internal and external. cellular metabolism anaerobic glycolysis aerobic oxidative metabolism in the...

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  • INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL

  • CELLULAR METABOLISM

    ANAEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS

    AEROBIC OXIDATIVE METABOLISM IN THE MITOCHONDRIA

  • Ventilation or breathing: air moved in and out of lungsOxygen and Carbon Dioxide exchange in the lungsOxygen and Carbon Dioxide transported by blood to and from tissuesExchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide between tissue and blood

  • HEARTTISSUECELL

    O2 + FOODCO2 + H2O+ ATP LUNGSATMOSPHEREPULMONARYCIRULATIONSYSTEMICCIRCULATION

  • Nasal PassagesMouthPharynxLarynxTracheaBronchiAlveoliLung

  • Small, thin walled, inflatable sacs at end of bronchiolesSurrounded by jacket of pulmonary capillariesProvide thin barrier and enormous surface area for gas exchange by diffusionType II secrete surfactant

  • The Mechanics of Breathing

  • Atmospheric pressure: 760 mm Hg

    Intra-alveolar pressure: 760 mm Hg

    Intrapleural pressure: 756 mm Hg

  • Mercury HgVACUUMWEIGHT OF COLUMNOF AIR = FORCEFORCE/AREA = PRESSURESea Level760 mm

  • 760 MM Hg756 mmHgLungsIntrapleural pressureAirwaysAtmospherePleural SacThoracicWall

  • Thoracic cavity larger than lungsTransmural (Across Lung Wall) pressure gradient holds thoracic wall and lungs in close appositionThis pressure gradient is balanced by the elastic forces in the alveoli producing equilibrium

  • 760 MM Hg756 mmHgLungsIntrapleural pressureAirwaysAtmospherePleural SacThoracicWall

  • P1V1 = P2V2

    If Volume increases, Pressure must decrease

    As lungs expand, pressure inside falls

  • Elevation of ribs expands lungsLowering of diaphragm by contraction also expands lungsExpansion of lungs causes pressure inside to drop below atmospheric pressureAir rushes in to fill the expanded lungs

  • 760 mm Hg754 mmHgLungsIntrapleural pressureAirwaysAtmospherePleural SacThoracicWall759mm Hg

  • Return of ribs to rest position causes diminishing of lung volumeReturn of diaphragm to rest position also causes diminishing of lung volumeDiminishing of lung volume causes pressure in lung to raise to a higher value than atmospheric pressureAir flows out of the lungs

  • 760 mm Hg756 mmHgLungsIntrapleural pressureAirwaysAtmospherePleural SacThoracicWall761 mm Hg

  • SternocleidomastoidScalenusExternal IntercostalsDiaphragm

  • Internal intercostalsAbdominals

  • Flow of air depends on the pressure gradient (atmospheric, Pa, and intra-alveolar, Pi) and the airway resistance, RF = (Pa - Pi)/RResistance depends primarily on the radius of the conducting airwaysParasympathetic stimulation constricts, while sympathetic dilates

  • ColdsAsthma: Constriction of small airways, excess mucus, and histamine-induced edemaBronchitis:Long term inflamitory response causing thickened walls and overproduction of mucousEmphysema: Collapse of smaller airways and breakdown of alveolar wallsAlveolar surface tension

  • Tidal Volume (TV): 500 mlInspiratory reserve volume (IRV): 3 litersInspiratory capacity (IC): 3.5 litersExpiratory reserve volume (ERV): 1 literResidual volume (RV): 1.2 litersFunctional Residual Capacity (FRC): 2.2 lVital Capacity (VC): 4.5 litersTotal Lung Capacity (TLC): 5.7 liters

  • IC = IRV + TV

    FRC = ERV + RV

    VC = IRV + TV + ERV

    TLC = VC + RV

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