2167 Drives and Motivation

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<ul><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 1/90</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 2/90</p><p>In the grasslands,somewhere on the African continent,</p><p>success can be defined in terms of life and death,</p><p>Survival is a strong motivator.</p><p>Heres a short story </p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 3/90</p><p>When the light comes in the Eastern sky and you sense that thesun will soon steal the comfort and security of the night, thegazelle starts to stir. He knows that if, during this day, hedoes not run faster than the fastest cheetah, he may becaught and then he will be killed.</p><p>Not far away, the cheetah stretches out this powerful musclesand thinks of the day ahead, He knows that if he does notrun faster than the slowest gazelle, he will surely starve.</p><p>The moral of this story </p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 4/90</p><p>It doesnt matter whether you are a gazelle or a</p><p>cheetah when the sun is up </p><p> you had better be running.</p><p>*</p>http://localhost/var/www/apps/conversion/releases/Video%20clips%20etc/must%20keep%20running.wmvhttp://localhost/var/www/apps/conversion/releases/Video%20clips%20etc/must%20keep%20running.wmv</li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 5/90</p><p>Outline</p><p> Skip over Needs Theories of Motivation</p><p> Drives</p><p> Learned Needs Process Theories of Motivation</p><p> Responses to the Reward System</p><p> Motivating Employees Through Reinforcement</p><p> Goal Setting</p><p> Workplace justice</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 6/90</p><p>Theories of Motivation</p><p>1. What is motivation</p><p>2. How do needs motivate people?</p><p>3. Are there other ways to motivate people?</p><p>4. Do equity and fairness matter?</p><p>5. What role does reinforcement play in motivation?</p><p>6. What are the ethics behind motivation theories?</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 7/90</p><p>MARS Model of Behaviour</p><p>Personality</p><p>Emotions</p><p>Perceptions</p><p>Values</p><p>Attitudes</p><p>Stress</p><p>Behaviour</p><p>and</p><p>Results</p><p>Motivation</p><p>Ability</p><p>Role</p><p>perception</p><p>Situational</p><p>factors</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 8/90</p><p>Its all about the people</p><p>"The success of your organization doesn't depend onyour understanding of economics, or organizationaldevelopment, or marketing. It depends, quite simply,on your understanding of human psychology: howeach individual employee connects with yourcompany and how each individual employee connectswith your customers."</p><p>Curt Coffman and Gabriela Gonzalez-Molina, Ph.D. inFollow This Path: How the World's GreatestOrganizations Drive Growth by Unleashing Human</p><p>Potential, Warner Books, 2002.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 9/90</p><p>What Is Motivation?</p><p> Motivation</p><p>The intensity, direction, and persistence of effort</p><p>a person shows in reaching a goal:</p><p> Intensity: How hard a person tries</p><p> Direction: Where effort is channelled</p><p> Persistence: How long effort is maintained</p><p>skip</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 10/90</p><p>Theory X and Theory Y</p><p> Theory X</p><p> Assumes that employees dislike work, will attempt toavoid it, and must be coerced, controlled, or threatened</p><p>with punishment if they are to perform. Theory Y</p><p> Assumes that employees like work, are creative, seekresponsibility, and can exercise self-direction and self-control.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 11/90</p><p>Motivators</p><p> Intrinsic Motivators</p><p> A persons internal desire to do something, due</p><p>to such things as interest, challenge, and personalsatisfaction.</p><p> Extrinsic Motivators</p><p>Motivation that comes from outside the person</p><p>and includes such things as pay, bonuses, and</p><p>other tangible rewards.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 12/90</p><p>Needs Theories of Motivation</p><p> Basic idea</p><p>Individuals have needs that, when unsatisfied,</p><p>will result in motivation</p><p> Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theory.</p><p> Motivation-Hygiene Theory</p><p> ERG Theory</p><p> McClellands Theory of Needs</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 13/90</p><p>Maslows Hierarchy of Needs</p><p> Physiological</p><p>Includes hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, and other</p><p>bodily needs</p><p> Safety</p><p>Includes security and protection from physical</p><p>and emotional harm</p><p> SocialIncludes affection, belongingness, acceptance,</p><p>and friendship</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 14/90</p><p>Maslows Hierarchy of Needs</p><p> Esteem</p><p>Includes internal esteem factors such as self-</p><p>respect, autonomy, and achievement; andexternal esteem factors such as status,recognition, and attention</p><p> Self-actualization</p><p>The drive to become what one is capable ofbecoming; includes growth, achieving onespotential, and self-fulfillment</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 15/90</p><p>Exhibit 4-1</p><p>Physiological</p><p>Safety</p><p>Social</p><p>Esteem</p><p>Self-</p><p>actualization</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 16/90</p><p>Herzbergs Motivation-Hygiene Theory</p><p> Hygiene factorsthe sources of dissatisfaction</p><p>Extrinsic factors (context of work)</p><p> Company policy and administration</p><p> Unhappy relationship with employees supervisor</p><p> Poor interpersonal relations with ones peers</p><p> Poor working conditions</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 17/90</p><p>Herzbergs Motivation-Hygiene Theory</p><p> Motivatorsthe sources of satisfaction</p><p>Intrinsic factors (content of work) Achievement Recognition</p><p> Challenging, varied, or interesting work</p><p> Responsibility</p><p> Advancement</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 18/90</p><p>Comparison of Satisfiers and Dissatisfiers</p><p>Source: Reprinted by permission</p><p>ofHarvard Business Review. An</p><p>exhibit from Frederick</p><p>Herzberg, One More Time:</p><p>How Do You Motivate</p><p>Employees?Harvard Business</p><p>Review 81, no. 1 (January 2003),</p><p>p. 90. Copyright 1987 by the</p><p>President and Fellows of</p><p>Harvard College; all rights</p><p>reserved.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 19/90</p><p>Exhibit 4-3 Contrasting Views of Satisfaction and</p><p>Dissatisfaction</p><p>Dissatisfaction Satisfaction</p><p>Traditional view</p><p>No Satisfaction Satisfaction</p><p>Herzberg's view</p><p>DissatisfactionNo Dissatisfaction</p><p>Hygiene Factors</p><p>Motivators</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 20/90</p><p>Criticisms of Motivation-Hygiene Theory</p><p> The procedure that Herzberg used is limited by its</p><p>methodology.</p><p> The reliability of Herzbergs methodology isquestioned.</p><p> Herzberg did not really produce a theory of motivation.</p><p> No overall measure of satisfaction was used. The theory is inconsistent with previous research.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 21/90</p><p>Alderfers ERG Theory</p><p> Existence</p><p>Concerned with providing basic material</p><p>existence requirements.</p><p> Relatedness</p><p>Desire for maintaining important interpersonalrelationships.</p><p> Growth</p><p>Intrinsic desire for personal development.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 22/90</p><p>McClellands Theory of Needs</p><p> Need for achievement</p><p> The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of</p><p>standards, to strive to succeed</p><p> Need for power</p><p> The need to make others behave in a way that they would</p><p>not have behaved otherwise</p><p> Need for affiliation</p><p> The desire for friendly and close interpersonal</p><p>relationships</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 23/90</p><p>Relationship of Various Needs Theories</p><p>HygieneFactors</p><p>Need for Achievement</p><p>Need for Power</p><p>Need for Affiliation</p><p>Self-Actualization</p><p>Esteem</p><p>Affiliation</p><p>Security</p><p>Physiological</p><p>Motivators</p><p>Relatedness</p><p>Existence</p><p>Growth</p><p>Maslow Alderfer Herzberg McClelland</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 24/90</p><p>Summary: Hierarchy of Needs</p><p> Maslow: Argues that lower-order needs must be satisfiedbefore one progresses to higher-order needs.</p><p> Herzberg: Hygiene factors must be met if person is not to be</p><p>dissatisfied. They will not lead to satisfaction, however.Motivators lead to satisfaction.</p><p> Alderfer: More than one need can be important at the sametime. If a higher-order need is not being met, the desire tosatisfy a lower-level need increases.</p><p> McClelland: People vary in the types of needs they have. Theirmotivation and how well they perform in a work situation arerelated to whether they have a need for achievement, affiliation,or power.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 25/90</p><p>Summary: Impact of Theory</p><p> Maslow: Enjoys wide recognition among practising managers. Mostmanagers are familiar with it.</p><p> Herzberg: The popularity of giving workers greater responsibility for</p><p>planning and controlling their work can be attributed to his findings.Shows that more than one need may operate at the same time.</p><p> Alderfer: Seen as a more valid version of the need hierarchy. Tells usthat achievers will be motivated by jobs that offer personalresponsibility, feedback, and moderate risks.</p><p> McClelland: Tells us that high need achievers do not necessarily make</p><p>good managers, since high achievers are more interested in how theydo personally.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 26/90</p><p>Summary: Support and Criticism of Theory</p><p> Maslow: Research does not generally validate the theory. Inparticular, there is little support for the hierarchical nature ofneeds. Criticized for how data were collected and interpreted.</p><p> Herzberg: Not really a theory of motivation: Assumes a linkbetween satisfaction and productivity that was not measured ordemonstrated.</p><p> Alderfer: Ignores situational variables.</p><p> McClelland: Mixed empirical support, but theory is consistent</p><p>with our knowledge of individual differences among people.Good empirical support, particularly on needs achievement.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 27/90</p><p>Four Drives Theory</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 28/90</p><p>4 Drives Theory</p><p> Reflect contemporary thinking</p><p> Out of Harvard Business School</p><p> Professors Lawrence and Nohria</p><p> There are 4 innate and independent drives that</p><p>we all have.</p><p> Both holistic and humanistic.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 29/90</p><p>Four-Drive Theory.</p><p>Drive to Bond</p><p>Drive to Curiosity</p><p>/ Learn</p><p> Need to form relationships andsocial commitments</p><p> Basis of social identity</p><p> Need to satisfy curiosity and</p><p>resolve conflicting information</p><p> Basis of self-actualization</p><p>Drive to Defend Need to protect ourselves</p><p> A reactive (not proactive) drive</p><p> Basis of fight or flight</p><p>Drive to Acquire Need to take/keep objects and</p><p>experiences</p><p> Basis of hierarchy and status</p><p>Driven: How Human Nature Shapes Our Choices, by Paul R. Lawrence and Nitin Nohria (Jossey Bass, 2001</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 30/90</p><p>Features of Four Drives</p><p> Innate and hardwired -- everyone has them</p><p> Independent of each other (no hierarchy of</p><p>drives)</p><p> Complete set -- no drives are excluded from</p><p>the model.</p><p> Never satisfied.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 31/90</p><p>How Four Drives Affect Needs</p><p>1. Four drives determine which emotions are</p><p>automatically tagged to incoming information</p><p>2. Drives generate independent and often</p><p>competing emotions that demand our</p><p>attention</p><p>3. Social skill set determines how to translatedrives into needs and effort.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 32/90</p><p>Four Drive Theory of Motivation</p><p> Mental skill set uses social norms, personalvalues, and experience to translate competing</p><p>drives into needs and effort</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 33/90</p><p>Learned Needs Theory</p><p> Some needs can be learned.</p><p> Need for achievement</p><p> Desire for challenging and somewhat risky goals,</p><p>feedback, recognition Need for affiliation</p><p> Desire to seek approval, conform, and avoid</p><p>conflict</p><p> Try to project a favourable self-image</p><p> Need for power</p><p> Desire to control ones environment</p><p> Personalized versus socialized power</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 34/90</p><p>Implications of Needs/Drives Theories</p><p>Four drive theory</p><p> provide a balanced opportunity for employees to fulfill</p><p>drives</p><p> employees continually seek fulfillment of drives</p><p> avoid having conditions support one drive over others</p><p>Maslow</p><p> allow employees to self-actualize power of positive experiences</p><p>Offer employees a choice of rewards</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 35/90</p><p>Expectancy Theory of Motivation</p><p> Look at the actual process of motivation</p><p> Share information from your readings about</p><p>the expectancy theory.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 36/90</p><p>Expectancy Theory (Vroom et al. 1964)</p><p> The theory that individuals act depending on whether</p><p>their effort will lead to good performance, whether</p><p>good performance will be followed by a givenoutcome, and whether that outcome is attractive to</p><p>them.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 37/90</p><p>E-to-PExpectancy</p><p>P-to-OExpectancy</p><p>Outcomes&amp; Valences</p><p>Outcome 1+ or -</p><p>Effort Performance</p><p>Outcome 3+ or -</p><p>Outcome 2+ or -</p><p>Expectancy Theory of Motivation</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 38/90</p><p>Choosing to act</p><p> When deciding among behavioural options,</p><p>individuals select the option with the greatest</p><p>motivation forces (MF). The motivational force for a behaviour, action, or task</p><p>is a function of three distinct perceptions: Expectancy,</p><p>Instrumentality, and Valance. The motivational force</p><p>is the product of the three perceptions:</p><p>MF = Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valence</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 39/90</p><p>VIE .</p><p> Expectancy probability: based on the perceivedeffort-performance relationship. It is the expectancythat one's effort will lead to the desired performanceand is based on past experience, self-confidence, and</p><p>the perceived difficulty of the performance goal. Instrumentality probability: based on the</p><p>perceived performance-reward relationship. Theinstrumentality is the belief that if one does meet</p><p>performance expectations, he or she will receive a</p><p>greater reward. Valence: refers to the value the individual</p><p>personally places on the rewards. This is a functionof his or her needs, goals, and values.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 40/90</p><p>Increasing E-to-P Expectancy</p><p> Train employees</p><p> Select people with required competencies</p><p> Provide role clarification / agree goals</p><p> Provide sufficient resources</p><p> Provide coaching and feedback</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 41/90</p><p>Increasing P-to-O Expectancy</p><p> Measure performance accurately</p><p> Describe outcomes of good and poor</p><p>performance</p><p> Explain how rewards are linked to past</p><p>performance</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 42/90</p><p>Increasing Outcome Valences</p><p> Ensure that rewards are valued</p><p> Individualize rewards</p><p> Minimize countervalent outcomes</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 43/90</p><p>Discussion of Expectancy Theory</p><p> If it is in the organizations interest to put</p><p>people first and allow them to fulfill all four</p><p>drives; then why dont managers simply do</p><p>that? Use expectancy theory to explain the</p><p>managers behaviour.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 44/90</p><p>Expectancy Theory Discussion</p><p> Identify three activities you really enjoy and</p><p>three activities you really dislike.</p><p> Using the expectancy model, analyze each of</p><p>your answers to assess why some activities</p><p>stimulate your effort while others dont.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 45/90</p><p>Goal-Setting Theory</p><p> The theory that specific and difficult goals lead</p><p>to higher performance.</p><p> Goals tell an employee what needs to be done and how</p><p>much effort will need to be expended. Specific goals increase performance.</p><p> Difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher performance than do</p><p>easy goals.</p><p> Feedback leads to higher performance than does nonfeedback.</p><p> Specific hard goals produce a higher level of output</p><p>than does the generalized goal of do your best.</p><p> The specificity of the goal itself acts as an internal stimulus.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and Motivation</p><p> 46/90</p><p>Goal Difficulty and Performance</p><p>High</p><p>Ta</p><p>skPerforma</p><p>nce</p><p>Low Moderate Challenging Impossible</p><p>Area ofOptimal</p><p>GoalDifficulty</p><p>Goal Difficulty </p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 2167 Drives and M...</p></li></ul>

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