTED CONCRETEIn order to enhance the reusability of the materials, most of the structure build-up is been constructed using recyclable materials. These comprises mainly of glulam skeletal structures, polycarbonate corrugated roofing sheets and also reused PVC pipe infilled with concrete. Besides, in order to enhance the coherence of materiality, timber is mainly used throughout the entire structure which includes the skeletal structure itself and also the timber flooring decking. 50mm THK TIMBER DECKING JOISTS50mm LONGITUDINAL TIMBER RAFTERS

| JOINTS & DETAILS

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION II / CONSTRUCTION

Mild steel angle plate connectors which are connectors that holds and positions the timber joists of the seating which also connects all timber trellises together. Bolts and nuts which are utilized to assemble and join the glulam pieces of the build up structure to form the main glulam skeletal structure. Tongue and grooves connections which are reinforced using timber ties pieces are utilized as to sooth the fittings of the timber pieces and by which provides a better and comfortable fit. Timber ties pieces which is conjoining with each other which serves to position and bolt the two longitudinal roof rafters together. Metal flanges connectors assemblage which serves to hold and conjoin all bolted glulam skeletal structure Timber joists and timber trellises decking are connected via screws that holds the floor joist assemblage together while allowing it to act as a platform to connect all trellises repetitively to form a complete timber trellis floor deck.

| PROCESSBUILDING CONSTRUCTION II / CONSTRUCTION

White concrete is premixed with suitable substance to solvent ratio to form a molten concrete.The premixed concrete is then casted and layered off into a self-made concrete mold in order to make the foundation which is then left off to be dried. The trellises for the timber floor decking is assembled onto the floor joists which are both bolted together.A countersunk screw is drilled through the MDF board to resemble a rebar piercing through the ground at which the column is to be casted upon.The PVC pipes are placed and positioned into the ground at the position which the countersunk screw was drilled through before casting the premixed concrete to form the column stumps.One section of the complete assembled and bolted timber skeletal structure which is conjoined also using bolt and nuts. The glulam skeletal structure which is represented using precut plywood is bolted and assembled into the intended form using bolts and nuts. The joist assemblage of the floor decking is assembled and bolted together where two center squares are form in order to give wat to the concrete column stump.The completed timber floor decking which entirely conjoined using bolts and nuts with a vacant space of two squares to accommodate the column stumps.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION II / CONSTRUCTION

The assembled and bolted glulam skeletal structure is once again bolted against together which are held together by bolt, nuts and metal flanges. Bolts are positioned into the precut holes of the structural columns capital before bolting the entire assemblage to be embedded into the casted concrete of the column stump. Timber ties are added he premixed concrete is then casted and layered off into a self-made concrete mold in order to make the foundation which is then left off to be dried. The structural columns capital is then bolted into the casted concrete infill of the column while conjoining itself with the metal plate which later on is connected to the glulam skeletal structure.The main glulam skeletal structure is assembled and bolted together with the skeletal structure of the roof.The roofing sheets which are represented by acetate sheets are then added onto the semicircular roof rafters.

Mild steel plate angled connectors are bolted into the concrete stump to serve as a main supporter to withstand the structure of the timber trellis seating. The mild steel plate angled connector acts to hold the timber seating joists while it indirectly serves as support for the timber trellises. The assemblage f the timber trellises and the timber joist along with the bolted mild steel plate angle which serves as the main build up structures seating as a whole. Segments of the mild steel plate angled connectors are bolted into the timber joist of the seating before bolting into the concrete column stump.

| TEST RESULTS |

| FORCES STUDIES & STRUCTURAL MOVEMENT

LOADINGSSupporting columns were fixed at the two ends of the roof. Dead load and live loads act upon the roof causing the midpoint of the roof to carry most of the load. This might cause the roof to collapse in the center. The structure has a tendency to slant towards the sides. SIMPLY SUPPORTED STRUCTURE

LATERAL LOADINGLATERAL LOADINGCANTI

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