allergen management in the food allergen management in the food industry / edited by joyce i. boye,

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  • ALLERGEN MANAGEMENT IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

    Edited by

    JOYCE I. BOYE Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada

    SAMUEL BENREJEB GODEFROY Health Canada Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

    A JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC., PUBLICATION

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  • ALLERGEN MANAGEMENT IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

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  • ALLERGEN MANAGEMENT IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

    Edited by

    JOYCE I. BOYE Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada

    SAMUEL BENREJEB GODEFROY Health Canada Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

    A JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC., PUBLICATION

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  • Copyright © 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved

    Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey Published simultaneously in Canada

    No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per- copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 750-4470, or on the web at www.copyright.com. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, or online at http://www.wiley.com/go/ permission.

    Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifi cally disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fi tness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of profi t or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages.

    For general information on our other products and services or for technical support, please contact our Customer Care Department within the United States at (800) 762-2974, outside the United States at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002.

    Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic formats. For more information about Wiley products, visit our web site at www.wiley.com.

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Allergen management in the food industry / edited by Joyce I. Boye, Samuel Benrejeb Godefroy. p. cm. Includes index. Summary: “This book comprehensively addresses the sources of allergenic contaminants in foods, their fate during processing, and the specifi c measures that need to be taken to minimize their occurrence in foods. The book provides up-to-date information on the nine major allergens (as well as other emerging allergens) and practical guidelines on how these allergens can be identifi ed and controlled during production and processing. Starting with an introduction to food allergens, the book follows with sections on food allergen management during production and processing, guidelines for the processing of specifi c allergen-free foods, techniques for hypo-allergenization and allergen detection, and allergen-free certifi cation”—Provided by publisher. Summary: “This book comprehensively addresses the sources of allergenic contaminants in foods, their fate during processing, and the specifi c measures that need to be taken to minimize their occurrence in foods”—Provided by publisher. ISBN 978-0-470-22735-0 (hardback) 1. Food allergy—Prevention. 2. Food industry and trade. I. Boye, Joyce I. I. Godefroy, Samuel Benrejeb. RC596.A557 2010 616.97′5—dc22

    2010024927

    Printed in Singapore

    10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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  • When food is your enemy, knowledge is your best weapon of defence.

    Anonymous, 2009

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  • CONTENTS

    PREFACE xi

    CONTRIBUTORS xv

    GLOSSARY OF TERMS xix

    PART I FOOD ALLERGY AND THE CONSUMER 1

    1 Immune-Mediated Adverse Reactions to Dietary Proteins 3 Olga M. Pulido

    2 Protecting Food-Allergic Consumers: Managing Allergens Across the Food Supply Chain 33 Sandra Kerbach, Anton J. Alldrick, Rene W.R. Crevel, Lilla Dömötör, Audrey DunnGalvin, E.N. Clare Mills, Sylvia Pfaff, Roland E. Poms, Sandor Tömösközi, and Bert Popping

    3 Criteria to Determine Priority Allergens: Tree Nut Allergy Review 53 Jupiter M. Yeung

    4 The Canadian Criteria for the Establishment of New Priority Food Allergens: Evidence for the Inclusion of Mustard and Insuffi cient Evidences for Garlic and Onion as Priority Allergens in Canada 75 Olga M. Pulido, Zoë Gillespie, and Samuel Benrejeb Godefroy

    vii

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  • viii CONTENTS

    PART II GENERAL PRINCIPLES FOR ALLERGEN MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL 131

    5 Allergen Management and Control as Part of Agricultural Practices 133 Vernon D. Burrows

    6 Principles and Practices for Allergen Management and Control in Processing 145 Warren E. Stone and Jupiter M. Yeung

    7 Allergen Management and Control in the Foodservice Industry 167 M. Hazel Gowland

    PART III PROCESSING FOODS FREE FROM SPECIFIC ALLERGENS 205

    8 Processing Foods Free from Dairy Proteins 207 Joyce I. Boye, Sahul H. Rajamohamed, and Michel Britten

    9 Processing of Egg-Free Foods 259 Valéry Dumont and Philippe Delahaut

    10 Fish and Shellfi sh Allergens 271 Angelina O. Danquah, Joyce I. Boye, and Benjamin K. Simpson

    11 Processing Foods Without Peanuts and Tree Nuts 289 Sahul H. Rajamohamed and Joyce I. Boye

    12 Processing Gluten-Free Foods 333 Elke K. Arendt and Maria Helena B. Nunes

    13 Processing Foods Without Soybean Ingredients 355 Joyce I. Boye, Lamia L’Hocine, and Sahul H. Rajamohamed

    14 Manufacturing a Biscuit That Does Not Use Milk, Eggs, or Soybeans 393 Masahiro Shoji and Takahide Obata

    PART IV RISK ASSESSMENT AND RISK MANAGEMENT 421

    15 Risk Assessment for Food Allergy 423 Rene W.R. Crevel

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  • CONTENTS ix

    16 The Challenges of Precautionary Labeling 453 Fiona Fleming, Kirsten Grinter, Kim Leighton, Kevin Norman, Chris Preston, and Maria Said

    17 Certifi cation Programs for Foods Labeled as “Free From” Specifi c Allergens 473 Christine Dupuis and Ferdinand Tchounkeu

    18 Emerging Allergens and the Future 495 Allaoua Achouri and Joyce I. Boye

    19 Managing Risks and Preventing Food Allergy Incidents: A Regulator’s Perspective 537 Samuel Benrejeb Godefroy, Sheila Dubois, and Sébastien La Vieille

    INDEX 575

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  • PREFACE

    Food allergic reactions have emerged as a growing challenge to the food industry. The statistics are quite remarkable: ∼ 4 – 8% of children and ∼ 2 – 4% of the adult population are believed to have food allergies. Allergic reactions are particularly bothersome because in some unfortunate situations, they have resulted in anaphylaxis and even death. For example, the death of a young girl in Ontario, the most populated province in Canada, after consumption of french fries that had been inadvertently in contact with a dairy product in her school cafeteria resulted in increased awareness about food allergies, leading legislators in the province to enact what is now known as Sabrina ’ s law. This legislation requires schools in Ontario to be proactive about allergy education and preparedness. The death of Sabrina is not unique, and unfortunately, other incidents have occurred around the world. Of the over 160 – 180 foods known to be allergenic, some are considered priority allergens. These include eggs, milk, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, fi sh, shellfi sh, and wheat (gluten). The health burden of allergies and allergy - related diseases still remains unclear.

    To protect food - allergic consumers, several countries around the world have put in place food allergen labeling regulations requiring food industries to label the priority allergens when they are present in foods. This has posed some challenges to the food industry and has resulted in discussions on the need of allergen management programs to allow the identifi cation of allergens in the food supply chain and their avoidance in foods targeted toward food - allergic consumers. The objective of food safety regulators and the food indus- try

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