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  • 29/01/03 Stative nominalizations 1

    Stative predicates in Russian and their nominalizations Andrew Spencer Marina Zaretskaya ABSTRACT

    1. INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................................. 2

    2. TYPES OF STATIVE PREDICATE................................................................................................ 3

    3. TYPES OF NOMINALIZATION..................................................................................................... 6

    4. PRELIMINARY TYPOLOGY OF STATIVE VERBS.................................................................. 8

    4.1 VERBS OF INHERENT PROPERTY........................................................................................................... 8 4.2 RELATION BETWEEN FACTS/EVENTS.................................................................................................... 9 4.3 RELATIONS BETWEEN OBJECTS............................................................................................................ 9 4.4 SEMIOTIC RELATION.......................................................................................................................... 11 4.5 SPATIAL CONFIGURATION.................................................................................................................. 11 4.6 PROPERTIES OF A CLASS .................................................................................................................... 14 4.7 PERCEIVED STATES ........................................................................................................................... 14 4.8 PHYSICAL STATES ............................................................................................................................. 17 4.9 MODAL STATES................................................................................................................................. 18 4.10 VERBS OF DOMINATION................................................................................................................... 19 4.11 VERBS OF EXISTENCE AND PRESENCE.............................................................................................. 20 4.12 PSYCHOLOGICAL STATES ................................................................................................................ 20

    5. CONCLUSIONS: STATIVE VERBS AND NOMINALIZATIONS........................................... 22

    6. DERIVED STATIVES..................................................................................................................... 23

    6.1 DERIVED GENERICS ........................................................................................................................... 23 6.2 LEXICALLY DERIVED HABITUALS - OCCUPATIONS AND BEHAVIOURS............................................... 25

    7. CONCLUSIONS............................................................................................................................... 32

    8. REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................. 33

    9. APPENDIX 1 .................................................................................................................................... 34

    10............................................................................................................................................................ 44

  • 29/01/03 Stative nominalizations 2

    Abstract We investigate the deverbal nominalizations licensed by stative predicates in Russian. Russian has a wide variety of stative types, including a number absent in English. Basing ourselves on the typologies proposed by Bulygina (1982) and Padueva (1996) we show that only a limited number of subtypes regularly permit nominalizations. These are verbs of Existence and Psychological State verbs. With other types a nominalization appears to be rare or impossible. We conclude with discussion of two derived stative types identified by Padueva (1996), Occupations (Zanjatija) and Behaviours (Povedenija). These are unusual in that some of them have a purely generic meaning and cannot be used in a properly eventive, episodic sense. The majority of these are themselves derived from nouns. We argue that it is these verbs, and not individual-level predicates in general, that can properly be called inherent generics in the sense of Chierchia (1995).

    1. Introduction The study of the aspectual dimension of lexical semantics has been of interest to students of language since at least the time of Aristotle, but it has recently taken pride of place in theoretical discussion. In Western linguistics a leading influence has been the work of Vendler (1967) who resuscitated an Aristotelian tradition of aspectual analysis. As a result it is now commonplace to distinguish telic situations from atelic situations. The telic situations are those situations which have or imply an endpoint. Vendler defined Achievements as those situations in which an end point is reached instantaneously, as in find the keys. These situations are distinguished from Accomplishments, in which the end point is the result of gradual accretion by prior Activity, for instance build a house or eat the sandwich. Other types of situation are atelic and do not include a delimiting endpoint. First there are Activities such as run (around in the park). The Activities, Accomplishments and Achievements all involve a situation which evolves over time, the dynamic or episodic situations (sometimes also called eventive). These are to be contrasted with States, which do not involve any evolution over time but just are. In addition, it is often said that dynamic situations but not states, have to be subject to a new input of energy to maintain them Comrie 1976:49). Examples of States in English include verbs such as exist, cover as in snow covers the fields and Psychological State predicates such as know or love. In addition, adjectives generally denote States (be tired, be intelligent).

    The aspectual class to which a predicate belongs is generally taken to be part of its lexical

    semantic representation, whether as a primitive or as a derived category, determined by other components of the semantic representation. In addition, many authors have implicated aspectual class membership with a variety of phenomena relating to the expression of argument structure (e.g. Tenny 1994).

    In the Russian linguistic tradition the problem of the aspectual determinants of lexical

    semantics has been put into focus over the past century by the awareness of the role of grammatical aspect in Slavic languages. The aspectual dimension is partially grammaticalized (or for some, lexicalized) in that Slavic verbs distinguish two forms, the perfective and the imperfective. A perfective verb, broadly speaking, denotes a telic situation, while an imperfective verb denotes an atelic situation (for instance, a progressive or continuous aspect, the iteration of a series of telic situations, or the existence of a state). Grammatical aspect interacts in complex ways with lexical semantics, and the key role of lexical semantics in the properties of grammatical aspect has meant that Russian linguistics has always accorded considerable importance to the situation types denoted by verb predicates. Thus, as stressed by Padueva (1996), many of the findings of Vendler (which was originally published in 1957) were anticipated by the work of the distinguished Russian aspectologist, Ju. S. Maslov (1948 and many subsequent works).

    Much discussion has been devoted to the nature of dynamic predicates and their semantic and

    grammatical properties in recent theoretical discussion. Rather less attention has been paid to stative predicates in the recent literature, though older works, and handbooks of English and other languages often provide reasonably detailed discussion (e.g Jesperson 1992). Thus, there have been relatively few attempts to identify different types of stative predicate and establish the relationships, if any, between

  • 29/01/03 Stative nominalizations 3

    subtypes and between statives and other situation types (Mufwene, 1984, being something of an exception). A good survey of contemporary assumptions is given by Smith (1991).

    Any investigation of stativity in the lexicon of a language will have to take a stand on such

    issues. Some of the questions are discussed in Spencer (1998) and a number are raised in connection with the existence of a stative middle construction in Russian in Spencer and Zaretskaya (1998). We will touch upon them in our discussion of Occupations and Behaviours in section 6.

    There is a fair variety of verb types in Russian which deserve the label stative. We will

    follow most closely the typological descriptions found in Bulygina (1982) and in Padueva (1996, especially Ch. 8). Our strategy is to make as many fine distinctions as seems appropriate, so as to ensure that we dont miss any small islands of systematic behaviour. This isnt to imply that we are able to attach any deeper theoretical significance to our typology, merely that it provides a useful analytic and descriptive framework.

    Having presented our typology in section 2. In section 3 we sketch what we mean by deverbal nominalization. The important point here is that we are asking for nominals which function as the name of the situation described by the verb. As is well-known, there are several other types of nominalization, and we will wish to distinguish those other types and set them aside. We will see that there are several ways in which nominalizations naming situations (or situation types) may be used. The core descriptive goal of the paper is add