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Archaic Greece. 700-480bc. Archaic Greece: 700-480bc. major points that typify the Archaic Age: . Archaic Greece: 700-480bc. major points that typify the Archaic Age: The formation of the city-state ( polis ). Archaic Greece: 700-480bc. major points that typify the Archaic Age: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Archaic Greece700-480bcArchaic Greece: 700-480bcmajor points that typify the Archaic Age:

Archaic Greece: 700-480bcmajor points that typify the Archaic Age: The formation of the city-state (polis)

Archaic Greece: 700-480bcmajor points that typify the Archaic Age: The formation of the city-state (polis)ColonizationArchaic Greece: 700-480bcmajor points that typify the Archaic Age: The formation of the city-state (polis)ColonizationEvolution of warfareArchaic Greece: 700-480bcmajor points that typify the Archaic Age: The formation of the city-state (polis)ColonizationEvolution of warfarePanhellenismArchaic Greece: 700-480bcmajor points that typify the Archaic Age: The formation of the city-state (polis)ColonizationEvolution of warfarePanhellenism

And also some notes on citizenship and the art and literature of the periodArchaic Greece: 700-480bc1. The growth of the city-state (polis)=central city and its surrounding territoryRemember that DEMOS is the land and the people, the territorial community of the Dark AgeTwo bodies of government already formed in that period: the assembly (men of fighting age) and the council of eldersBut formal political unification of the demos did not yet existCentral government had not come into powerArchaic Greece: 700-480bc1. The growth of the city-state (polis)Political unification (Synoecism)Unites the households of the central town and those of the territory around it in a formal, identifying statehoodSYN + OIKOS + ISMOSGovernmentAristocratic: basileisVariations on a common theme:Eliminate the dominant basileusDistribute power among other aristocratsIncrease power of aristocratic council of elders (over against assembly of people)Archaic Greece: 700-480bc1. The growth of the city-state (polis)GovernmentAristocratic: basileisVariations on a common theme:Eliminate the dominant basileusDistribute power among other aristocratsIncrease power of aristocratic council of elders (over against assembly of people)The opposite of this trend, again from within, is the periodic shift to TYRANNY in Archaic poleisUsually moves toward a democracy one strongman at a timeArchaic Greece: 700-480bc1. The growth of the city-state (polis)Government (cont.)Necessary due to changing conditions (population, war)Not the same everywhere (cf. Sparta)Magistracies created (define oligarchy)Various functions, various titles: archon, basileus, polemarch, prytanis, etc.Boule (council) has the power in Archaic GreeceEcclesia (assembly) is handicapped by the weight of aristocratic elders in boulePolitical history in many parts of Greece will see the struggle for increased power won by the assemblyArchaic Greece: 700-480bc2. ColonizationSpain to Colchis, 800-500Two major needs fed by colonization:1. import goods (especially metals)2. territory for increased population, to find and found good land for new poleisApoikia: colonies and metropolisArchaic Greece: 700-480bc

Archaic Greece: 700-480bc2. ColonizationSpain to Colchis, 800-500Two major needs fed by colonization:1. import goods (especially metals)2. territory for increased population, to find and found good land for new poleisApoikia: colonies and metropolisAddresses distribution of space and wealth but only partlyArchaic Greece: 700-480bcA note on classes and citizenshipBasically three classes in Archaic Greece: The 20% at the top: aristocrats on inherited land, many in the cash crop business (wine and olives)The 30% at the very bottom: poorest of the citizen farmers, many of whom end up sharecropping or mortgaging their kleros (ancestral lot) and paying for it with crops from the land (rank as thetes)The 50% in the middle the middling man survive, not wealthy, but not dependent on the richGradations throughoutDivision defined as AGATHOI and KAKOI (cf. hoi polloi)Archaic Greece: 700-480bcA note on classes and citizenshipPoverty is difficultWorking for someone else = loss of freedomSlaves at least have protection of oikos; what does a poor farmer have?Various epithets denote the landless class, the poorest farmers:Argos: naked onesCorinth: wearers of dog-skin helmetsSicyon: wearers of sheep-skinsEpidaurus: dusty feetArchaic Greece: 700-480bcA note on classes and citizenshipPoverty is difficultWorse case were between free person and slave Cf. helotsWorst case (measured by freedom and ability to be socially mobile) were slaves: no freedom, simply propertyArchaic Greece: 700-480bcA note on classes and citizenshipCitizenship does not denote equalityWomen do not have any political powerMen (18 and older) had rights, but based on money and social standingProperty requirements kept most but the rich out of office, even some out of the assemblyAgain, history will unfold as struggle in many poleis for democracy, but will not be achieved in other placesArchaic Greece: 700-480bcA note on classes and citizenshipWomen are still importantShare priesthoods with menStability of householdWhat did 50% of the ENTIRE population do all day?Archaic Greece: 700-480bc

Archaic Greece: 700-480bcA note on classes and citizenshipWomen are still importantShare priesthoods with menStability of householdWhat did 50% of the ENTIRE population do all day?A picture of anxieties about the rise of the polis and the incumbent discussion of citizenship: HESIOD

Archaic Greece: 700-480bc3. WarfareThe hoplite armyHeavily armored: social and economic reality?The phalanxA picture of equality

Archaic Greece: 700-480bc4. PanhellenismOracle at DelphiZeus sanctuary at OlympiaGames and other religious festivalsTradeInstruments of war and peaceOikos demos polis amphictyony ethne all one Greek thing, but still 100s of little city-statesBy the end of the Archaic period, the two most powerful ones were SPARTA and ATHENS

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