aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in muscles ... ( aerobic ) type of metabolism: anaerobic anaerobic

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  • Aerobic and anaerobic metabolism In muscles

    Editing file

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    original

    Important

    Extra

    Notes

    4

    https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1DYFD5Qz0EcJzTPJkLMFvUDBKf4WB_3pNE6v9cPUHeZY

  • Objectives Recognize the importance of ATP as energy source in skeletal muscle.

    Compare three systems of energy transfer in the body.

    Differentiate between energy metabolism in red and white muscle fibers.

    Understand how skeletal muscles derive ATP from aerobic and anaerobic metabolism.

    Discuss the importance of Cori and glucose-alanine cycles in energy metabolism.

  • Three systems of energy transfer

    Type of System:

    Immediate System ( ATP - PCr )

    Short-term System

    ( glycolysis )

    Long-term System

    ( aerobic )

    Type of metabolism:

    Anaerobic Anaerobic Aerobic

    Main energy Source:

    Phosphocreatine (PCr)

    Glucose Fatty Acids

    Type of exercise:

    High intensity exercise

    High intensity exercise

    Continuous exercise

    Duration: 3 to 15 sec 15 sec to 2 min Hours

    Final product:

    Lactate CO & H O2 2

    Fast, strong contraction e.g. weight lifting

    (ATP- PCr) (glycolysis) (aerobic)

    Prolonged effort e.g. running for long time (moderate)

    “glycogen as the first substrate”

    Glucose, proteins ..etc

    Causes fatigue

    ● We can observe Phosphocreatine as fastest energy source, aerobic as latest and each is inversely proportional to its duration

    ● Aerobic stays for hours thus it's recommended to do aerobic exercises after a fatty meal

    (4-6 in normal people) (8-10 in athletes)

  • 100m Race 2000m Race Marathon

    PCR System Glycolysis Electron transport chain Oxidative

    phosphorylation

    Krebs cycle

    *All systems work together

    Understanding the integrated 3 energy system

    ATP

    !"#$% &'()! *+$ !",'%-%#(+- *$+. #/! .%'!& &'()!&

  • ATP as energy source:

    2- Breakdown of ATP into ADP+PO 4 releases energy, This energy is used for all

    body functions (biosynthesis, membrane

    transport, muscle contraction, etc.).

    4- ATP synthase catalyzes the synthesis of ATP. ADP + Pi -> ATP.

    3- The main pathway for ATP synthesis is oxidative phosphorylation catalyzed by the respiratory chain.

    1- The nucleotide coenzyme adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the most important form of chemical energy stored in cells.

    Breakdown of ATP into ADP+PO4 releases energy

  • Energy metabolism in muscle

    Sk el

    et al

    M us

    cl e

    Red Fiber (type Ⅰ)

    White Fiber (type Ⅱ)

    Suitable for prolonged effort

    Suitable for fast, Strong contractions

    Aerobic metabolism (with O supply)

    Anaerobic metabolism

    (without O supply)2

    2

    ● Muscle contraction requires high level of ATP consumption. ● Without constant resynthesis, the amount of ATP is used up in less than 1

    sec. of contraction.

    The muscle can’t store energy for more than 1-2 sec, so they need constant re synthesis. in humans the type of muscle is mixed “pink”

  • Overview of energy metabolism The produced ATP will be used for contraction and relaxation -myosin ATPase (for contraction) -Ca-ATPase (for relaxation )

    When we eat , glucose is absorbed in the intestine -> goes to bloodstream -> goes to the muscle.

    - Inside to muscle fibers: - at rest: its stored as glycogen.

    - During exercising: it undergoes glycolysis (anaerobic pathway) to give ATP

    Liver also can give glucose from : 1) its stored glycogen (glycogenolysis) 2) using amino acids, fatty acid, pyruvate (gluconeogenesis). -glucose then will go to blood stream then to the muscle fibers

    ★ in prolonged exercise

    adipose tissue will give fatty acid -> goes to bloodstream -> goes to muscle fibers -> get

    converted into 6 Acetyl CoA (by β-oxidation) -> undergoes oxidative phosphorylation + O2

    produced from the lung (aerobic pathway) to give ATP.

    explanations

  • Red muscle fibers ( Aerobic metabolism )

    B D

    A C Fatty acid are broken down by

    beta-oxidation will produce acetyl CoA,, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain

    Their metabolism is mainly 1) aerobic

    2) Depends on adequate supply of O2

    Red muscle fibers are suitable for prolonged

    muscle activity

    They obtain ATP mainly from “fatty acid”

    Why we call it RED fibers?

    Red colour is due to the rich of myoglobin, mitochondria and capillaries

    Myoglobin has higher O2 affinity than hemoglobin

    It releases O2 when its level

    drops .

    Each one myoglobin binds to ONE molecule of O2 ,while hemoglobin bind with 4 O2

    1- Aerobic by red fiber

    4 ways for muscle fibers to get ATP 2- Creatine phosphate

    3- Anaerobic by white fiber 4- by the enzyme adenylate cyclase

    * it’s mechanism: 2 ADP -> 1 ATP + 1 AMP

    To summarize ( extra )

    Myoglobin stores oxygen and release it when there is a drop in oxygen levels in muscle

  • ATP metabolism in red muscle fibers

    1- Fatty acids are oxidized to

    acetyl CoA

    3- Krebs cycle will give NADH

    2- Acetyl CoA enter the Krebs

    cycle

    4- NADH goes to respiratory chain in presence of O2

    given by myoglobin

    Production of ATP

    1 Acetyl coA gives: 3 NADH 1 FADH

    O2 grabs the carriers i.e. NADH & FADH and activates ATP Synthase

    If you recall Krebs cycle breaks down larger molecules into acetyl coA then goes through several oxidation reactions to produce ATP

    B-oxidation will be studied later. for now we just have to know that they help in breakdown of fatty acids to acetyl coA

    2

    1

    3

    5

    4

    #MED438 notes

    Why it’s called Beta-oxidation ? Named after the carbon atom in the beta position of fatty acyl CoA which becomes the most oxidized

    during the cyclic redox reaction that remove C2 units in form of acetyl-CoA from the fatty acyl chain (a pathway that converts fatty acid to acetyl CoA)

  • White muscle fibers (anaerobic)

    White Muscle Fiber

    1- White muscle fibers are

    suitable for fast & strong

    contractions

    3- They mainly obtain ATP

    from anaerobic glycolysis

    2- During intense muscle activity (

    weightlifting , etc ) O2 supply from

    blood quickly drops

    ★ Examples of this type of activity includes races and weightlifting (see slide 5)

    ★ as we exercise, the body will start converting its

    energy source to anaerobic system

    Red muscle fibers White muscle fibers

    they are white because they have Less

    mitochondria, capillaries and myoglobin which makes energy from glycogen breakdown

    faster

    Glycogen ➝ glucose-1-PO 4 ➝ glucose-6-PO4 ➝ glycolysis ➝ ATP

    ! !"#$% &'()

  • 4

    3

    2

    5

    White muscle fibers (anaerobic) NADH + H+ is re-oxidized to maintain glucose degradation and ATP formation

    Lactate is bad for muscles but we want to eliminate it in a way the body can benefit from

    Anaerobic glycolysis will produce lactate

    So Lactate is resynthesized into glucose by the cori cycle in the liver (next slide)

    Glycogen

    Glycolysis

    G6P

    G1P

    ATP

    Reversible Irreversible

    1. Now both creatine phosphate and aerobic glycolysis are no longer available. this is where anaerobic glycolysis takes place 2. Glycogen stored in muscles will transfer to glucose by glycogen phosphorylase eventually ends up as G6P -Glycolysis starter

    molecule- and goes through glycolysis 3. Pyruvate is produced & NAD+ is reduced to NADH 4. at some point NAD+ will exhaust and NADH will accumulate so it will be re-oxidized back to NAD+ to maintain mitochondrial

    adaptation 5. Lactate will accumulate as well and we need to get rid of it in a beneficial way thus it is transferred to liver where it goes

    through cori cycle

  • The Cori Cycle

    In anaerobic glycolysis, the

    glucose is converted to

    lactate

    Lactate in muscles will be released to blood (its target is

    the liver)

    -Lactate arrives at the liver

    -gluconeogenesis takes place to

    convert lactate to glucose

    Glucose is formed and sent back to the muscles to be used

    for energy again

    Lactate produced from white muscle

    fibers is sent back to liver to establish cori

    cycle again

    if lactate levels exceed (0.74-2.40) it will be taken up by the liver to start gluconeogenesis.

    Why skeletal muscles can’t produce glucose from lactate?

    Muscles can’t store energy as we preivoiusly noted

    O2 deficiencies do not arise in the liver even during intense exercise Liver has two oxygen sources

    (arteries and hepatic portal vein and is supplied with oxygen sufficiently far more than muscles

    Thus liver is a better site for gluconeogenesis and got the necessary amount of ATP to produce glucose

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