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BASIC BASIC BRICKLAYING BRICKLAYING SKILLS SKILLS

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  • BASIC BASIC BRICKLAYING BRICKLAYING

    SKILLSSKILLS

  • INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Work completed on this package relates to all Work completed on this package relates to all

    Diploma and N.V.Q units.Diploma and N.V.Q units. This power point presentation works on a series This power point presentation works on a series

    of questions for open discussion.of questions for open discussion. You are You are advisedadvised to take notes throughout. to take notes throughout.

  • QUESTION 1QUESTION 1 WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO KEEP THE WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO KEEP THE

    WORK AREA TIDY?WORK AREA TIDY?

  • QUESTION 2QUESTION 2 What is meant by Current Legislation and give a What is meant by Current Legislation and give a

    example ?example ?

  • QUESTION 2QUESTION 2 Current Legislation is the LAW that all Current Legislation is the LAW that all

    employers and employees must adhere to now. employers and employees must adhere to now.

  • 7

    Health & Safety at Work ActHealth & Safety at Work Act This act of parliament makes it a criminal This act of parliament makes it a criminal

    offence not to comply with the duties it offence not to comply with the duties it imposes. imposes.

    Failure to comply could lead to Failure to comply could lead to prosecution in the courts with heavy fines prosecution in the courts with heavy fines and/or imprisonment.and/or imprisonment.

    Ignorance is no excuse.Ignorance is no excuse.

  • QUESTION 3QUESTION 3 STATE THE BRITISH STANDARD SIZE STATE THE BRITISH STANDARD SIZE

    OF A BRICK?OF A BRICK?

  • NOMINAL SIZE IS ACTUAL SIZE PLUS A 10mm JOINTNOMINAL SIZE IS ACTUAL SIZE PLUS A 10mm JOINT

  • QUESTION 4QUESTION 4 State the Dimensions of a Block.State the Dimensions of a Block.

  • THERE ARE MANY VARIATIONS OF BLOCKS EACH THERE ARE MANY VARIATIONS OF BLOCKS EACH HAVING A DIFFERENT USE.HAVING A DIFFERENT USE.

  • CELLULAR BLOCKS AND HOLLOW BLOCKSCELLULAR BLOCKS AND HOLLOW BLOCKS

  • FOUNDATION BLOCKS AND REVEAL BLOCKSFOUNDATION BLOCKS AND REVEAL BLOCKS

  • QUESTION 5QUESTION 5 State the purpose of a gauge lath or gauge rod.State the purpose of a gauge lath or gauge rod.

  • So what is gauge?So what is gauge?

    Gauge is the name given to the combined Gauge is the name given to the combined depth of a brick plus the bed joint.depth of a brick plus the bed joint.

    If a 10mm joint is used with a 65mm brick If a 10mm joint is used with a 65mm brick the the gauge would be 65mm + 10mmm = 75mmgauge would be 65mm + 10mmm = 75mm..

    This would give you the standard gauge of This would give you the standard gauge of four courses to 300mm.four courses to 300mm.

  • GAUGE RODSGAUGE RODS

    TheThe gauge is maintained throughout the height gauge is maintained throughout the height of the wall by the use of a gauge rod or a tape of the wall by the use of a gauge rod or a tape measure.measure.

    Accurate use of gauge will maintain the Level of Accurate use of gauge will maintain the Level of the wallthe wall

    This is made from a length of timber This is made from a length of timber approximately 50mm x 25mm.approximately 50mm x 25mm.

  • QUESTION 6QUESTION 6 What information would you expect to find on a What information would you expect to find on a

    story rod ?story rod ?

  • STOREY RODSSTOREY RODS are like gauge rods and are like gauge rods and contain other vital informationcontain other vital information such as cill such as cill heights, head heights of doors and windows etc.heights, head heights of doors and windows etc.

  • HOW TO MAKE A GAUGE LATHHOW TO MAKE A GAUGE LATH

  • When checking a corner for gauge, check the brick for When checking a corner for gauge, check the brick for gauge gauge BEFOREBEFORE plumbing and levelling because: plumbing and levelling because:

    If the brick is low to gauge, plumbing and levelling If the brick is low to gauge, plumbing and levelling would be pointless, as the brick must be removed and would be pointless, as the brick must be removed and re-bedded.re-bedded.

    If the gauge is checked first and found correct, then the If the gauge is checked first and found correct, then the corner brick can be levelled and plumbed and aligned corner brick can be levelled and plumbed and aligned without altering the gauge.without altering the gauge.

  • IMPORTANT !IMPORTANT ! REMEMBER AND NEVER DEVIATE REMEMBER AND NEVER DEVIATE

    FROM THIS ORDER:-FROM THIS ORDER:-

    1.1. GUAGEGUAGE

    2.2. LEVELLEVEL

    3. PLUMB3. PLUMB

  • QUESTION 7QUESTION 7 What is the dimension of 4 course of brick built What is the dimension of 4 course of brick built

    to gauge?to gauge? REMEMBER !REMEMBER ! When doing calculation work always show your When doing calculation work always show your

    working out.working out. Calculators should only be used to check your Calculators should only be used to check your

    work.work.

  • QUESTION 8QUESTION 8 Name 4 different types of cement .Name 4 different types of cement .

  • QUESTION 8QUESTION 8 Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) Sulphate Resisting CementSulphate Resisting Cement Masonry CementMasonry Cement Rapid Hardening CementRapid Hardening Cement Extra Rapid Hardening CementExtra Rapid Hardening Cement High Alumina CementHigh Alumina Cement

  • Question 9Question 9 What does workability of mortar mean and state What does workability of mortar mean and state

    the use of a plastersizer?the use of a plastersizer?

  • Question 9Question 9 Workability means ease of use, when Workability means ease of use, when

    bricklaying you can have a harsh mortar making bricklaying you can have a harsh mortar making bricklaying more difficult, a plastersizer can be bricklaying more difficult, a plastersizer can be introduced to reduce this problem. introduced to reduce this problem.

  • PLASTERSIZERSPLASTERSIZERS Cement, sand and water often produce harsh mortars Cement, sand and water often produce harsh mortars

    which are difficult to use. Their workability can be which are difficult to use. Their workability can be improved by adding lime or a proprietary plasticiser improved by adding lime or a proprietary plasticiser which traps small bubbles of air in the mortar reducing which traps small bubbles of air in the mortar reducing the surface tension of the mortar.the surface tension of the mortar.

    Use only proprietary plasticisers as specified or Use only proprietary plasticisers as specified or permittedpermitted

    Follow the manufacturers instructionsFollow the manufacturers instructions

  • Question 9Question 9 Never use domestic detergents as they may contain Never use domestic detergents as they may contain

    harmful chemicals or cause an uncontrollable amount harmful chemicals or cause an uncontrollable amount of bubbles with can produce a weak mortar mix.of bubbles with can produce a weak mortar mix.

  • QUESTION 10QUESTION 10 Why is it necessary to gauge mortar?Why is it necessary to gauge mortar?

    To maintain colour and strength.To maintain colour and strength.

  • GAUGINGGAUGING

    This the term used to describe measuring out This the term used to describe measuring out quantities of materials for the mortar mix.quantities of materials for the mortar mix.

    Of all the operations carried out on a building Of all the operations carried out on a building site this is the one of the most abused. it is site this is the one of the most abused. it is common practice for the mixer to be loaded by common practice for the mixer to be loaded by the shovel full . In no way can the proportions the shovel full . In no way can the proportions be accurately gauged in this way as a shovelful of be accurately gauged in this way as a shovelful of damp sand will have a greater volume than dry damp sand will have a greater volume than dry cement.cement.

  • Can you guarantee the same amount on each Can you guarantee the same amount on each shovel each time?shovel each time?

  • Question 11Question 11 Name 2 things that could be added to a mortar Name 2 things that could be added to a mortar

    mix to improve workability.mix to improve workability.

  • Question 11Question 11 LimeLime Plastersizer (e.g FEB)Plastersizer (e.g FEB)

  • Question 12Question 12 What is the total height of 12 courses of brick What is the total height of 12 courses of brick

    built to gauge?built to gauge?

    Helpful hint : the height of the brick + the joint Helpful hint : the height of the brick + the joint sizesize

  • QUESTION 13QUESTION 13 What is the total length of a wall built 10 bricks What is the total length of a wall built 10 bricks

    long?long?

    If a wall is 5 bricks long it has 4 joints, if a wall If a wall is 5 bricks long it has 4 joints, if a wall has 6 bricks long it has 5 joints etc.has 6 bricks long it has 5 joints etc.

    Remember to always show your working out Remember to always show your working out when doing calculation work.when doing calculation work.

  • B.S TEST FOR BRICKSB.S TEST FOR BRICKS

  • QUESTION 14QUESTION 14 Describe the method of checking a spirit level Describe the method of checking a spirit level

    for accuracy (both level and plumb).for accuracy (both level and plumb).

  • QUESTIONQUESTION 1414 Checking level horizontally. Checking level horizontally. (LEVEL)(LEVEL) Set two screws into a firm bench top, the length Set two screws into a firm bench top, the length

    of the level to be checked.of the level to be checked. Turn one of the screws until the bubble reads Turn one of the screws until the bubble reads

    level.level. Reverse the level on the screws, if the bubble Reverse the level on the screws, if the bubble

    reads level then the level is accurate.reads level then the level is accurate.

  • QUESTION 14QUESTION 14 Checking for upright Checking for upright (PLUMB)(PLUMB) Set two screws into a vertical timber frame the Set two screws into a vertical timber frame the

    length of the level.length of the level. Check the screws for upright with a plumb bob.Check the screws for upright with a plumb bob. Place the level on the screws. Place the level on the screws.

  • QUESTION 15QUESTION 15

    What is meant by the term racking back?What is meant by the term racking back?

  • BUILDING A QUOINBUILDING A QUOIN1) A right angle is set out using a builders square and mortar screed. The corner brick is then bedded to gauge.

    2) The corner is then dry bonded and the end bricks bedded and levelled into the quoin brick.

  • 3) The intermediate bricks are then bedded, levelled on top surface and aligned on the face of the bricks

    4) This sequence should be followed throughout the corner with each course being set to gauge, levelled and

    plumbed on both returns.

  • RACKING BACK A CORNERRACKING BACK A CORNER

    The extreme ends of the returns should then be checked for alignment down the line of racked back courses.

  • QUESTION 16QUESTION 16

    Explain the terms cross joint and bed joint?Explain the terms cross joint and bed joint?

  • QUESTION 17QUESTION 17 Why is it necessary to acquire the correct Why is it necessary to acquire the correct

    technique for rolling mortar?technique for rolling mortar?

  • The reasons for rolling mortar The reasons for rolling mortar are:-are:-

    It increases the workability of the mortar.It increases the workability of the mortar. It reduces the risk of smudging the It reduces the risk of smudging the

    faceworkfacework It increases output (number of bricks laid)It increases output (number of bricks laid) It helps to maintain a consistent joint It helps to maintain a consistent joint

    thickness.thickness.

  • QUESTION 18QUESTION 18 What is the correct method of applying a cross What is the correct method of applying a cross

    joint to a brick?joint to a brick?

  • Remember all joints must be full !Remember all joints must be full !

    Take a small amount of mortar from the board Take a small amount of mortar from the board onto the trowel blade onto the trowel blade

    Flex the wrist firmly to cause the mortar to Flex the wrist firmly to cause the mortar to spread across the trowel blade.spread across the trowel blade.

    Pick up a brick as shown by your tutor. Hold the Pick up a brick as shown by your tutor. Hold the brick and the trowel in front of your body.brick and the trowel in front of your body.

    Draw the trowel blade down across the full Draw the trowel blade down across the full width of the brick leaving a portion of the width of the brick leaving a portion of the mortar on the brick.mortar on the brick.

  • Lift the trowel again and draw the blade down Lift the trowel again and draw the blade down one edge of the brick. Again leaving a portion of one edge of the brick. Again leaving a portion of the mortar on the brickthe mortar on the brick

    Repeat the process down the other edge of the Repeat the process down the other edge of the brick.brick.

    The brick should now be buttered on three edges The brick should now be buttered on three edges of the brick with sufficient mortar so that when it of the brick with sufficient mortar so that when it is pushed against the next brick it fills the cross is pushed against the next brick it fills the cross joint.joint.

    Remember all joints must be full !Remember all joints must be full !

  • QUESTION 18QUESTION 18

  • QUESTION 19QUESTION 19 You should always try to put a brick down with You should always try to put a brick down with

    hand pressure alone, if you have to tap the hand pressure alone, if you have to tap the brick why should this be done in the middle?brick why should this be done in the middle?

  • QUESTION 19QUESTION 19

    This is to prevent lips and steps in the wall. This is to prevent lips and steps in the wall. (strange shadows can appear on the face of the (strange shadows can appear on the face of the wall especially with artificial light and sunlight)wall especially with artificial light and sunlight)

    REMEMBER REMEMBER EDGE TO EDGEEDGE TO EDGE

  • QUESTION 20QUESTION 20 When using a scutch what should always be When using a scutch what should always be

    worn for safety?worn for safety?

  • Comb or Scutch HammerComb or Scutch Hammer

    Used to trim bricks after they have been cut Used to trim bricks after they have been cut with a bolster. The combs are renewable.with a bolster. The combs are renewable.

  • Goggles should be worn when using any cutting tools

  • QUESTION 21QUESTION 21 State the purpose of a queen closer?State the purpose of a queen closer?

  • QUESTION 21QUESTION 21

  • NAMES OF CUT BRICKSNAMES OF CUT BRICKS

  • NAMES OF CUT BRICKSNAMES OF CUT BRICKS

  • NAMES OF CUT BRICKSNAMES OF CUT BRICKS

  • QUESTION 22QUESTION 22 Explain the difference between a header and a Explain the difference between a header and a

    stretcherstretcher

  • QUESTION 22QUESTION 22

  • QUESTION 23QUESTION 23 What is meant by half bond?What is meant by half bond?

  • QUESTION 23QUESTION 23

  • QUESTION 24QUESTION 24 Explain the difference between common, facing Explain the difference between common, facing

    and engineering bricks and give an example and engineering bricks and give an example where each could be used?where each could be used?

  • Types of bricks:-Types of bricks:- Bricks can be manufactured in a range of Bricks can be manufactured in a range of

    materials, which include clay, sand lime materials, which include clay, sand lime (Calcium Carbonate) and concrete. Each (Calcium Carbonate) and concrete. Each one has its own uses and characteristics one has its own uses and characteristics but can all be classified under the but can all be classified under the following headings:-following headings:-

  • Common BricksCommon Bricks

    have no particular finish on any surface and are have no particular finish on any surface and are generally intended for use on internal work or generally intended for use on internal work or any work which will not be seen or where the any work which will not be seen or where the appearance is not important.appearance is not important.

  • Facing BricksFacing Bricks

    have a finished surface wither sanded, smooth, have a finished surface wither sanded, smooth, textured or rusticated.textured or rusticated.

    They may be uniform in colour or multicoloured They may be uniform in colour or multicoloured and vary in density.and vary in density.

    Used for facing buildings and provide a durable Used for facing buildings and provide a durable attractive finish.attractive finish.

  • Engineering BrickEngineering Brick are very dense and durable. They are used for are very dense and durable. They are used for

    building inspection chamber, walls and piers that building inspection chamber, walls and piers that are exposed or are to carry heavy loads such as are exposed or are to carry heavy loads such as bridges etc.bridges etc.

    RefractoryRefractory used in situations where they are to be exposed used in situations where they are to be exposed

    to very high temperaturesto very high temperatures

  • Wirecut Facing BricksWirecut Facing Bricks are made by extrusion are made by extrusion of a continuous column of clay that is cut by of a continuous column of clay that is cut by wire. They are suitable for almost every type of wire. They are suitable for almost every type of application and are available in a wide range of application and are available in a wide range of textures and colours.textures and colours.

    Pressed BricksPressed Bricks are pressed under considerable are pressed under considerable pressure creating a solid brick with very precise pressure creating a solid brick with very precise size tolerances and distinctive face texture.size tolerances and distinctive face texture.

    Handmade BricksHandmade Bricks are literally made by hand are literally made by hand by skilled craftspersons throwingby skilled craftspersons throwing clay into clay into moulds. Each brick is uniquemoulds. Each brick is unique and they have a and they have a pleasing and distinctive appearance with a pleasing and distinctive appearance with a creased facing.creased facing.

  • Concrete, Sand Lime BricksConcrete, Sand Lime Bricks are manufactured are manufactured from concrete and sand and lime. They are from concrete and sand and lime. They are produced in a wide range of colours and produced in a wide range of colours and textures. Unlike clay bricks sand lime is pressed textures. Unlike clay bricks sand lime is pressed moulded then placed into a steam autoclave moulded then placed into a steam autoclave under pressure for approximately 8 hours. under pressure for approximately 8 hours.

    Brick SpecialsBrick Specials are manufactured to special are manufactured to special shapes, which enable the bricklayer to build shapes, which enable the bricklayer to build angled corners at 450, or 600 reduce the angled corners at 450, or 600 reduce the thickness of a wall and still maintain the face thickness of a wall and still maintain the face texture of the wall or remove the sharp corners texture of the wall or remove the sharp corners from a brick wall or pier.from a brick wall or pier.

  • How its Made BricksHow its Made Bricks http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SbKvhHzn4hQhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SbKvhHzn4hQ

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SbKvhHzn4hQ

  • QUESTION 25QUESTION 25 Why is it important to position materials when Why is it important to position materials when

    laying bricks?laying bricks?

  • QUESTION 25QUESTION 25 EFFICIENCY TO MAXIMISE EFFICIENCY TO MAXIMISE

    PRODUCTIONPRODUCTION

    HEALTH AND SAFETYHEALTH AND SAFETY

    MAINTAIN A PROFESSIONAL IMAGEMAINTAIN A PROFESSIONAL IMAGE

  • TYPICAL SETTING OUT SHOWING TYPICAL SETTING OUT SHOWING POSITIONS OF MATERIALSPOSITIONS OF MATERIALS

  • When stacking bricks for a particular job, you When stacking bricks for a particular job, you must consider the following:must consider the following:

    Never stack materials near doorways, access Never stack materials near doorways, access points or fire pointspoints or fire points

    Always stack on a level baseAlways stack on a level base

    Stacks should never be higher than 3x the base Stacks should never be higher than 3x the base widthwidth

  • When stacking bricks for a particular job, you When stacking bricks for a particular job, you must consider the following:must consider the following:

    Do not stack materials to close the edge of an Do not stack materials to close the edge of an open trench because:open trench because:

    The materials may fall into the trenchThe materials may fall into the trench

    The materials may apply extra pressure onto the The materials may apply extra pressure onto the sides of the trench and could cause it to collapse.sides of the trench and could cause it to collapse.

  • QUESTION 26QUESTION 26

    What is the total length of a wall built 21 bricks What is the total length of a wall built 21 bricks long?long?

    21 x length of brick + how many joints?21 x length of brick + how many joints?

  • QUESTION 27QUESTION 27 When building a wall to profiles, why is it When building a wall to profiles, why is it

    important to frequently check that they havent important to frequently check that they havent been moved?been moved?

    PLUMB PLUMB

  • QUESTION 28QUESTION 28 What is meant by face plane when marking a What is meant by face plane when marking a

    model?model?

  • QUESTION 28QUESTION 28 Face plane is checking the alignment of the wall. Face plane is checking the alignment of the wall.

    This is done by placing a straight edge across This is done by placing a straight edge across both diagonals of the wall making sure that there both diagonals of the wall making sure that there are no gaps between the straight edge and wall are no gaps between the straight edge and wall (Level 2 industrial standards + or 5mm).(Level 2 industrial standards + or 5mm).

  • QUESTION 29QUESTION 29 Laying a standard size block is equivalent to Laying a standard size block is equivalent to

    laying how many bricks?laying how many bricks?

  • QUESTION 30QUESTION 30 What is the total length of a wall built 9 blocks What is the total length of a wall built 9 blocks

    long?long?

    Can you remember the size of a block plus a Can you remember the size of a block plus a joint?joint?

  • QUESTION 31QUESTION 31 Explain the use of a lintel and name the Explain the use of a lintel and name the

    materials that can be used for a lintel?materials that can be used for a lintel?

  • QUESTION 31QUESTION 31

  • STRONG IN COMPRESSION STRONG IN COMPRESSION WEAK IN TENSIONWEAK IN TENSION

  • Make sure the lintel is the correct Make sure the lintel is the correct way up!way up!

  • TRAY D.P.CTRAY D.P.C

  • QUESTION 32QUESTION 32 Explain when a Damp Proof Course (D.P.C) is Explain when a Damp Proof Course (D.P.C) is

    used.used.

  • QUESTION 32QUESTION 32

    The horizontal DPC must be built in 150mm above the finished ground level.This is to prevent the surrounding ground building up and allowing the ground moisture bypassing the DPC.

  • Bedding Flexible D.P.CsBedding Flexible D.P.Cs

    Care must be taken to ensure flexible DPC do Care must be taken to ensure flexible DPC do not get damaged during the building in processnot get damaged during the building in process and when the pressure of the wall is placed upon and when the pressure of the wall is placed upon them.them.

  • The DPC should be sandwiched between two The DPC should be sandwiched between two thin mortar beds.thin mortar beds.

    All frogs and perforations must be filled with All frogs and perforations must be filled with mortar.mortar.

    Make sure that there is no stones in the mortar Make sure that there is no stones in the mortar as it will puncture the DPC when the pressure of as it will puncture the DPC when the pressure of the wall is applied.the wall is applied.

  • Lapping D.P.CLapping D.P.C

  • LAPPING DPCsLAPPING DPCs DPC should be lapped a minimum of 100mm or DPC should be lapped a minimum of 100mm or

    the width of the DPC.the width of the DPC.

    e.g If using 150mm DPC then a lap of 150mm is e.g If using 150mm DPC then a lap of 150mm is required.required.

  • Types of D.P.CTypes of D.P.C FLEXIBLEFLEXIBLE Flexible DPCs come in various widths to suit wall dimensions.Flexible DPCs come in various widths to suit wall dimensions. They are produced from a range or materials which include: They are produced from a range or materials which include: BitumenBitumen may be reinforced with Hessian or fibre may be reinforced with Hessian or fibre Bitumen Bitumen with a thin lead foil sandwiched within itwith a thin lead foil sandwiched within it Pitch PolymerPitch Polymer a thin tough material designed to withstand the a thin tough material designed to withstand the

    pressure of brickworkpressure of brickwork Black PolytheneBlack Polythene thin strong material thin strong material Sheet lead and copperSheet lead and copper although still available they are not often although still available they are not often

    used.used.

  • Types of D.P.CTypes of D.P.C RIGID DPCRIGID DPC Engineering BricksEngineering Bricks two courses of Class A two courses of Class A

    engineering bricks engineering bricks beddedbedded in 1:3 cement moin 1:3 cement mortar. rtar. Used mainly on boundary walls.Used mainly on boundary walls.

    SlateSlate two courses of top quality slate bonded two courses of top quality slate bonded and and bedded I 1:3 cementbedded I 1:3 cement mortarmortar. Not often specified . Not often specified due to high cost.due to high cost.

  • QUESTION 33QUESTION 33 Why should cross joints be kept plumb?Why should cross joints be kept plumb?

  • QUESTION 33QUESTION 33

    Maintaining PerpendsOnce the corners have been built, then the bricklayers need to run in the wall between the corners. Care must be taken to ensure that the Perpends are kept in line with the lower courses. If the bricklayer does not keep the Perpends plumb then it will affect the appearance of the wall and also there will be a loss of the bond.

  • DONT BLAME THE BRICKS!DONT BLAME THE BRICKS! Perpends should be checked constantly, starting Perpends should be checked constantly, starting

    at the corners if it is allowed to wander at this at the corners if it is allowed to wander at this point then it will be impossible to put it right in point then it will be impossible to put it right in the middle of the wall.the middle of the wall.

    The bricklayer should stand back occasionally The bricklayer should stand back occasionally from the wall and look at what s/he has done from the wall and look at what s/he has done and consider the quality of work.and consider the quality of work.

  • QUESTION 34QUESTION 34 Explain the use of a plugging chisel.Explain the use of a plugging chisel.

  • Plugging / Seaming ChiselPlugging / Seaming Chisel

  • QUESTION 34QUESTION 34

    Plugging chisels are used to cut hard mortar joints from existing brickwork to allow them to be repointed.

  • QUESTION 35QUESTION 35 Draw a tingle plate and state when it would be Draw a tingle plate and state when it would be

    used.used.

  • TINGLE PLATETINGLE PLATE

  • Tingle plateTingle plate This is used to support the centre of a line on This is used to support the centre of a line on

    long lengths of walling to help remove any long lengths of walling to help remove any sagging or swaying in windy conditions.sagging or swaying in windy conditions.

  • QUESTION 36QUESTION 36 Why should a wall be jointed as work proceeds Why should a wall be jointed as work proceeds

    (a.w.p)?(a.w.p)?

  • QUESTION 36QUESTION 36 Jointing brickwork provides a pleasing Jointing brickwork provides a pleasing

    appearance and makes the wall more rain appearance and makes the wall more rain resistant.resistant.

    When bricklaying, timing is important, different When bricklaying, timing is important, different types of bricks and weather conditions will have types of bricks and weather conditions will have an effect and determine when to an effect and determine when to jointjoint (not (not point) the wall.point) the wall.

  • QUESTION 37QUESTION 37 State the purpose of the Building RegulationsState the purpose of the Building Regulations

  • QUESTION 37QUESTION 37 They exist to ensure the health and safety of They exist to ensure the health and safety of

    people in and around all types of buildings (i.e. people in and around all types of buildings (i.e. domestic, commercial and industrial). domestic, commercial and industrial).

    They also provide for energy conservation, and They also provide for energy conservation, and access to and use of buildings.access to and use of buildings.

    Anyone wanting to carry out building work Anyone wanting to carry out building work which is subject to the Building Regulations is which is subject to the Building Regulations is required by law to make sure it complies with required by law to make sure it complies with the regulationsthe regulations

  • QUESTION 38QUESTION 38 Why are wall ties used in cavity walls?Why are wall ties used in cavity walls?

    Fundamentally for strength. ( a solid wall is Fundamentally for strength. ( a solid wall is stronger than a cavity wall)stronger than a cavity wall)

  • Take care when placing wall ties it is VERY Take care when placing wall ties it is VERY IMPORTANTIMPORTANT

  • QUESTION 39QUESTION 39 State the purpose and minimum size of a cavity.State the purpose and minimum size of a cavity.

  • QUESTION 39QUESTION 39

    50mm50mm To prevent the passage of damp.To prevent the passage of damp.

  • QUESTION 40QUESTION 40 To the Building Regulations, what is the spacing To the Building Regulations, what is the spacing

    of wall ties for cavity walls for:-of wall ties for cavity walls for:- a) 50mm to 75mma) 50mm to 75mm b) 75mm to 100mmb) 75mm to 100mm

  • QUESTION 41QUESTION 41 Why must a cavity be kept clear of mortar Why must a cavity be kept clear of mortar

    droppings?droppings?

  • QUESTION 42QUESTION 42 Why must snots be removed from the back of Why must snots be removed from the back of

    a wall?a wall?

  • QUESTION 43QUESTION 43 State 2 materials suitable for insulation in a State 2 materials suitable for insulation in a

    cavity wallcavity wall

  • QUESTION 43QUESTION 43 RockwoolRockwool PolystyrenePolystyrene foamfoam

  • QUESTION 44QUESTION 44 Who will check that building works conform to Who will check that building works conform to

    the Building Regulations?the Building Regulations?

  • QUESTION 44QUESTION 44 A building control officer (building inspector)A building control officer (building inspector) NHBC inspector (you may know him as the 10 NHBC inspector (you may know him as the 10

    year man)year man)

  • QUESTION 45QUESTION 45 What is a risk assessment and who would What is a risk assessment and who would

    complete it?complete it?

  • QUESTION 45QUESTION 45 Risk Assessment is a simple concept that sounds Risk Assessment is a simple concept that sounds

    complicated. We all assess risks on a day to day complicated. We all assess risks on a day to day basisbasis

    A risk assessment is simply a careful A risk assessment is simply a careful examination of what, in your work, could cause examination of what, in your work, could cause harm to people, so that you can weigh up harm to people, so that you can weigh up whether you have taken enough precautions or whether you have taken enough precautions or should do more to prevent harm. should do more to prevent harm.

  • QUESTION 45QUESTION 45 Risk Assessment is a simple concept that sounds Risk Assessment is a simple concept that sounds

    complicated. We all assess risks on a day to day complicated. We all assess risks on a day to day basis e.g every time we cross the road we assess:-basis e.g every time we cross the road we assess:-

    The speed and proximity of trafficThe speed and proximity of traffic The gap between trafficThe gap between traffic The width of the roadThe width of the road Our physical ability to cross the road in the Our physical ability to cross the road in the

    given time.given time.

  • QUESTION 45QUESTION 45 If the risk is too great then we will control by If the risk is too great then we will control by

    using a pedestrian crossing.using a pedestrian crossing. Before starting a risk assessment you must Before starting a risk assessment you must

    understandunderstand HAZARD means anything that can cause harmHAZARD means anything that can cause harm RISK the chance that someone will be harmed RISK the chance that someone will be harmed

    by the hazard.by the hazard.

  • QUESTION 46QUESTION 46 What is a Method Statement?What is a Method Statement?

  • QUESTION 46QUESTION 46 A Work Method Statement describes the job to A Work Method Statement describes the job to

    be completed, outlines the steps involved, the be completed, outlines the steps involved, the hazards identified and the controls to be hazards identified and the controls to be implemented to ensure the work is completed implemented to ensure the work is completed efficiently and safely.efficiently and safely.

    Work Method Statement is completed by the Work Method Statement is completed by the contractor company as it is expected that the contractor company as it is expected that the contractor is experienced in the work and the contractor is experienced in the work and the hazards associated with it.hazards associated with it.

  • QUESTION 47QUESTION 47 What information would be kept in a Site Diary?What information would be kept in a Site Diary?

  • QUESTION 48QUESTION 48 What is a Schedule used for?What is a Schedule used for?

  • QUESTION 49QUESTION 49 What is Banding of Brickwork and how can it be What is Banding of Brickwork and how can it be

    prevented ?prevented ?

  • TYPICAL SETTING OUT SHOWING POSITIONS OF TYPICAL SETTING OUT SHOWING POSITIONS OF MATERIALS AND PREVENTING BANDING OF MATERIALS AND PREVENTING BANDING OF BRICKWORKBRICKWORK