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This is a presentation that discusses Algal products of marine biotechnology.

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ALGAL PRODUCTS

ALGAE

are a diverse group of photosynthetic eukaryotes that are used for various products.

2 TYPES OF ALGAE:

1. MICROALGAE

green algae cyanobacteria

2. MACROALGAE seaweeds

3 MAJOR GROUPS OF EUKARYOTIC MACROALGAE

1. Chlorophyta - green 2. Rhodophyta - red 3. Phaeophyta - brown

MACRO ALGAE

Algae are harvested in wild as well as produced in culture.

Brown algae or the Kelp is produced and harvested in California.

The CALIFORNIA KELP FOREST called MACROCYSTIS or also known as GIANT KELP can grow up to 30m.

KELP was used as fertilizer, source of potash, and acetone for the production of explosives.

KELP used as food supplement, an impoprtant source of potassium, iodine, other essential minerals, carbohydrates and vitamins.

ALGINATES are the main structural components of the cell wall and intercellular matrix of brown seaweeds.

ALGINATES they are used as food thickeners and stabilizers bec. they can retain moisture, assure smooth texture, and uniform thawing of frozen foods.

ALGINATES added to desserts, dairy products, canned foods, salad dressing, cake mixes, and in beer for foam stabilization.

ALGINATES used in paper coating and textile printing. used in pharmaceuticals like antacids, pill coating, and capsules used in cosmetics

FOOD AND INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF ALGINATES

WATER HOLDING maintains smooth and soft texture controls puring consistency provides heat-shock protection

GELLING produces clear, firm, stable quick setting colloids that provides unique binding system under a wide range of conditions.

EMULSIFYING

stabilizes various types of dressing provides viscosity

STABILIZING prevents freezethaw breakdown thickens, controls and provides smooth creamy body.

CULTURING ALGAE

The RED ALGAE Phorphyra or known as NORI has been a food source in Japan for over 400 yrs.

RED ALGAE

It is cultured by collecting reproductive spores and allowing them to grow on horizontal nets and the algae is harvested, dried, and processed.

BROWN ALGAE

The BROWN ALGAE Undaria or known as WAKAME and Laminaria or known as KOMBU are grown off the coast of Japan and China.

BROWN ALGAE

Wakame and Kombu are grown by seeding the ropes with spores, placing the ropes in tanks and allowing the algae to grow before they are harvested and dried.

BROWN ALGAE

Undaria and Laminaria are used in noodles, soups, salads, and meats

Alginic acids (alginates) from brown algae Phycocolloid polysaccharides ( agar and carageenans ) from red algae --are used in food, industrial products, fertilizers and anergy production.

ALGINATES

textile industry foods pharmaceuticals paper

CARAGEENANS

food extenders such as evapoprated milk. ice cream, toothpaste and in cosmetics.

AGARS used in pharmaceuticals as a component in capsules holding medications. used in scientific laboratories for making gels like gel electrophoresis and solidified culture media.

ALGAL CELL CULTURE

is being examined as a way to increase the yield of products such as agar.

MICRO ALGAE

comprise a diverse group of both eukaryotic algae like green algae and prokaryotic photosynthetic bacteria like the blue-green algae or the cyanobacteria.

MICROALGAE are a source of pigments such as : PHYCOERYTHRIN PHYCOCYANIN - CAROTENE ZEAXANTHIN

FIVE TYPES OF MICROALGAE

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Dunaliella Scenedesmus Spirulina Porphyridium Chlorella

MASS CULTURING

allows large quantities of microalgae to be grown and harvested in outdoor ponds.

ARACHIDONIC ACID

is an essential dietary fatty acid and precursor to prostaglandins and other important compounds.

Porphyridium a natural source which has the highest concentration of arachidonic acid. an excellent source of Phycobiliproteins.

PHYCOBILIPROTEINS are pigments involve in algal photosynthesis and can be used as Phycofluors.

PHYCOFLOURS are used to label or tag biologically active molecules such as IMMUNOGLOBIN, PROTEIN A, and BIOTIN.

USES OF ALGAE:

1. Pharmacological potential 2. Agricultural fertilizer 3. Energy biomass 4. Algal cell culture

- carotene

found in green plants. also found in unicellular green algae

Dunaliella salina.

FUELS FROM ALGAE

COAL major source of air pollutants contributing to 66% of total sulfur dioxide emission and 36% of greenhouse gases.

NON-RENWEABLE FOSSIL FUELS

provides most of the world's energy amonting to 78%.

PHOTOSYNTHETICALLY GENERATED BIOMASS

an alternative to fossil fuel and a resource that is renweable and will not damage the environment.

PHOTOSYNTHETIC ORGANISMS

these are small algae and cyanobacteria that takes up carbon dioxide and uses energy from the sun to produce sugars and oxygen.

examples:

1. seaweeds 2. phytoplankton 3. seagrasses

Bacteria that can ferment glycerol from Dunaliella biomass to higher energy: Klebsiella sp. Clostridium pasteurianum Bacillus sp.

Non-viscous compound that can be used as liquid fuels and have higher energy content than glycerol: * Ethanol * Butanol * 1,3 Propanediol

GASOHOL - a gasoline with an ethanol additive produced from the bacterial fermentation of corn.

GENETICALLY MODIFIED ALGAE

can synthesize gasoline type fuels such as a cyclic hydrocarbon like Alkene and Alkanes.

GENETICALLY MODIFIED ALGAE

Examples: Brown Algae - macrocystis Cyanobacteria - Anacystis nidulans -- can already synthesize small amounts of fuels from fatty acids.

ALGAL CELL CULTURE

used to generate biomass from which cells and metabolites can be isolated.

used to maximize the production of high cost or rare compounds.

culturing often takes place in large ponds or raceways in a fermenter or bioreactor.

Macroalgae : red algal cell like the valuable agar and agarose ( polysaccharide-containing polymers) -- are used in research and diagnostic laboratories.

CHLORELLA

are green algae that produce a large quantity of amino acid that gives 30% more PROLINE.

CHLAMYDOMONAS

green algae that can produce rare amino acid OCTAPAMINE.

IMMOBILIZED MICROALGAL CELLS produces industrial compounds like dihydroxyacetone, gluconic acid, hydrogen and acetic acid.

THAT'S ALL...... THANK YOU FOR LISTENING....