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Biotechnology Slide 2 Slide 3 What Is Biotechnology? GMO- genetically modified organisms. GEO- genetically enhanced organisms. With both, the natural genetic material of the organism has been altered. Roots in bread making, wine brewing, cheese and yogurt fermentation, and classical plant and animal breeding Slide 4 What Is Biotechnology? Manipulation of genes is called genetic engineering or recombinant DNA technology Genetic engineering involves taking one or more genes from a location in one organism and either Transferring them to another organism Putting them back into the original organism in different combinations Slide 5 What is the career outlook in biotechnology? Biotech in 1998 1,300 companies in the US 2/3 have less than 135 employees 140,000 jobs Jobs will continue to increase exponentially Jobs are available to high school graduates through PhDs Slide 6 What Subjects Are Involved With Biotechnology? Multidisciplinary- involving a number of disciplines that are coordinated for a desired outcome Science Life sciences Physical sciences Social sciences Slide 7 What Subjects Are Involved With Biotechnology? Mathematics Applied sciences Computer applications Engineering Agriculture Slide 8 What Are the Stages of Biotechnology Development Ancient biotechnology- early history as related to food and shelter; Includes domestication Classical biotechnology- built on ancient biotechnology; Fermentation promoted food production, and medicine Modern biotechnology- manipulates genetic information in organism; Genetic engineering Slide 9 What Are the Areas of Biotechnology? Organismic biotechnology- uses intact organisms; Does not alter genetic material Molecular biotechnology- alters genetic makeup to achieve specific goals Transgenic organism- an organism with artificially altered genetic material Slide 10 What Are the Benefits of Biotechnology? Medicine Human Veterinary Biopharming Environment Agriculture Food products Industry and manufacturing Slide 11 What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology? Anton van Leeuwenhoek Discovered cells Bacteria Protists Red blood Slide 12 What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology? Gregor Johan Mendel Discovered genetics Slide 13 What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology? Walter Sutton Discovered Chromosomes Slide 14 What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology? Thomas Hunt Morgan Discovered how genes are transmitted through chromosomes Slide 15 What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology? Ernst Ruska Invented the electron microscope Slide 16 What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology? Sir Alexander Fleming Discovered penicillin Slide 17 What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology? Rosalind Elsie Franklin Research led to the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA Slide 18 What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology? James Watson and Francis Crick Discovered DNA Slide 19 What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology? Mary-Claire King Mapped human genes for research of cancer treatments Slide 20 What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology? Ian Wilmut Created the first true clone, the Dorset ewe Dolly Slide 21 What Is Molecular Biology? Molecular biology- study of molecules in cells Metabolism- processes by which organisms use nutrients Anabolism- building tissues from smaller materials Catabolism- breaking down materials into smaller components Slide 22 What Is a Cell? Cell- a discrete unit of life Unicellular organism- organism of one cell Multicellular organism- organism of many cells Prokaryote- cells that lack specific nucleus Eukaryote- cells with well-defined nucleus Slide 23 What Is a Cell? Cells are building blocks: Tissue- collection of cells with specific functions Organs- collections of tissues with specific functions Organ systems- collections of organs with specific functions Slide 24 What Are the Structures in Molecular Genetics? Molecular genetics- study of genes and how they are expressed Chromosome- part of cell nucleus that contains heredity information and promotes protein synthesis Gene- basic unit of heredity on a chromosome DNA- molecule in a chromosome that codes genetic information Slide 25 Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Slide 26 What Is Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)? Transcription- process of RNA production by DNA DNA-thread-like molecule which decodes DNA information Slide 27 What Is Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)? Kinds of RNA: mRNA- RNA molecules that carry information that specifies amino acid sequence of a protein molecule during translation rRNA- RNA molecules that form the ribosomal subunits; Mediate the translation of mRNA into proteins tRNA- molecules that decode sequence information in and mRNA snRNA- very short RNA that interconnects with to promote formation of mRNA Slide 28 What Are Genetic Engineering Organisms? Genetic engineering- artificially changing the genetic information in the cells of organisms Transgenic- an organism that has been genetically modified GMO- a genetically modified organism GEO- a genetically enhanced organism Slide 29 How Can Genetically Engineered Plants Be Used? Agriculture Horticulture Forestry Environment Food Quality Slide 30 How Do We Create Transgenic Organisms? Donor cell- cell that provides DNA Recipient cell- cell that receives DNA Protocol- procedure for a scientific process Three methods used in gene transfer Agrobacterium gene transfer- plasmid Ballistic gene transfer- gene gun Direct gene transfer- enzymes Slide 31 How Does Agrobacterium Gene Transfer Work? 1. Extract DNA from donor 2. Cut DNA into fragments 3. Sort DNA fragments 4. Recombine DNA fragments 5. Transfer plasmids with bonded DNA 6. Grow transformed (recipient) cells Slide 32 What Are Methods of Classical Biotechnology? Plant breeding- improvement of plants by breeding selected individuals to achieve desired goals Cultivar- a cultivated crop variety Slide 33 What Are Methods of Classical Biotechnology? Plant breeding methods; Line breeding- breeding successive generations of plants among themselves Crossbreeding- breeding plants of different varieties or species Hybridization- breeding individuals from two distinctly different varieties Selection Slide 34 Why Are Plants Genetically Engineered? Resist pests Resist herbicides Improved product quality Pharmaceuticals Industrial products Slide 35 What Is AI? Artificial insemination- the transfer of collected semen to a recipient female Semen is collected from males of desired quality Semen is graded and stored Slide 36 What Is AI? Female must be in estrus for conception Hormone injections may be used to synchronize estrus Semen is placed in the cervix near the horns of the uterus Slide 37 What Is a Test Tube Baby? In vitro fertilization- fertilization of collected ova outside the reproductive tract; Usually in a test tube Semen is collected from males of desired quality Ova are removed from females Sperm and ova are placed in a petri dish or test tube Slide 38 What Is Gender Reversal? Gender reversal- changing the sex of an animal Very young animals receive hormone treatments Most common among selected fish species Slide 39 What Is Gender Preselection? Gender preselection- choosing the sex of offspring Sperm sorted before conception Sperm sorted on basis of chromosome differences X chromosomes produce female offspring Y chromosomes produce male offspring Slide 40 What Is Embryo Transfer? Embryo transfer- removing fertilized ova (embryos) from donor and implanting in a recipient Surgical and nonsurgical methods are used to remove and implant A quality donor female can produce more offspring Slide 41 What Is Multiple Ovulation? Multiple ovulation- promoting increased release of ova during estrus Hormone injections administered prior to estrus Used with embryo transfer AI may be used to fertilize ova After fertilization, embryos are removed and placed in recipients Slide 42 What Is Cloning? Clone- new organism that has been produced asexually from a single parent Genotype is identical to parent Cells or tissues are cultured Slide 43 How Are Hormones Used in Animal Production? Hormone- natural product of glands to produce a response in another part of the body Released by endocrine glands into blood system Hormones are identified, functions determined, and isolated Used to increase growth and production rates bST- promotes milk production in cows pST- promotes lean meat production in swine Slide 44 What Is Bioremediation? Bioremediation- using biological processes to solve environmental problems Biodegradation- natural processes of microbes in breaking down hydrocarbon materials Biodegradable- capable of being decomposed by microbes Slide 45 How Can Bioremediation Be Used? Oil spills Wastewater treatment Heavy metal removal Chemical degradation Slide 46 What Is Phytoremediation? Phytoremediation- process of plants being used to solve pollution problems Plants absorb and break down pollutants Used with heavy metals, pesticides, explosives, and leachate Slide 47 What Is Composting? Composting- a process that promotes biological decomposition of organic matter Compost bin- a facility that contains materials for composting In-vessel composting- using enclosed containers for composting Slide 48 What Are Bioethics? Ethics- knowing right from wrong, and then doing the right idea Bio- living organisms Bioethics- knowing right from wrong with living organisms, and then doing the right idea http://www.oelwein.k12.ia.us/hs/Ag.H ome/biotechethics.htm http://www.oelwein.k12.ia.us/hs/Ag.H ome/biotechethics.htm Slide 49 Creating Bioethics Arguments Read this article from the school website http://www.oelwein.k12.ia.us/hs/Ag.H ome/dwnld/Ethics.in.Biotech.pdf http://www.oelwein.k12.ia.us/hs/Ag.H ome/dwnld/Ethics.in.Biotech.pdf After you read this article prepare ethical arguments with at least 5 Scientific and Factual claims to suppor