3. geometric, orientalizing, archaic

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  1. 1. Greek Art 3 Overview of Greek Culture, Geometric Period, Orientalizing Period, and the Archaic Period Credit to Gardners Art Through The Ages 12th Ed.
  2. 2. Greek Humanism Humanity mattered more than anything-it was the measure of all things This is what lead the Greeks to develop Democracy (rule by the demos: the people) Greek gods differed from humans only in that they were immortal Greeks made their gods into humans and their humans into gods
  3. 3. Greek Origins The Greeks referred to themselves as Hellenes Product of intermingling of Aegean people and Indo-European invaders (from Eurasia: Europe, Middle East, India, and more) Never formed a single nation Instead, independent city-states (poleis, singular=polis)
  4. 4. Greek Origins Dorians North Settled in Peloponnesos Thought to have ended the Mycenaean civilization Ionians Across the Aegean sea into Asia Minor (Turkey) Some believe Ionians were forced out of mainland Greece by northern invaders Others believe they were a product of mixed settlers in Turkey (from a variety of cultures)
  5. 5. Greek Origins Dorians (Peloponnesos) Ionians (Turkey, even though the Ionian Sea is on the other side of Greece, and even though modern day Ionia is on the northwest corner of Greece)
  6. 6. Greek Culture OVERVIEW City-states were ruled first by Kings, then by nobles, then by tyrants who seized personal power At last in Athens, 2500 years ago (495 BCE), the tyrants were overthrown and democracy was established
  7. 7. Greek Culture OVERVIEW Even with the establishment of democracy, most states were dominated by wealthy men (not the demos: people) Most admired virtues were not wisdom and justice, but rather: Military valor (we are SPARTA) War among the city-states was chronic and brutal Fighting among themselves, the Greeks eventually fell victim to Macedons autocracy and Romes Imperialism Autocracy: government where one person has absolute power Imperialism: extending a countrys power through diplomacy or military force
  8. 8. Athens and Greek Culture Marketplace = agora Gymnasiums = palaestras Goal was to achieve balance of intellectual and physical discipline humanistic education = a sound mind in a sound body Slavery and inequality of women are both portrayed in Greek art: Slavery was considered natural and was a universal institution among the ancient Greeks Greek women were not equal to Greek men (played little roles in public or political life) Besides the famous female poet Sappho, there were only a handful of female artists and none of their works survive
  9. 9. Geometric Period 900-700 BCE First Olympic Games 776 BCE (the first Olympiad) Only in the Greek-speaking states (the Greeks considered those who didnt speak Greek barbarians) Took place in Olympia No women were allowed to compete Greek colonies established in Southern Italy & Sicily (in fact, the best preserved Greek temples are found in Italy, not Greece) Invention of Greek alphabet Homeric poems recorded in writing (750-700)
  10. 10. Geometric Period 900-700 BCE ART Most early Greek vases were decorated with abstract motifs Angular (Geometric) Return of the human figure Not in monumental statues/sculptures Instead, humans were painted on the surfaces of ceramic pots, which were still made in Mycenae even during the Dark Age Return of the art of STORYTELLING!
  11. 11. Geometric Period 900-700 BCE ART Krater (mixing bowl) Used to mark the grave of an Athenian man around 740 BCE Well over 3 ft. tall (this man was RICH!) The bottom is open so visitors could pour libations in honor of the dead, or maybe it was just to provide a drain for rainwater. Or both! Meander = key pattern Abstract, angular motifs in horizontal bands Scenes depict the mourning for the deceased (upper band) and a chariot procession (lower band) in his honor. Upper band, shroud is raised to reveal the corpse, women are tearing their hair out with grief
  12. 12. Orientalizing Period 740-650 BCE First Messenian War Sparta invades Messenia (730-710) and wins 20-year-long war Most Messenian people left, but those who stayed were turned into slaves/used for Spartas military Orientalizing Art: Increased trade = more exposure to Eastern artwork (Syrian, Egyptian) Start to see artistic conventions of Syria and Egypt emerge in Greek art, such as increased interest in portraying detailed human anatomy
  13. 13. Orientalizing Period 740-650 BCE Black-Figure Vase Painting Ceramic technique invented by the Corinthians (Athenians soon copied them!) Figural and ornamental motifs were applied with a slip that turned black during firing, while the background was left the color of the clay Details were added by incising (carving into) the black slip or by adding white and purple highlights with pigment mixed with clay Step 1 Firing: Oxidizing, air allowed into kiln, turning the whole vase the color of the clay Step 2 Firing: Green wood put into kiln to reduce Oxygen, causing the vase to turn black in the smoky environment Step 3 Firing: Oxygen reintroduced into kiln, the bare clay would turn orange and the slipped areas would stay black
  14. 14. Corinth
  15. 15. Orientalizing Period 740-650 BCE Black-Figure Vase Painting Corinthian style, but found in Rhodes 625-600 BCE 12 tall Inspired by Egyptian Sphinx to portray Greek Sirens (part bird, part woman)
  16. 16. Archaic Period 700-480 BCE Second Messenian War Uprising of Messenian slaves in Sparta Sparta eventually conquers them again (making them back into slaves and extra military) Another 20 year long war Pythagoras born in Samos 569 BCE Ionian Greek philosopher/mathematician Solon (Athenian statesmen) starts shaking up the Draconian law in Athens and lays the foundation for Democracy 594 BCE Draconian = harsh legal punishments for all legal offenses He introduced to Athens the first coinage and a system of weights and measures
  17. 17. Archaic Period 700-480 BCE Pisistratus becomes tyrant of Athens 546 BCE Champions the lower class of Athens and takes many privileges away from the wealthy Kind of like Robin Hood Pisistratus Dies. His sons become tyrants of Athens 527 BCE Red-Figure Pottery develops in Athens 525 BCE (black-figure is still used as well)
  18. 18. Archaic Period 700-480 BCE Red-Figure Pottery (red figures on a black background) Possibly developed by Andokides Gradually replaced black-figure technique (black figures on a red background) Artists could draw the forms with a brush instead of carving them Better suited to representing people, garments and emotions with more precision Fired the same way as black-figure pottery
  19. 19. Red-Figure and Black-Figure Pottery (on the same Amphora!) Ajax and Achilles playing a dice game, by the Andokides painter, found in Orvieto, Italy, 525-520 BCE 19 tall Andokides painter: his work was unsigned, it was named after the potter for whom he worked. He is believed to be the inventor of the red-style of vase painting
  20. 20. Exekias: Athenian master of black-figure vase painting; thought to be the teacher of the Andokides painter Achilles and Ajax Playing a dice game, from Vulci, Italy, 540-530 BCE 2 feet tall
  21. 21. Archaic Period 700-480 BCE Pottery in general was created in specific shapes for specific daily uses: Amphora: storing and transporting wine and food Hydria: pouring water Kantharos or kylix: drinking wine or water Lekythos: pouring libations in rituals/ceremonies Loutrophoros: carrying water for bridal bath The imagery on pottery provided insight into many aspects of Athenian life
  22. 22. Amphora: storing and transporting wine and food
  23. 23. Hydria: pouring water
  24. 24. Kantharos or kylix: drinking wine or water
  25. 25. Lekythos: pouring libations in rituals/ceremonies
  26. 26. Loutrophoros: carrying water for bridal bath
  27. 27. Archaic Style In painting, tend to portray dramatic scenes from well- known stories (except for Achilles and Ajax playing dicewhich isnt super dramatic!) In painting, little depth is achieved, portrayal of humans is more informational than accurate (i.e. showing all of both legs even though one may be more hidden based on body position) Euphronios was a red-figure painter who started portraying people more accurately in perspective, showing depth Archaic smile: sculptors way of indicating that the person portrayed is alive Which is why sculptures are sometimes smiling in inappropriate situations (like a dying warrior with an arrow through his chest)
  28. 28. Euphronios, Red-Figure Krater, 515- 510 BCE, h. 18 Shows perspective and depth by putting one leg in front of the other
  29. 29. Dying warrior, from the West pediment of the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, Greece, 500-490 BCE, Marble, 5 feet long
  30. 30. Archaic Style Daedalic style (Daedalus was believed to be the master of all arts) Literally, The Skillful One Labyrinth in Crete, a temple in Memphis, Egypt, and many other great achievements in sculpture and architecture before artists signed their work are attributed to him Believed to have worked in Egypt STYLE: Triangular shape of head and hair, flat face, seem to smile!
  31. 31. Lady of Auxerre, Kore, 650-625 BCE, Daedalic/Archaic Style, Limestone, 2 feet tall
  32. 32. Archaic Period 700-480 BCE SCULPTURE Kouros = Male/youth, plural = Kouroi Kore = Female Larger-scale statues Emulate the stance of Egyptian statues Figure is rigid, frontal view, left foot advanced, arms beside body, fists clenched, thumbs forward These statues became the preferred grave markers instead of the vases (used previously) during the 6th Century BCE Could also be used as votive offerings (an offering made in fulfillment of a religious vow) Typically