dinamic vs. stative verbs. introduction firstly, what do "stative" and "dynamic" mean? all verbs in...
Post on 17-Jan-2016
Embed Size (px)
Dynamic Verbs"Dynamic" is an adjective which means something is moving or changing. Dynamic verbs are verbs that describe an action, not a state . They express a real action.For example, "They are crossing the street."John is crying.
Introduction Firstly, what do "stative" and "dynamic" mean?All verbs in English are classified as either stative or action verbs (also referred to as 'dynamic verbs'). Action verbs describe actions we take (things we do) or things that happen. Stative verbs refer to the way things 'are' - their appearance, state of being, smell, etc. The most important difference between stative and action verbs is that action verbs can be used in continuous tenses and stative verbs can not be used in continuous tenses.Dynamic = moving or changing.Stative = having a state, or existing.
Example sentences:They swam to the other side.She hit me on the head!Open the window, please.The dynamic verbs can be used in the progressive tenses.Correct: He is drinking water.Correct: He drinks water."Joe is chasing the bus."
Here is a list of some Dynamic verbs. You can see that they are all used to describe an action, change, or process. Most of them are used to describe an activity which has a start and an end.Examples of dynamic verbs:Eat, walk, learn, grow, sleep, talk, write, run, read, become, go, act, build, complete, design, develop, draw, help, improve, interview, introduce, justify, listen, narrate, originate, perform, persuade, predict, record, save, show, study, transform, use, value, write...These words can all be used in the progressive form.
Example sentences with dynamic verbs:"I can't talk right now, I'm eating dinner."Present progressive used to describe an action happening now.
"Sorry, I'm out of breath because I've been running."Present perfect progressive used to describe an action that started in the past, continued for some time and has results now.
"I didn't steal the necklace! I was sleeping when someone broke into the shop!"Past progressive used to talk about an action that was happening at a particular time in the past.
Stative Verbs"Stative" is an adjective which describes something as having a state, or existing (this is a very uncommon adjective).In English grammar a "stative verb" means that the verb describes a state rather than an action."Kevin wants some ice-cream."
So now you know the meaning of the terms, let's look at some examples!
Here is a list of some of the Stative verbs. Some of these describe relationships between things or people (for example, own) and some describe emotions or states of mind.Examples of stative verbs:doubt, seem, know, own, understand, want, know, have (when it means possession), think (when it means opinion), like, love, hate, need, prefer, agree, sound, hear disagree, wish, look (when it means seem), smell, include, be....Emily is sad.
Examples sentences:She is a great wife.He seems rather strange.He wanted to see you.That sounds awesome!We have enough things to do.Stative verbs are usually not used in the progressive tenses.Examples:Incorrect: He is wanting to see you.Correct: He wants to see you.
Incorrect: I am knowing what to do.Correct: I know what to do.
Incorrect: They are seeming nice.Correct: They seem nice.
Here are some examples, showing that these words cannot be used in the progressive form.Correct: "I like chocolate, but I prefer cake."Incorrect: "I'm liking chocolate but I'm preferring cake."
Correct: "I don't understand you when you speak quickly."Incorrect: "I'm not understanding you when you speak quickly."
However, if the same verb is used to describe an actual action (not a state) than it can be used in the progressive tenses.Example:When the verb "have" means "own" it is a state. So we do not use it in the progressive tenses.Incorrect: I am having a laptop.Correct: I have a laptop.
When the verb "have" means "eat" it is an actual action. So we can use it in the progressive tenses.Correct: I am having lunch with Kate.Correct: I have lunch with Kate.
You cannot say:I am knowing the truth. I am liking pizza. It is sounding like a great idea.
But you must say:I know the truth. I like pizza. It sounds like a great idea.You may say this even though it is grammatically incorrect.Generally, stative verbs fall into four groups:Verbs Showing Thought or Opinionsknowbelieveunderstandrecognize
Verbs Showing PossessionhaveownbelongpossessVerbs Showing Senseshearsmellseefeel
Verbs Showing Emotionlovehatewant need
There are also some verbs that can be either dynamic or stative, depending on their meaning and context in the sentence. Reminder: Actions that are in progress now => present progressiveExample: We are walking right now.States that occur now => simple presentExample: We want to walk now.
Dynamic and StativeSome verbs can be both action verbs and dynamic verbs depending on their meaning:1. Bebe = it is usually used as a stative verb - stative He's an excellent guitarist.
be = when it means behave or act, it can be used as a an action verb in the continuous form. - dynamic You are being silly.
2. Thinkthink = to express an opinion, to believe - stative I think it's a fantastic idea.
think = consider, to reason about or reflect on, ponder, to have or formulate in the mind - dynamicI am thinking about my friend3. Havehave = to possess, to own - stative He has a beautiful car
have = when it doesn't mean own or possess - dynamicHe's having lunch.
4. Seesee = to perceive with the eye, to understand - stativeI see what you mean.
see = to meet, to be in the company of, to escort, to attend - dynamicHe's been seeing the same woman for eight years.Some stative verbs can be used actively in special situations:Be You are annoying. You are being annoying.Think I think studying history is important. I am thinking about my girlfriend.
Have I have a dog. I am having a party. I am having a good time.Feel I am not feeling well. I feel that the test is difficult.SensesEarsListen is active and hear is stative.I am listening to the radio. I am hearing the radio. (Incorrect)
EyesWatch and look are active and see is stativeI am watching television.I am looking at the news paper.I am seeing the bird. (Incorrect)Watch is used for things that move or show actions. (Television, sports, etc.)Look is for things that do not move.(Art, Books, etc.)
NoseSmell can be active or stative depending on the situation.I am smellingThis describes the action of smelling. I smell something burning.This is more common and is used to describe what you smell. Mouth Taste can also be active or stative.I am tasting the soup.This describes the action you are doing.
However, it is better to say I am trying the soup. I taste salt in this soup.This describes what you taste.
Exercises Dynamic Verbs and Stative Verbs Exercise 1Put the verbs in brackets in their correct form. Some verbs are stative verbs and some are dynamic verbs. Use the simple present or present progressive tense. Press "Check" to check your answers.1. Actually, that (sound) wonderful.
2. We (cook) right now.
3. I (promise) to be back soon.
4. Frank and his wife (disagree) on this matter.
2. are cooking
4. disagree Check Answers5. He (own) several large companies.
6. you (hear) Richard's voice now?
7. you (study) at the moment?
8. I (mean) to hurt you.
9. you (mind) taking out the garbage?
10. I seriously (doubt) it.
Check Answers5. owns
8. don't mean
10. doubtPut the verbs in brackets in their correct form. Some verbs are stative verbs and some are dynamic verbs. Use the simple present or present progressive tense. Press "Check" to check your answers.Dynamic Verbs and Stative Verbs Exercise 21. you (recognize) this painting now?
2. He (appear) a bit snobbish.
3. She (not wash) the dishes now.
4. it really (matter) now?
Check Answers1. Do.recognize
3. is not washing
Check Answers5. Right now it (seem) cold outside.
6. I (suppose) we could do that, too.
7. Janet (not realize) how much he loves her.
8. this dog (belong) to you?
9. It (rain) right now.
10. I (not know) the right answer right now.5. seems
7. does not realize
9. is raining
10. don't know
Check AnswersPut the verbs in brackets in their correct form. Some verbs are stative verbs and some are dynamic verbs. Use the simple present or present progressive tense. Press "Check" to check your answers