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USBIG Discussion Paper No. 102, February 2005

Work in Progress, do not cite or quote without author’s permission

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The Compassionate Face of Religion:

as Grounding for a Guaranteed Income

(To be presented at the 2005 USBIG Congress, March 4-6 in e!

"or# Cit$%

B&'ord arris

)etired *ro'essor o' Socio+og$

6 *inehi++ .ri/e

Bastrop, T 1602



I' one +oo#s at the present !or+d con'+icts, the tit+e o'

this paper sees /er$ &nrea+istic since ost o' these con'+icts

in/o+/e re+igio&s gro&ps 'ighting and #i++ing ebers o' ri/a+

re+igio&s gro&ps The present ar in Ira7 is no e8ception since

an$ so ca++ed Christian organi9ations are attepting to de'ine

it as a ne! cr&sade against M&s+is !ith the corresponding

response b$ i+itant M&s+is naing the con'+ict a holy war

against the infidel :o!e/er, I !i++ tr$ to arg&e that there is

another side or face to universal faiths that be+ie/es in

compassion and ser/ice to others, partic&+ar+$ those !ho are

argina+i9ed or at the botto o' the socia+ and econoic

str&ct&res I be+ie/e that this side or face o' an$ re+igions

o''er a gro&nding 'or a g&aranteed incoe and there'ore a

reso&rce 'or those acti/ists !ho are ad/ocating 'or s&ch changes

This st&d$ is a part o' an ongoing research that I startedin the 0;s at the beginning o' the present War Against the

Poor. ro <4< to <6<, I !or#ed in three Methodist co&nit$

centers in +o!-incoe areas in ash/i++e, Tennessee, =o&is/i++e,

>ent&c#$ and San ?ntonio, Te8as be'ore entering acadeia ?t the

+ast agenc$--in San ?ntonio--!e de/e+oped a gang !or# pro@ect

that soon becae a genera+ ode+ 'or !or#ing !ith an$ poor

neighborhood e becae in/o+/ed !ith the co&nit$ action o' the

ar on *o/ert$ and '&rther thro&gh e+'are )ights organi9ing !e

becae in/o+/ed !ith the nationa+ ad/ocac$ 'or a guaranteed

income. In 'act o&r agenc$ de/e+oped a research pro@ect that !as

a+ost '&nded to test o&t a guaranteed income in San ?ntonio,Te8as aong Me8ican ?ericans The ode+ o' ser/ice in this

pro@ect and the socia+ po+icies ip+ied--inc+&ding a guaranteed

income--becae the basis 'or $ teaching and research in the

/ario&s acadeic ro+es that I had 'ro <6< to 200

In the 0;s, !hen the War on Poverty !as disant+ed and the

ne! po+ic$ becae the abo/e War Against the Poor , I becae


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soe!hat depressed and began to see# the norati/e roots 'or $

+i'e +ong ro+e as a Poverty Warrior. This +ed e bac# to soe o'

$ o!n theo+ogica+ roots--e+s erre, *a&+ Ti++ich and )ichard

ieb&hr--b&t a+so to p+ace these tho&ghts in a +ong and cross

c&+t&ra+ st&d$ o' sii+ar /ie!s o' compassionate service and

state policies. Soe o' this research is re'+ected in this paper

M$ o/er a++ p&rpose in this paper here is to reco/er

re+igio&s disco&rse 'or progressive causes, s&ch as a guaranteed 

income, 'ro the Christian )ight that is proinent in toda$As

po+itics red B+oc# has /er$ ab+$ ca&ght $ intentions

or the +ast 7&arter-cent&r$, the right has re+ied on a

sip+e narrati/e that !as ade 'ao&s b$ )ona+d )eagan and

has been repeated e/er since It is the c+ai that the

United States !as once a great nation !ith peop+e !ho +i/ed

b$ a ora+ creed that ephasi9ed piet$, hard !or#, thri't,

se8&a+ restraint and se+'-re+iance, b&t there cae a tie in

the <60s !here !e abandoned those /a+&es e cae instead

to re+$ on big go/ernent to so+/e o&r prob+es, to iagine

that abortion, hoose8&a+it$ and the p&rs&it o' se8&a+

p+eas&re !ere >, and to be+ie/e that God had died and that

re+igion sho&+d p+a$ no ro+e in o&r p&b+ic +i'e ?ccording

to this narrati/e, on+$ a s$steatic e''ort to restore the

o+d /a+&es--to red&ce the ro+e o' go/ernent, +o!er ta8es,

restore the centra+ ro+e o' re+igion and piet$ in p&b+ic

+i'e, and rene! o&r coitent to se8&a+ restraint and

traditiona+ ora+it$--!o&+d a#e it possib+e 'or &s to

recapt&re o&r greatness as a peop+e This narrati/e

sea+ess+$ !e+ds together the ora+ concerns o' theChristian )ight and the 'ree-ar#et concerns o' econoic


I !i++ arg&e that the re+igio&s disco&rse that s&pports this

narrati/e is based on a punitive face o' re+igion, !hich &ses the

etaphor, according to George =a#o'',ii o' a strict father

ora+it$. I !i++ '&rther arg&e that there is a+so compassionate

face to ost !or+d re+igions that has a nurturant parent iage

that !i++ s&pport the t$pe o' ora+ disco&rse that red B+oc#


e &st re@ect these 'a+se prophecies and recogni9e that o&r

econo$ can on+$ !or# i' it is based on ora+ 'o&ndations

e &st recogni9e that the p&rs&it o' se+'-interest, !hether

to achie/e 'ort&ne, 'ae, stat&s or po!er, &st a+!a$s be

constrained b$ respect 'or the needs o' others nce !e do

this, !e can begin to change those p&b+ic po+icies that !ere

distorted b$ the decades o' 'a+se prophes$ e can re!rite


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the ta8 codes to a#e s&re that once ore both corporations

and !ea+th$ indi/id&a+s pa$ their 'air share e can e8pand

the reso&rces that !e pro/ide to reg&+ator$ agencies so that

!e get '&++ and honest 'inancia+ disc+os&re 'ro

corporations, a re/ersa+ o' en/ironenta+ degradations and

other /ita+ p&b+ic goods e can re/isit D!e+'are re'orE to

a#e s&re that the proise that !e D+ea/e no chi+d behindE

isn;t @&st an ept$ capaign s+oganiii 

 Max Weber on the Dual Face of Religion:

In his st&dies o' or+d )e+igions Ma8 eber pro/ides

&nderstanding o' ho! this d&a+ 'aces o' re+igion arise and

there'ore pro/ide 'or both support and critique o' societies

econoic and po+itica+ ine7&a+ities :e arg&es that in the +arge

iperia+ ci/i+i9ations the suffering ca&sed b$ the e8tree

econoic and po+itica+ ine7&a+ities prod&ced in re'+ecti/e

indi/id&a+s and gro&ps 'ors o' prophetic and redemptory

religions based on universal brotherhood. ?ong s&ch gro&ps there

eerged an ethic that re'+ects a sense o' h&anit$ e8periencing

coon s&''erings 'ro s&ch econoic and po+itica+ ine7&a+ities

in societ$

The ore iperati/es that iss&ed 'ro the ethic o'

reciprocit$ aong neighbors !ere raised, the ore rationa+

the conception o' sa+/ation becae and the ore it !as

s&b+iated into and ethic o' abso+&te deands F8terna++$,

s&ch coands rose to a co&nis o' +o/ing brethren

interna++$ the$ rose to the attit&de o' caritas, +o/e 'orthe s&''erer per se, 'or one;s neighbor, 'or an, and

'ina++$ 'or the ene$i/

&rther he arg&es that


The re+igion o' brother+iness has a+!a$s c+ashed !ith the

orders and /a+&es o' this !or+d, and the ore consistent+$

its deands ha/e been carried thro&gh, the sharper the c+ash

has been The sp+it has becoe !ider the ore that /a+&es o'

the !or+d ha/e been rationa+i9ed and s&b+iated in ters o'

their o!n +a!s/


or those gro&ps or indi/id&a+s !ho do not !ant to gi/e &p

their po!er, eber arg&es that there are t!o consistent Da/en&es

o' escapeE 'ro the deands o' this D&ni/ersa+ ethics o'

brother+inessE or caritas. ne is the a/en&e o' mysticism that

o/es the ethics deand to a di''erent +e/e+ o' rea+it$ than the

rea+ !or+d The ethic o' caritas then on+$ app+ies to the


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spiritual world and to on+$ certain gro&ps s&ch as monks or

saints. The other consistent response 'or eber is the *&ritan


?s a re+igion o' /irt&osos, *&ritanis reno&nced the

&ni/ersa+is o' +o/e, and rationa++$ ro&tini9ed a++ !or# in

this !or+d into ser/ing God;s !i++ and testing one;s state

o' grace God;s !i++ in its &+tiate eaning !as 7&ite

incoprehensib+e, $et it !as the on+$ positi/e !i++ that

co&+d be #no!n In this respect, *&ritanis accepted the

ro&ntini9ation o' the econoic cosos, !hich, !ith the !ho+e

!or+d, it de/a+&ed as creat&ra+ and depra/ed This state o'

a''airs appeared as God-!i++ed, and as ateria+ and gi/en

'or '&+'i++ing one;s d&t$ In the +ast resort, this eant in

princip+e to reno&nce sa+/ation as a goa+ attainab+e b$ an,

that is, b$ e/er$bod$ It eant to reno&nce sa+/ation in

'a/or o' the gro&nd+ess and a+!a$s on+$ partic&+ari9ed

grace In tr&th, this standpoint o' &nbrother+iness !as no

+onger a gen&ine Hre+igion o' sa+/ation;/i

Th&s DGod;s i++E is not to he+p the poor beca&se their

'ai+&re in ters o' ateria+ s&ccess eans the God has not

e+ected the 'or sa+/ation *o/ert$ becoes a ora+ iss&e and one

can a#e a c+assi'ication o' Ddeser/ing poorE 'ro D&ndeser/ing

poorE It sho&+d be noted that eber !rote his 'ao&s st&d$, The

Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, a'ter a /isit to

?erica and he !as str&c# b$ the !a$ *rotestant gro&ps '&nctioned

in this co&ntr$ In an artic+e that is &s&a++$ no! p&b+ished !ith

The Protestant Ethic  ca++ed DThe *rotestant Sects and the Spirito' Capita+is,E/ii eber points to the validating role that the

+oca+ congregation has in estab+ishing the Dora+ !orthingnessE

o' the eber B&siness or *ro'essiona+ s&ccess !as o'ten

dependant &pon !hether soe denoinationa+ gro&p @&dged that one

!as 'it to ta#e co&nion or participate in congregationa+ +i'e

Th&s grace !as not universally a/ai+ab+e to a++ b&t !as

 particularized according to the standards o' that denoination

and partic&+ar congregation In an$ !a$s this creates a /er$

+i/e+$ civil society  b&t a+so one that is e8tree+$ eclusionary 

based &pon rigid positions o' ora+it$ Th&s eber &nderstood the

econoic /a+&e o' social capital, b&t he a+so presents it asbeing /er$ particularized in its e''ects eber a+so sho!ed that

the *&ritan Fthic co&+d a+so ha/e po+itica+ 'ors

hen sa+/ation aristocracies are charged b$ the coand o'

their God to tae the !or+d o' sin, 'or :is g+or$, the$ gi/e

birth to the Dcr&saderE S&ch !as the case in Ca+/inis and,

in a di''erent 'or, Is+a ?t the sae tie, ho!e/er,


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sa+/ation aristocracies separate Dho+$E !ars or D@&stE !ars

'ro other, p&re+$ sec&+ar, and there'ore pro'o&nd+$

de/a+&ed, !ars The @&st !ar is engaged in 'or the sa#e o'

e8ec&ting God;s coandent, or 'or the sa#e o' 'aith, !hich

in soe sense a+!a$s eans a !ar o' re+igion/iii 

Th&s, po+itica+ action is @&sti'ied to cope+ non-be+ie/ers

to go b$ the partic&+ar /ersions o' ora+it$ that the 'aith


eber does a good @ob in e8p+aining the punitive face o'

universalistic religions, b&t is not as good on data 'or the

compassionate face. Using eber it is &nderstandab+e that soe o'

the a@or socia+ thin#ers that he+ped 'or and perpet&ate social

darwinism and its negati/e attit&de abo&t the poor !ere c+erics

s&ch as Joseph To!nsend, Thoas Ma+th&s and i++ia Graha

S&er :o!e/er, he +ea/es o&t the data that the origina+

ethic of brotherliness reained in 'orce 'or an$ o' the

*rotestant gro&ps that he st&died Soe ebers and gro&ps--

partic&+ar+$ aong K&a#ers, Methodists and soe ?nabaptists

D!anted to instit&tiona+i9e the ethic o' brother+iness !ith 'e!er

reser/ations--that is, also in a ne! 'ors o' socia+ co&nit$

and po+itica+ !i++-'orationEi8 DThese socia+ o/eents, !hich

did not !ant to di/ert the potentia+ o' ethica++$ rationa+i9ed

!or+d /ie!s onto the trac#s o' discip+ined +abor by privatized

individuals, b&t !anted rather to con/ert it into socia+-

re/o+&tionar$ 'ors o' +i'eE In one sense the partia+ and

+iited instit&tiona+i9ed 'ors that eber gi/es +ea/es a +arge

degree o' surplus morality  that o'ten !as a part o' the 'orationo' foreign bodies !ithin the /ario&s capita+istic societies

Socia+ historians s&ch as Fric :osba! and F * Thopson sho!

the in'+&ence o' K&a#ers and Methodist on the =abor Mo/eent

? re+igio&s tradition---a$ be /er$ radica+ It is tr&e that

certain 'ors o' re+igion ser/e to dr&g the pain o'

into+erab+e socia+ strains, and pro/ide an a+ternati/e to

re/o+t ----:o!e/er, inso'ar as re+igion is the +ang&age and

'rae!or# o' a++ genera+ action in &nde/e+oped societies--

and a+so, to a great e8tent, aong the coon peop+e o'

preind&stria+ Britain--ideo+ogies o' re/o+t !i++ a+so bere+igio&s8


?erican socia+ theorists s&ch as Thorstein Leb+en sho!

sii+ar in'+&ences in ?erican tho&ght Leb+en sa! a

contradiction o' compassion and pecuniary  /a+&es in ?erican

+i'e In both an independent essa$ entit+ed DChristian Mora+s and

the Copetiti/e S$steE and partia++$ in Chapter III o' his


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! heory of the Leisure Class,8i Leb+en arg&es that the Christian

princip+e o' non-resistance, brother+$ +o/e, and &t&a+ s&pport

has pro/ided estern Ci/i+i9ation a +ea/ening set o' nors to

contro+ the indi/id&a+istic pec&niar$ /a+&es ephasi9ed b$

b&siness and pro'it-a#ing :e arg&ed that the Christian /a+&es

!ere a c&+t&ra+ re/ersion to the Dani&s o' the +o!er (peaceab+e%

sa/age c&+t&reE8ii  ptiistica++$, Leb+en 'e+t that in his da$

the integration o' copassion and pec&niar$ /a+&es !as 'a++ing

apart and there'ore he said, De8cept 'or a possib+e re/ersion to

a c&+t&ra+ sit&ation strong+$ characteri9ed b$ ideas o' e&+ation

and stat&s, the ancient socia+ bias ebodied in the Christian

princip+e o' brotherhood sho&+d +ogica++$ contin&e to gain gro&nd

at the e8pense o' the pec&niar$ ora+ o' copetiti/e


In his o!n +i'e eber, #ne! the in'+&ence o' these ore

radica+ re+igio&s traditions Both his other and his !i'e !ere

ebers o' a "eminist and #ocial $emocratic re+igio&s gro&p and

eber !as constant+$ e8posed to their ideas and soe!hat

po+itica++$ in'+&enced b$ the :is genera+ s#eptica+ and

rea+istic perspecti/e #ept hi 'ro gi/ing '&++ s&pport :o!e/er,

he !as 'ascinated b$ To+sto$ and )&ssian ?narchists and his !i'e

Marianne sho!ed eberAs s&pport o' a ore +e'tist attit&de

:is !i'e has stated that his s$path$ !ith the str&gg+e o'

the pro+etariat 'or a h&an and digni'ied e8istence had 'or

decades been so great that he o'ten pondered !hether or not

he sho&+d @oin their ran#s as a part$ eber--b&t a+!a$s

!ith negati/e conc+&sions :is reasoning, according to his!i'e, D!as that one co&+d on+$ be an honest socia+ist, @&st

+i#e a Christian, on+$ i' one !as read$ to share the !a$ o'

+i'e o' the &npropertied, and in an$ case, on+$ i' one !as

read$ to 'orego a c&+t&red e8istence, based &pon their !or#

Since his disease, this !as ipossib+e 'or eber :is

scho+arship sip+$ depended &pon capita+ rent &rtherore,

he reained persona++$ an Hindi/id&a+ist;E8i/

The Right to Subsistence and the Compassionate Face:

The disc&ssions o' the d&a+it$ o' re+igion, in the +ast

section, d!e+t priari+$ on a re+ati/e+$ +ate period o' !or+d

histor$ The concerns o' the di''erent gro&ps o' *rotestants

thro&gh either an unbrotherly ethic or b$ aintaining the sense

o' caritas or agape (&sing the Gree# ter 'or unconditional

love%--!ere based on their /ar$ing interpretations o' sacred

tets--in this case the +d and e! Testaents o' the Christian


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Bib+e Conser/ati/es +i#e Martin +as#$, !ho coined the ter

compassionate conservatism, !i++ &se the sae te8ts as

progressi/e Christians b&t !i++ s&dden+$ thro! in a te8t that

n&++i'ies the compassionate face

Thro&gho&t the Bib+e and in *ro/erbs speci'ica++$, character

and econoic s&ccess go together D=a9$ hands a#e a an

poor, b&t di+igent hands bring !ea+th :e !ho !or#s his

+and !i++ ha/e ab&ndant 'ood, b&t he !ho chases 'antasies

+ac#s @&dgent.i+igent hands !i++ r&+e, b&t +a9iness ends

in s+a/e +abor.o not +o/e s+eep or $o& !i++ gro! poor

sta$ a!a#e and $o& !i++ ha/e 'ood to spareE (*ro/ 04,

2, 224, 20%8/

The sae bib+e a++o!s both sets o' interpretations The

theo+ogies o' the compassionate face pic# &p on those te8ts that

e8press thro&gh '&++ ethica+ ip+ications o' the ethic of

brotherly love. Jaes Scott, a st&dent o' peasant socia+

o/eents partic&+ar+$ in So&theast ?sia, arg&es that thro&gh o&t

the !or+d the peasant moral economy o' the right to subsistence

is pic#ed &p b$ &ni/ersa+ re+igio&s ideo+ogies in their /ie! o' a

better !or+d I' one 'ee+s oppressed then one attepts to iagine

soe '&t&re e8istence !here %ustice and compassion r&+e

It near+$ a+!a$s ip+ies a societ$ o' brotherhood in !hich

there !i++ be no rich and poor, in !hich no distinctions o'

ran# and stat&s !i++ e8ist*ropert$ is t$pica++$, tho&gh

not a+!a$s, to be he+d in coon and shared The

en/isioned &topia a$ a+so inc+&de a se+'-$ie+ding andab&ndant nat&re as !e++ as radica++$ trans'ored h&an

nat&re in !hich greed, en/$, and hatred !i++ disappear

hi+e the earth+$ &topia is th&s anticipation o' the '&t&re,

it o'ten har#s bac# to a $thic Fden 'ro !hich an#ind has

'a++en a!a$8/i

St&dents o' the ?ncient ear Fastern isdo +iterat&re ha/e

'o&nd the sae genera+ concern 'or the socia+ and econoic rights

'or widows, orphans and the poor epressed  as an idea+ in the

/ario&s re+igio&s te8ts ?s Char+es ensha! s&ari9es

It iss&rprising at !hat ear+$ stage in the histor$ o' the

ancient ear Fast the cop&+sion !as 'e+t to protect these

peop+e (ido!s, orphans and the poor in genera+%It !as a

coon po+ic$, and the Israe+ites in +ater histor$ inherited

the concept 'ro their 'orebears, soe o' !ho had coe 'ro

Mesopotaia, soe had been capti/e in Fg$pt, and others had

gro!n &p in the Canaanite !or+d In the Israe+ite co&nit$


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this po+ic$ !as e8tended thro&gh the high ethica+ re+igion

o' "ah!eh to becoe a de'inite part o' their, +ater to be

inherited b$ Christian and M&s+is s&ch as the >oran

ob+igations o' &akat or alms giving and 'hsan or s$path$

'or the do!ntrodden and oppressed 8/ii

In an$ o' the ear Fastern re+igions, this compassionate

face !as e8pressed thro&gh the iage o' a god or goddess !ho !as

pict&red as a ode+ o' &nconditiona+ +o/e--ie ?sc+epias, the

Gree# god o' hea+ing, and Isis, the Fg$ptian goddess .&ring the

:e++enistic period these t!o di/inities copeted 'or the

+o$a+ties o' be+ie/ers !ith the iages o' Jes&s and probab+$ !as

b+ended in to Christianit$ as it becae doinant

? sii+ar copassionate iage is in the B&ddhist tradition

o' the +egendar$ Fdicts o' ?so#a These !ere the roc#ed car/ed

record o' the s&pposed practica+ eas&res o' ?so#a the third

Ma&r$an Fperor (21 BC-22 BC%8/iii Their act&a+ historica+ base

reains in 7&estion, b&t the$ do pro/ide a norati/e idea+ 'or

an$ B&ddhist acti/ists :e !as the 'irst B&ddhist Fperor o'

India and !as initia++$ an adherent o' the orthodo8 :ind& 'aith

It is said that be'ore his con/ersion to B&ddhis, he !as t$pica+

o' Indian onarchs at the tie In his con/ersion, he !as

s&pposed to be in'+&enced b$ his other;s 'aith ?'ter a

partic&+ar !ar--the >a+inga !ar--the +egend is that he reacted to

!hat he 'e+t !as the &nnecessar$ ta#ing o' h&an +i'e and o/ed

to instit&tiona+i9e a di''erent socia+ and po+itica+ order :e is

pict&red b$ soe as attepting to e8perient !ith the teachings

o' B&ddha as a g&ide to socia+ po+ic$ ? constant re'rain in hisedicts is

?++ en are $ chi+dren J&st as, in regard to $ o!n

chi+dren, I desire that the$ a$ be pro/ided !ith a++ #inds

o' !e+'are and happiness in this !or+d and in the ne8t, the

sae I desire in regard to a++ en8i8

?so#a !as s&pposed to be inspired b$ the stor$ o' B&ddha,

!hen he !as sic# !ith d$senter$ and addressed the on#s,

DBrethren, he !ho !o&+d care 'or e, +et hi care 'or the sic#E

The acco&nts sa$ that he pro/ided 'or edica+ care at no e8pense'or both h&ans and ania+s, not on+$ in his #ingdo, b&t a+so in

at +east ten #ingdos !ith !hich he had 'riend+$ re+ations :e

a+so is pict&red as practicing a ore restorati/e criina+

@&stice s$ste ne !riter sa$s

:ere I need not read the edicts, b&t ere+$ +ist his

acti/ities o' tra/e+ing aro&nd gi/ing gi'ts e8tensi/e+$,


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coissioning his 7&eens and inisters to do +i#e!ise,

b&i+ding rest-ho&ses and hospices 'or the poor and sic#,

patroni9ing edicine, iporting doctors 'ro as 'ar a!a$ as

Greece, pro/iding 'or con/icts and their 'ai+ies, sending

o&t specia+ inisters to in/estigate cases o' @&dicia+

harshness or corr&ption, 'reeing prisoners on ho+ida$s, and

so on, genera++$ acting as a 'ather to his chi+dren to!ard

a++ peop+e

(In his edicts% ?so#a is sa$ing a++ en o' a++ c+asses can

be as gods b$ /irt&e o' their ebodient o' .hara in

#indness, tr&th'&+ness, and so 'orth It is a deand to +i/e

&p to transcendent /a+&es and not pretend the$ are possib+e

on+$ in a separate rea+ o' the gods88

:e !as a+so pict&red as to+erant to!ard a++ re+igio&s

gro&ps F/en i' the historica+ acc&rac$ o' ?so#a;s reign is in

7&estion, this iage o' copassion pro/ides a strong norati/e

compassionate face aong socia++$ acti/e B&ddhist. 

The Je!ish script&res, preser/ed partia++$ in the bib+ica+

+d Testaent, b&i+d on the concern 'or the poor that !as a part

o' ear Fastern societies and added inno/ations !hich !ere b&i+t

in to the .e&teronic Code

?t the end o' e/er$ se/en $ears $o& sha++ grant a re+ease

?nd this is the anner o' the re+ease e/er$ creditor sha++

re+ease !hat he has +ent to his neighbor he sha++ not e8act

it o' his neighbor, his brother, beca&se the =ord;s re+easehas been proc+aied B&t there !i++ be no poor aong $o&

('or the =ord !i++ b+ess $o& in the +and !hich the =ord $o&r

God gi/es $o& 'or an inheritance to possess%, i' on+$ $o&

!i++ obe$ the /oice o' the =ord $o&r God, being care'&+ to

do a++ this coandent !hich I coand $o& this da$88i

bser/ing the Sabbath becae ore than @&st resting on the

se/enth da$, it becae an iss&e o' socia+ @&stice In other parts

o' the script&re this !as e8tended to the concept o' the J&bi+ee

"ear :ere there is ordained Da sabbath o' sabbath $ears, a

s&per-sabbathE in !hich +and is restored to the origina+ o!nersDIn this $ear o' @&bi+ee $o& sha++ ret&rn, e/er$ one o' $o&, to

$o&r propert$the +and sha++ not be so+d in perpet&it$, for the

land is mine( with me you are but aliens and tenants.E88ii The

p&rpose !as to pre/ent the trans'oration o' &+tip+e peasant

sa++ho+ders into +arge +and o!nerships the !a$ odern

agrib&siness has done The Je!ish prophets aintained this


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coitent ca++ing the Israe+ites bac# to a concept o' socia+


)ecent scho+arship on Jes&s and his teachings see hi as

basica++$ !ithin this prophetic tradition and his rea+ essage is

one o' )oncrete *ove--Agape or )aritas or )ompassion--ip+$ing

/er$ speci'ic actions o' 'eeding the h&ngr$, c+othing the na#ed,

gi/ing drin# to the thirst$, /isiting those in prison,

inistering to sic# and !e+coing the hoe+ess Jes&s is pict&red

as being concerned abo&t rene!ing the socia+ @&stice concerns o'

the +d Testaent and consistent+$ p&shes a subversive agenda in

his parab+es and actions o' p&tting the argina+i9ed and poor

'irst in the +ingdom of od. ?s Marc&s J Borg points o&t

Jes&s o'ten &sed the +ang&age o' parado8 and re/ersa+ to

shatter the con/entiona+ !isdo o' his tie Ipossib+e

cobinations abo&nd in his teaching hat #ind o' !or+d is

it in !hich a *harisee--t$pica++$ /ie!ed as righteo&s and

p&re--can be prono&nced &nrighteo&s and an o&tcast be

accepted hat #ind o' !or+d is it in !hich riding a don#e$

can be a s$bo+ o' #ingship, in !hich the poor are b+essed,

the 'irst are +ast and the +ast 'irst, the h&b+e e8a+ted

and the e8a+ted h&b+ed

The >ingdo is copared to soething ip&re it is +i#e a

!oen (associated !ith ip&rit$% p&tting +ea/en (!hich is

ip&re% into '+o&r The >ingdo is 'or chi+dren, !ho in that

!or+d !ere nobodies th&s, the >ingdo is 'or nobodies The

sae point is ade b$ Jes&s; ea+s !ith o&tcasts the>ingdo is a ban7&et o' o&tcasts, o' nobodies88iii

ne o' the parab+es, Workers in the ineyard, is interpreted

b$ an$ scho+ars as ip+$ing soe 'or o' guaranteed income or at

+east a de'inite right to s&bsistence 'or a++ !or#ers It !as

directed at the p+ight o' the &rban &nep+o$ed

? +ando!ner !ent o&t ear+$ in the orning to hire +aborers

'or his /ine$ard ?'ter agreeing !ith the +aborers 'or the

da$;s !age (denarius--the ao&nt needed 'or a da$;s

s&bsistence%, he sent the into his /ine$ard hen he !ento&t three ho&rs +ater he sa! other peop+e standing id+e in

the ar#etp+ace, and said to the, D"o& a+so go into the

/ine$ard, and I !i++ pa$ $o& !hate/er is rightE So the$

!ent hen he !ent o&t three ho&rs +ater, and three ho&rs

a'ter that, he did the sae ?+so abo&t the e+e/enth ho&r

No' a t!e+/e ho&r da$O he !ent o&t and 'o&nd others standing

aro&nd, and he said to the, Dh$ are $o& standing here id+e

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a++ da$E The$ said, DBeca&se no one hired &sE :e said to

the, D"o& a+so go into the /ine$ardE hen e/ening cae,

the o!ner o' the /ine$ard said to his anger, DCa++ the

+aborers and gi/e the their pa$, beginning !ith the +ast

and then going to the 'irst hen those hired at the

e+e/enth ho&r cae, each o' the recei/ed a da$; !age

(denarius% o! !hen the 'irst cae, the$ tho&ght the$ !o&+d

recei/e ore b&t each o' the recei/ed the denari&s ?nd

!hen the$ recei/ed it, the$ gr&b+ed against the +ando!ner,

sa$ing, DThese +ast !or#ed on+$ one ho&r, and $o& ha/e ade

the e7&a+ to &s !ho ha/e borne the b&rden o' the da$ and

the scorched heatE B&t he rep+ied to one o' the, DM$ dear

an, I a doing $o& no !rong .id $o& not agree !ith e 'or

a denari&s Ta#e !hat be+ongs to $o& and go I choose to

gi/e to this +ast the sae as I gi/e to $o& ? I not

a++o!ed to do !hat I choose !ith !hat be+ongs to e r is

$o&r e$e e/i+ ( poneros% beca&se I a good (agathos%88i/

?s indicated ear+ier, these representations o' a

compassionate face !ere presented in the sae bib+e !ith

representations o' a ore punitive face. .e&terono$ a+so has

chapters and +a!s that ad/ocate #i++ing a++ the citi9ens,

inc+&ding !oen and chi+dren, o' capt&red cities ?+so, the

7&otes ear+ier 'ro *ro/erbs sho! the ear+$ roots o' the

distinction o' deserving poor 'ro undeserving poor  that ha/e

persisted thro&gho&t !estern histor$ and the attepts to de/e+op

instit&tions that he+p the poor )haritable activities in the

Christian est too# an$ 'ors88/ *ope Gregor$, in 5<0, &sed the

concept o' diaconiae or +oca+ !e+'are centers to pro/ide theneeds o' the &rban pop&+ation o' )oe These diaconiae

distrib&ted 'ood, pro/ided 'aci+ities 'or bathing, ga/e she+ter

to the hoe+ess and had ser/ices 'or the sic# B$ the tenth

cent&r$ there !ere t!ent$-'o&r s&ch centers thro&gh o&t )oe The

diaconiae !ere based on idea+s that !ere as o+d as the ear+iest

Christian co&nities and !ere based on the parab+e o' the =ast

J&dgent !ere 'eeding the h&ngr$, gi/ing drin# to the thirst$,

c+othing the na#ed, /isiting those in prison, !e+coing the

stranger and caring 'or the sic# !as coanded as the nor 'or

h&an beha/ior

In )oe, ost o' the diaconiae !ere b&i+t on sites &sed b$

the o+der )oan rep&b+ic in its p&b+ic distrib&tion o' grain and

pro/ision o' grain and pro/ision o' /ario&s 'ors o' socia+

!e+'are 'ten these pagan +ocations !ere a+so sacred spots that

ephasi9ed the !orship o' compassionate gods or goddesses s&ch as

the Gree# god o' hea+ing, ?esc&+api&s, or the goddess, Ceres The

!orship o' Ceres or the Gree# .eeter had been re+ated to grain


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distrib&tion in )oe since the 'i'th cent&r$ BC This tep+e !as

'o&nded b$ the plebeian po+itica+ part$ and represented their

attept to estab+ish instit&tions that the$ contro++ed

.&ring the Midd+e ?ges, an$ onastic orders &sed the sae

ode+ o' the diaconiae in estab+ishing hospita+s, hoste+s and

sites to 'eed the poor in /ario&s parts o' the Christian !or+d

'ten the !ea+th$ and po!er'&+ resisted these c+ais o'

universal charity  and attepted to a#e universal love on+$ a

spirit&a+ atter ?t ties the c+erg$ arg&ed that its o!nership

o' +and and !ea+th !as on beha+' o' the poor and at the sae tie

the$ en@o$ed the &se o' !ea+th 'or itse+' There did eerge

periodic re'or gro&ps, s&ch as the ranciscans, to restore the

origina+ p&rpose and priorit$ o' ser/ing the poor Increasing+$

these instit&tions cae &nder +a$ contro+ and ear+$ h&anist s&ch

as Fras&s and Li/es proposed rationa+i9ing these in to

go/ernent responsibi+it$ In the pre'ace to her trans+ation o'

J&an =&is Li/es proposa+ 'or charit$ re'or to the to!n co&nci+

o' Br&ges, Be+gian in 526, Sister ?+ice Tobriner88/i points o&t

that he !as in'+&enced b$ the organi9ation o' charit$ and

hospita+s in La+encia, Spain &nder the r&+e o' the Moors There

!as specia+ protection o' orphans and other poor and the

hospita+s &sed the best o' Je!ish and Moorish edicine Li/es !as

ed&cated in s$nagog&e schoo+s since he had a Je!ish bac#gro&nd

e/en tho&gh he !as bapti9ed in in'anc$ as a Christian In his

proposa+, Li/es sa$s

The )oans o' ancient ties pro/ided in s&ch anner 'or

their citi9ens that no one neede to beg hence begging !as'orbidden b$ the T!e+/e Tab+es The ?thenians too# the sae

pre/entati/e eas&res 'or their pop&+ace ?gain, the =ord

ga/e the Je!ish peop+e a pec&+iar +a!, hard and intractab+e,

s&ch as becae a peop+e o' sii+ar teperaent $et in

.e&terono$ :e coands the to s&ch preca&tions that, so

'ar as it is !as !ithin their po!er, there !as to be no

indigent beggars aong the, especia++$ in that $ear o' rest

so acceptab+e to the =ord In s&ch anner are a++ peop+e to

+i/e 'or the =ord Jes&s !as b&ried--!ith the +d =a! and

the cereonia+s and the Do+d anE--and rose again in

regeneration o' +i'e and spirit Un7&estionab+$, it is ascanda+ and disgrace that !e Christians con'ront e/er$!here

in o&r cities so an$ poor and indigent, !e to !ho no

in@&nction has been ore e8p+icit+$ coanded than charit$

(I ight sa$, the on+$ one%88/ii

In Fng+and the con'iscation o' ch&rch propert$ &nder :enr$

LIII created the necessit$ 'or the *oor =a!s S&ch go/ernent


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progras started a series o' c$c+es o' o/ing bet!een the

progressi/e concept o' outdoor relief and the regressi/e concept

o' indoor relief. &tdoor re+ie' !as the process !here the poor

person or 'ai+$ +i/ed in their o!n hoe !hi+e being he+ped b$

adinistrators !ho #ne! the as neighbors Indoor re+ie' !as !hen

the poor !ere 'orced into poor houses or paupers homes !here

the$ +i/ed as inates and o'ten 'orced to !or# 'or pri/ate

'actor$ o!ners b/io&s+$, this debate contin&es to the present

da$ e/en in USBIG disc&ssions aro&nd ho! unconditional the basic

income or guaranteed income sho&+d be The ter reciprocity  has 

becoe the code !ord 'or merited or unmerited incoe The

compassionate 'ace !o&+d sa$ that o&r o!n s&ccess is a gift/ b$

grace--and there'ore a+!a$s not based on merit There'ore !e are

ob+igated to give to others graciously !itho&t concern 'or the

merits o' the recipient. 

Paines and Georges Debt to the Compassionate Face

Thoas ? :orne in his boo#, Property Rights and Po!erty

Political "rgument in #ritain, $%&'($)*+,88/iii s&ggest another

ro&te that the .e&teronoic Code and other +d Testaent concepts

in'+&enced +ater concepts o' socia+ @&stice :e arg&es that there

!as a tradition in !hich go/ernent gro&nded aid to the poor !as

@&sti'ied b$ neither charit$ nor &ti+itarian ca+c&+ation nor

po+itica+ coproise b&t !as seen as a welfare right based on

concepts o' propert$ In 625, Groti&s described the origins o'

propert$ rights !ith God granting the earth to a++ peop+e 'or

their s&stenance ?ccording to Groti&s, indi/id&a+s !ho 'ind

these+/es !itho&t propert$ and &nab+e to s&r/i/e and th&s star/ea$ +egitiate+$ ta#e 'ro others This right to ta#e 'ro those

!ho o!n ore than the$ need 'or s&r/i/a+ is #no!n as the right o'

necessit$ Groti&s !rote, Dthe priiti/e right o' the &ser

re/i/es, as i' co&nit$ o' o!nership reained, since in respect

to a++ h&an +a!s--the +a! o' o!nership inc+&ded--s&pree

necessit$ sees to ha/e been e8pectedE ne o' the +egacies o'

Groti&s, according to :orne, !as a propert$ theor$ that contained

the idea o' earth and its prod&ce &st be &sed to aintain

e/er$one;s +i'e, and that the right that indi/id&a+s ha/e to the

earth as a coon can ne/er be re+in7&ished :orne traces these

concepts thro&gh a !ide range o' thin#ers inc+&ding :obbes and=oc#e tho&gh the$ tended to &te its ore progressi/e

ip+ications S&ch 'o&nders o' =ibera+ tho&ght ight be seen as a

/ariation o' eber;s insight abo&t the *rotestant Fthic The

Dright o' necessit$E !as too great a threat to econoic and

po+itica+ po!er to a++o! the '&++ thr&st o' this nor to be

accepted as a part o' go/ernent po+ic$ So inte++ect&a+ ro&tes

aro&nd its ip+ications !ere de/e+oped to protect the stat&s 7&o


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:orne points to a +ong +ine o' thin#ers !ho did recogni9e the

progressi/e ip+ications

--the agrarianis o' i++ia g+i/e, Thoas Spence, and

Thoas S#idore to the de'ense o' the +d *oor =a!s in the

ear+$ 0 b$ i++ia Cobbet and &+tiate+$ to the !or#ing

c+ass po+itica+ econo$ o' the )icardian Socia+ists88i8

:ere, I !o&+d +i#e to sho! the in'+&ence o' this progressi/e

tradition on Thoas *aine and :enr$ George since the$ are

considered b$ an$ to be +i#e patron saints 'or the o/eent to

estab+ish a guaranteed income or a basic income. Both !ere

in'+&enced b$ this Bib+ica+ Tradition abo/e--that +and &+tiate+$

be+ongs to God and a++ peop+e o&ght to bene'it 'ro this


In gro!ing &p *aine !as e8posed to both K&a#eris and the

?ng+ican Ch&rch :is 'ather !as a K&a#er, !hi+e his other !as

?ng+ican, and their arriage p&t the 'ai+$ at odds !ith both

gro&ps =ater as an ad&+t, *aine !as a +a$ preacher 'or the

Methodist o/eent in Fng+and *aine biographer, John >eane,


*aine !as a+so to&ched b$ the Methodists; doctrine o'

reass&rance, !hose ega+itarianis ap+i'ied the K&a#er thee

that each indi/id&a+ !as e7&ipped !ith an inner +ight and

there'ore e7&a+ be'ore God Methodis p&t 'or!ard the

e8hi+arating /ie!, traceab+e to the ear+$ se/enteenth-

cent&r$ .&tch theo+ogian Jacob ?rini&s, that Christ;ssacri'ice and atoneent eant that a++ en and !oen ight

be sa/ed, not @&st the preordained e+ect, as John Ca+/in and

his 'o++o!ers had stip&+ated888

=ater in his +i'e, *aine !rote his The "ge of Reason that

!as a criti7&e o' organi9ed re+igion o' his tie !here he tries

to present e/idence 'or be+ie' in a bene/o+ent 'or o' God and at

the sae tie criti7&e an$ practices re+igio&s gro&ps :e arg&es

'or a deist or 0nitarian be+ie' in God, th&s +ea/ing o&t be+ie'

in the di/init$ o' Christ and the +itera+ interpretation o' the

Bib+e The "ge of Reason becae his ost contro/ersia+ boo# toboth the +eaders o' the rench )e/o+&tion and at the sae tie

ch&rch +eaders hen he cae bac# to ?erica +ater the

contro/ers$ !as sti++ raging :e !as a+so attepting to de/e+op a

&ni/ersa+ re+igion

It is certain that, in one point, a++ the nations o' the

earth and a++ re+igions agree--a++ be+ie/e in a God the


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thins the$ disagree are the red&ndancies anne8ed to the$

be+ie'I' e/er a &ni/ersa+ re+igion sho&+d pre/ai+, it

!i++ not be b$ be+ie/ing an$thing ne!, b&t in getting rid o'

red&ndancies and be+ie/ing as an at 'irst be+ie/ed at

'irst ?da, i' e/er there !as s&ch a an, !as created a

.eist b&t in the eantie, +et e/er$ an 'o++o!, as he has

a right to do, the re+igion and !orship he pre'ers888i 

:e did 'or a ne! re+igio&s societ$ ca++ed

Theophi+anthropists !hich had 'o&r 'esti/a+s one in honor o'

George ashington, another Saint Lincent de *a&+, another

Socrates and the +ast )o&ssea& Soe consider the paph+et,

D?grarian J&stice; as a part o' this theophi+anthropic o/eent

It !as !ritten as a proposa+ to the rench go/ernent and in

reaction to a seron b$ the Bishop o' =+anda'' on EThe isdo and

Goodness o' God, in ha/ing ade both )ich and *oorE *aine sa$s

in his pre'ace

The error contained in this seron deterined e to p&b+ish

$ D?grarian J&sticeE It is !rong to sa$ God ade rich and

 poor  :e ade on+$ male and female( and he ga/e the the

earth 'or their inheritanceInstead o' preaching to

enco&rage one part o' an#ind in inso+enceit !o&+d be

better that priests ep+o$ed their tie to render the

genera+ condition o' an +ess iserab+e than it is

*ractica+ re+igion consists in doing good and the on+$ !a$

o' ser/ing God is that o' endea/oring to a#e his creation

happ$ ?++ preaching that has not 'or its ob@ect is nonsense

and h$pocris$888ii

:is thesis in D?grarian J&sticeE o!es &ch to the bib+ica+

heritage that God o!ns the earth and there'ore, +oans it to

h&ans 'or their &se The h&an o!ner on+$ o!ns the ipro/eents

ade b$ his o!n +abor, !hi+e the +and itse+' is Dthe common

 property of the human race.1 *aine probab+$ had these ideas !hen

he ade his 'irst proposa+s 'or a !e+'are state in, The Rights

of an, Part Second , b&t the rationa+e !as not '&++$ de/e+oped in

that ateria+ :e proposes that 'ro a ground-rent !hich the

proprietor o!es 'or the +and he ho+ds

To create a nationa+ '&nd, o&t o' !hich there sha++ be paid

to e/er$ person, !hen arri/ed at the age o' t!ent$-one

$ears, the s& o' 'i'teen po&nds ster+ing, as a copensation

in part, 'or the +oss o' his or her inheritance, b$ the

introd&ction o' the s$ste o' +anded propert$ ?nd a+so, the

s& o' ten po&nds per ann&, d&ring +i'e, to e/er$ person


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no! +i/ing, o' the age o' 'i't$ $ears, and to a++ others as

the$ sha++ arri/e at that age888iii


*aine arg&es that this gro&nd-rent sho&+d be co++ected at

the tie !hen the propert$ is passed to descendants thro&gh

inheritance I !i++ not go in to the detai+s o' his proposa+s

since the$ are !e++ #no!n to this a&dience

:enr$ George !as probab+$ in/o+/ed in traditiona+ re+igion

ore than *aine :e a#es a ore e8p+icit &se o' the .e&teronoic

Code in his +ect&re on 2oses in 1 gi/en to the "o&ng Man;s

:ebre! ?ssociation in San rancisco The roots o' his be+ie'

abo&t +and p&b+ished the ne8t $ear as Progress and Po!erty are

e8pressed in this +ect&re

F/er$!here in the Mosaic instit&tions is the +and treated as

a gi't o' the Creator to :is coon creat&res, !hich no one

had a right to onopo+i9e F/er$!here it is, not $o&r

estate, or $o&r propert$, not the +and !hich $o& bo&ght, or

the +and !hich $o& con7&ered, b&t Hthe +and !hich th$ =ord

th$ God gi/en thee;--;the +and !hich the =ord +endeth thee;

Moses sa! that the rea+ ca&se o' the ens+a/eent o' the

asses o' Fg$pt !as, !hat has e/er$!here prod&ced

ens+a/eent, the possession b$ a c+ass o' the +and &pon

!hich and 'ro !hich the !ho+e peop+e &st +i/e :e sa! that

to perit in +and the sae &n7&a+i'ied pri/ate o!nership

that b$ nat&ra+ right attaches to the things prod&ced b$

+abo&r, !o&+d be ine/itab+$ to separate the peop+e into the/er$ rich and the /er$ poor, ine/itab+$ $o ens+a/e +abo&r--

to a#e the asters o' the an$, no atter !hat the

po+itica+ 'ors to bring /ice and degradation, no atter

!hat the re+igion888i/

George sa! the Sabbath obser/ance as a sign that none are

Dcondened to cease+ess toi+E :e criti7&e o' the re+igio&s

+eadership o' his ties has ip+ications 'or a criti7&e o' the

Christian )ight

There are an$ !ho be+ie/e that the Mosaic instit&tions !ere+itera++$ dictated b$ the ?+ight$, $et !ho !o&+d deno&nce

as irre+igio&s and Dco&nisticE an$ app+ication o' their

spirit to the present da$ ?nd $et to-da$ ho! &ch !e o!e

these instit&tionsP This /er$ da$ the on+$ thing that stands

bet!een o&r !or#ing c+asses and cease+ess toi+ is one o'

these Mosaic instit&tions othing in po+itica+ econo$ is

better sett+ed than that &nder conditions !hich no! pre/ai+


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the !or#ing c+asses !o&+d get no ore 'or se/en da$s; +abo&r

than the$ get 'or si8888/

George de/e+oped in his Progress an Po!erty the ip+ications

o' this coon o!nership o' +and and his proposa+ 'or a #ingle

!a. /er and o/er he is critica+ o' the Ma+th&sian and Socia+

.ar!inist thin#ing o' his tie that tended to b+ae po/ert$ on

the ora+s o' the poor or soe preordained stat&s b$ God or

at&re In his 3de to *iberty he repeats his dept to the +d


=ibert$ cae to a race o' s+a/es cro&ching &nder Fg$ptians

!hips, and +ed the 'orth 'ro the :o&se o' Bondage She

hardened the in the desert and ade i' the a race o'

con7&ers The 'ree spirit o' the Mosaic =a! too# their

thin#ers &p the heights !here the$ behe+d the &nit$ o' God,

and inspired their poets !ith stains that $et phase the

highest e8a+tations o' tho&ght888/i 

?+so he ass&ed that i' the conditions 'or greed !ere

e+iinated that natural state o' h&anit$ !o&+d ta#e o/er and

peop+e !o&+d +i/e in co&nit$

The$ are greed$ o' 'ood !hen the$ are not ass&red that there

!i++ be a 'air and e7&itab+e distrib&tion, !hich gi/e each

eno&gh B&t !hen these conditions are ass&red, the$ cease to

be greed$ o' 'ood888/ii 

The Compassionate Face in the !ixties:

ro the standpoint o' conser/ati/e theorists, the si8ties

are de'ined as the !orst disaster in ?erican :istor$ ?++ o' the

a@or prob+es o' o&r societ$ are /ie!ed as being ca&sed b$ the

perissi/e and &nchristian po+icies ad/ocated partic&+ar+$ b$ the

einist Mo/eent and the ar on *o/ert$ Interesting+$, the

B+ac# and other Fthnic Ci/i+ )ights Mo/eents are &s&a++$ not

entioned, so as to not appear to be racist :o!e/er, !riters

s&ch as Char+es M&rra$ and rancis &#a$aa &se bio+ogica+ ode+ss&ch as socia+ dar!inis M&rra$ ip+ies that the poor are

genetica++$ d&ber as !e++ as being iora+ !hi+e &#a$aa see

'einis as ad/ocating a 'or o' arriage that does not 'it the

idea+ pattern s&ggested b$ evolutionary psychology. Conser/ati/es

s&ch as Gertr&de :ie+'arb and Mar/in +as#$ p&t ore ephasis

on the brea#do!n in re+igio&s /a+&es :ie+'arb in her t!o

boo#s, The -e(morali.ation of Society  and /ne 0ation, T1o


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Cultures,222!iii re/erses the criti7&e o' the *&ritan Fthic

de/e+oped b$ Ma8 eber in to a praise o' these sae /a+&es in

that this ethic s&pports the ora+ s&periorit$ o' Capita+is She

ca++s this ethic Lictorian Lirt&es and sees the as doinant in

Fng+and and the US d&ring the Lictorian period :er thesis is

that the cobination o' =e'tist inte++ect&a+s and the rise o'

under class /a+&es aong the poor has +ed to a++ o' the socia+

prob+es o' toda$

In a po!er'&++$ arg&ed boo#, M$ron Magnet has ana+$9ed

the d&a+ re/o+&tion that has +ed to the strange

a++iance bet!een !hat he ca++s the D:a/esE and the

D:a/e-otsE The 'irst !as a socia+ re/o+&tion intended

to +iberate the poor 'ro the po+itica+, econoic, and

racia+ oppression that #ept the in bondage The second

!as a c&+t&ra+ re/o+&tion +iberating the (as the :a/es

these+/es !ere being +iberated% 'ro the ora+

restraints o' bo&rgeois /a+&es The 'irst created the

!e+'are progras o' the Great Societ$, !hich pro/ided

co&nterincenti/es to +ea/ing po/ert$ ?nd the second

disparaged the beha/ior and attit&des that

traditiona++$ ade 'or econoic ipro/eent--Ede'erra+

o' grati'ication, sobriet$, thri't, dogged ind&str$,

and so on thro&gh the !ho+e cata+og&e o' anti7&e-

so&nding bo&rgeois /irt&esE Together these re/o+&tions

had the &nintended e''ect o' iring the poor in their

po/ert$--a po/ert$ e/en ore deora+i9ing and se+'-

perpet&ating than the o+d po/ert$888i8

Sii+ar+$, Mar/in +as#$ a#es sii+ar arg&ents

partic&+ar+$ in his 'irst boo#, The Tragedy of "merican

Compassion32l :e spends a a@or portion o' this boo# attac#ing

the e+'are )ights o/eent and the scho+ars s&ch as )ichard

C+o!ard and rances o8 *i/en !ho s&pported this o/eent The

D#e$ contrib&tion o' the ar on *o/ert$ !as the de+iberate

attept to &nco&p+e !e+'are 'ro shae b$ changing attit&des o'

both !e+'are recipients and the better-o''E The e+'are )ights

o/eent !anted to estab+ish !e+'are as a right or entit+eent

and this !o&+d be bad 'or the poor according to +as#$ ?s a

Dborn againE *rotestant, +as#$ sa! the so+&tion to po/ert$ asbeing compassionate conservatism !here ser/ice 'or the poor

sho&+d be in the hands o' ch&rch gro&ps !ho co&+d &pho+d high

ora+ standards and e/en con/ert the poor ?s a pro'essor o'

Jo&rna+is at the Uni/ersit$ o' Te8as, he !as /er$ in'+&entia+ on

George B&sh Jr !hi+e he !as go/ernor and this has becoe the

basis o' the present adinistrations faith based initiatives and

marriage enhancement as his contrib&tion to !e+'are re'or


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or e this criticis re'+ects the Punitive "ace o'

re+igion there'ore, I !o&+d arg&e that the si8ties !as one o'

the periods in ?erican histor$ !hen the )ompassionate "ace o'

re+igion !as ost e/ident Most o' the a@or socia+ o/eents--

inc+&ding the ar on *o/ert$ !ith its ad/ocac$ o' a guaranteed

income--d&ring this tie period !ere in'+&enced b$ soe re+igio&s

tradition Jaes arre++;s thesis in his boo#, The Spirit of the

Si2ties,8+i !as that these socia+ o/eents shared a coon

'rae!or# o' Personalism !hich in/ite ?ericans to as# the

7&estion, D!hat are peop+e 'orE and then Dinsist that o&r

instit&tions operate as i' a++ peop+e atteredE S&ch

 personalism ip+ies a sense o' co&nit$ and so+idarit$ !ith

DothersE that is not ass&ed in an$ 'ors o' ?erican

Dindi/id&a+isE arre++ identi'ies s&ch personalism in a

/ariet$ o' re+igio&s and sec&+ar ?erican traditions s&ch as the

Catho+ic or#ers Mo/eent, *rotestant Socia+ Gospe+, the paci'ist

e++o!ship o' )econci+iation, Co&na+ ?narchis, The e! =e't

and Fn/ironenta+is The ter Personalism he priari+$ too# 'ro

the social theology o' the 'o&nders o' the Catho+ic or#er

Mo/eent, .oroth$ .a$ and *eter Ma&rin and the Methodist

theo+ogian, Fdgar Brightan, !ho !as one o' the in'+&ences on

Martin =&ther >ing Jr

?nother tradition, !hich 'or&+ates a 'or o' personalism 

and !as /er$ in'+&entia+ on an$ po/ert$ !or#ers, !as the

Sett+eent :o&se Mo/eent ne o' the 'e! ?'rican ?erican

Socio+ogist, ?nna J&+ia Cooper, de'ined the Socia+ Sett+eent

&sing the /ocab&+ar$ o' the Gospe+s

The Socia+ Sett+eent idea is as o+d as the 'act DThe ord

ade '+esh and d!e+t aong &sE It is the heart o'

s$path$, the hand o' brother+$ grip, the brain o'

&nderstanding insight, o' e''icient and aster'&+ good !i++

ind!e++ing in the ist o' do!n-and-o&t h&anit$--It is set

on 'ire !ith the con/iction that a++ en are created !ith a

di/ine right to a chance, and sets abo&t haering do!n soe

o' the handicaps !hich haper !ho+e sections o' the

co&nit$ thro&gh the ine7&a+ities o' en/ironent, or the

greed o' the great8+ii


Jane ?ddas, at :&++ :o&se, !as s&rro&nded b$ !oen s&ch as

+orence >e++e$ and Char+otte *er#ins Gi+an and en s&ch as

George : Mead and John .e!e$ The ?'rican ?erican Socio+ogist,

FB .& Bois !as re+ated to a sett+eent ho&se in *hi+ade+phia

and +i#e ?nna J&+ia Cooper !as /er$ e8p+icit abo&t the iportance

o' a re+igio&s perspecti/e Fach chapter in his c+assic, The


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!ouls of "lac# Fol#$ has as a heading &sica+ notes that are

ta#en 'ro egro spirit&a+s that are paired !ith F&ropean /erse--

b$ Bro!ning, B$ron, S!inb&rne, S$ons, Tenn$son .& Bois;s

biographer, .a/id =e/ering =e!is, sa$s

.& Bois eant the c&+t&ra+ s$bo+is o' these do&b+e

epigraphs to be pro'o&nd+$ s&b/ersi/e o' the c&+t&ra+

hierarch$ o' his tie Three $ears into another cent&r$ o'

seeing+$ &nassai+ab+e F&ropean s&preac$, Souls co&ntered

!ith the /oices heard b$ hi 'or the 'irst tie in the

Tennessee bac#co&ntr$ Unti+ ost readers appreciated the

essage o' the songs s&ng in bondage b$ b+ac# peop+e, .&

Bois !as sa$ing, the !ords !ritten in 'reedo b$ !hite

peop+e !o&+d reain ho++o! and co&nter'eit8+iii

?++ o' these persons and others !ere in/o+/ed !ith Socia+

Sett+eents in e8tending the ob+igations o' copassion and

charit$ into a concept o' a )haritable or Welfare #tate The$

p&shed 'or /ario&s 'ors o' public socia+ !e+'are and a+so 'or

the reg&+ation o' the gro!ing po!er o' +arge corporations These

heritages !ere partic&+ar+$ iportant 'or the si8ties ar on


ne o' the a@or re+igio&s +eaders o' the si8ties !as Martin

=&ther >ing Jr In addition to being in'+&enced b$ o' the

 personalistic theo+og$ o' Fdgar Brightan he !as in'+&enced b$

the neo-orthodo8 theo+og$ o' )einho+d ieb&hr and the eastern

tho&ght o' the :ind&, Mohandras > Gandhi ?++ three !ere

coitted to the priac$ o' the )ompassionate "ace o' re+igionand to non-/io+ent socia+ action and 'e+t that the sit&ation o'

B+ac#s in the So&th ight be a p+ace !here a non-/io+ent 'or o'

socia+ action ight be s&ccess'&+ In the +ast $ear o' his +i'e,

>ing !as p+anning a a@or arch on ashington, the )ampaign for

the Poor , !here the proposa+ 'or a guaranteed income !o&+d be

ade :e !as assassinated be'ore that arch cae abo&t b&t his

s&pport 'or a guaranteed income !as e8pressed in his +ast boo#,

4here -o 4e Go From 5ere Chaos or Community6 :e points o&t that

in the si8ties econo$ none o' the progras that ta#e a partia+

/ie! can so+/e the prob+es o' po/ert$ beca&se the$ are not

coprehensi/e eno&gh The progra &st be a progressi/e one

irst, it ost be pegged to the edian incoe o' societ$,

not the +o!est +e/e+s o' incoe To g&arantee an incoe at

the '+oor !o&+d sip+$ perpet&ate !e+'are standards and

'ree9e into societ$ po/ert$ conditions Second, the

g&aranteed incoe &st be d$naic it &st a&toatica++$

increase as the tota+ socia+ incoe gro!s ere it peritted


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to reain static &nder gro!th conditions, the recipients

!o&+d s&''er a re+ati/e dec+ine I' periodic re/ie!s

disc+ose that the !ho+e nationa+ incoe has risen, the

g&aranteed incoe !o&+d ha/e to be ad@&sted &p!ard b$ the

sae percentage8+i/

  ?n in'+&entia+ boo# aong *rotestant gro&ps in the si8ties

!as one b$ *hi+ip ogaan ca++ed, Guaranteed "nnual Income The

 oral Issues3 ne o' the chapters in this boo# is ca++ed, D?

Christian )esponse to the H*rotestant Fthic;E In this chapter he

arg&es against the t$pe o' ethic described b$ eber aong an$

ear+$ ?erican *rotestants :e sa$s

In this perspecti/e (the basic Christian attit&de%, the

D*rotestant FthicE (!hich as !e ha/e recei/ed it a$ be a

distortion o' both ethics and o' *rotestantis% represents a

ha+'-tr&th The tr&e ha+' is the iportance o' !or# in h&an

'&+'i++ent The 'a+se ha+' is the s&bordination o' an to

!or# and, !orse $et, the attept to estab+ish !hether or not

peop+e are deser/ing o' !hat God has a+read$ gi/en

theMan !as not ade 'or ateria+ ends nor can !e +iit

h&an creati/it$ to !hat !i++ bring cash in the


?t the end o' the boo#, he gi/es three s&pporting positiona+

papers on guaranteed income passed b$ the 4ational )ouncil of

the )hurches of )hrist in the 0. #. A.56789:, !he 0nited

2ethodist )hurch56789:, and a report o' a specia+ coittee in

the 0nited Presbyterian )hurch in the 0. #. A. 5678;:. TheMethodist stateent and the ationa+ Co&nci+ o' Ch&rches !ere

/er$ sii+ar and the Methodist recoends a guaranteed income

that carries o&t the 'o++o!ing princip+es

% ?/ai+ab+e to a++ as a atter o' right

2% ?de7&ate to aintain hea+th and h&an decenc$

% ?dinistered so as to a8ii9e co/erage and ad@&st

bene'its to changes in the cost o' +i/ing

4% .e/e+oped in a anner !hich !i++ respect the 'reedo o'

persons to anage their o!n +i/es, increase their po!er

to choose their o!n careers, and enab+e the toparticipate in eeting persona+ and co&nit$ needs

5% .esigned to a''ord incenti/e to prod&cti/e acti/it$

6% .esigned in s&ch a !a$ that e8isting socia++$ desirab+e

progras and /a+&es are conser/ed and enhanced8+/i

ro ost o' $ persona+ e8perience, an$ o' the ar on

*o/ert$ progras !ere re+ated to soe ch&rch re+ated agenc$


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T$pica+ o' an$ o' these ser/ices !ere those de/e+oped b$ es+e$

Co&nit$ Centers in San ?ntonio, Te8as This agenc$ !as

sponsored b$ the Methodist Ch&rch and stood at the crossroads o'

the ar on *o/ert$, the Sett+eent :o&se Mo/eent and Gang or#

es+e$ Centers !as a traditiona+ ch&rch re+ated sett+eent ho&se

that de/e+oped a gang !or# pro@ect '&nded b$ the ationa+

Instit&te o' Menta+ :ea+th as a part o' that 'edera+ agenc$;s

pre-po/ert$ progra de/e+opent hen the ar on *o/ert$ !as

'&nded, this agenc$ had LIST? !or#ers and other po/ert$ '&nds to

de/e+op di''erent t$pes o' neighborhood progras In the

3utreach and 3rganizing  ode+ de/e+oped b$ the es+e$ Centers

thro&gh its gang !or# e8perience, each neighborhood !or#er spent

abo&t 'i't$ percent o' their tie in each o' the t!o acti/ities

o' 3utreach and 3rganizing  The o/era++ p&rpose o' this t$pe o'

ser/ice !as to increase the po!er o' the poor in their

negotiations !ith the doinant instit&tions o' the +arger

societ$ 3utreach e''orts !ere directed to!ard those 'ai+ies and

indi/id&a+s !ho !ere at the botto o' the +o!-incoe

neighborhood;s interna+ strati'ication s$ste S&ch residents

!ere &s&a++$ de'ined b$ other neighborhood persons as +o!er in

stat&s and a+so !ere +abe+ed b$ socia+ agencies as D&+ti-

prob+eE and Dhard to reachE S&ch 3utreach re7&ires that the

!or#er o/e be$ond the indi/id&a+ c+ients or 'ai+$ to ediating

and ad/ocac$ !ith ep+o$ees, po+itica+, socia+ agencies, schoo+s

or an$ other instit&tions that ight be in/o+/ed !ith the

partic&+ar prob+e or had reso&rces that ight he+p to!ard a

so+&tion The 3rganizing  e''orts in/o+/ed beginning !ith gro&ps

o' residents aro&nd !hate/er iss&es the$ sa! as re+e/ant ?gain

3rganizing , +i#e 3utreach, in/o+/ed interacting !ith the +argerco&nit$ instit&tiona+ str&ct&res Co++ecti/e po+itica+ action,

both b$ and in beha+' o' residents, !as soeties re7&ired Th&s

the Dpri/ate tro&b+esE o' e/en the +o!est o' the neighborhood

residents !ere potentia++$ being trans+ated into Dp&b+ic iss&esE

This ode+ o' socia+ pra8is that cobines both 3utreach as

ser/ice practice and 3rganizing  aro&nd iss&es or se+'-he+p

pre/ents the practice o' Ddo&b+e c+os&reE, !here one gro&p is

he+ped at the e8pense o' a +o!er stat&s gro&p *riorit$, in this

ode+, is p+aced on the needs and iss&es o' the 'ai+ies at the

botto o' the tota+ strati'ication str&ct&re The 'o++o!ing

stateent, &sed b$ es+e$ Centers in training their !or#ers,sho!s the /a+&e 'rae!or# that de'ined the basic code o'

responsibi+it$ e8pected o' the !or#ers

Ser/ice is not at a distance--it eans persona+

in/o+/eent !ith peop+e

2 o person or prob+e is be$ond o&r concern or attention

In 'act, !e are ob+igated to search o&t the Do&tcastsE


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  &r oti/ation 'or ser/ice cannot be the possibi+it$ o'

s&ccess or an$ other condition that ight be associated

!ith the recei/er o' the ser/ice e can ne/er rea++$

  gi/e &p on a person

  4 &r o!n interests or persona+ 'ee+ings are not o' an$

iportance as !e ser/e e a$ not persona++$ +i#e the


  5 e &st indi/id&a++$ ass&e that !e are responsib+e !hen

others do no +i/e &p to their responsibi+it$, and th&s tr$

o&r best to a#e a di''erence8+/ii

?s indicated ear+ier, the es+e$ Centers thro&gh its

in/o+/eent in e+'are )ights a+so !as in/o+/ed the po+itica+

action in beha+' o' a g&aranteed incoe The position o' the

Methodist Ch&rch o&t+ined abo/e !as &sed !ith the board o'

directors 'or st&d$ and to engage the in ad/ocating in beha+' o'

this po+ic$

 Miscellaneous Religious Positions on G%I&:

ne o' the Christian gro&ps that contin&ed to ad/ocate a

guaranteed income a'ter the War Against the Poor began !as the

stateent on the econo$ ade b$ the United States Catho+ic

Bishops in <6 ca++ed, Economic 7ustice For "ll Catholic

Social Teaching and the 83S3 Economy3 In this pastoral letter,

the$ state

The search 'or a ore h&ane and e''ecti/e !a$ to dea+ !ith

po/ert$ sho&+d not be +iited to short-ter re'or eas&resThe agenda 'or p&b+ic debate sho&+d a++ inc+&de serio&s

disc&ssions o' ore '&ndaenta+ a+ternati/es to the e8isting

!e+'are s$ste e &rge that proposa+s 'or a 'ai+$

a++o!ance or a chi+dren;s a++o!ance be care'&++$ e8ained as

a possib+e /ehic+e 'or ens&ring a '+oor o' incoe s&pport

'or a++ chi+dren and their 'ai+ies Specia+ attention is

needed to de/e+op ne! e''orts that are targeted on +ong-ter

po/ert$ hich has pro/en to be +east responsi/e to

traditiona+ socia+ !e+'are progras The Dnegati/e incoe

ta8E is another po+ic$ proposa+ that deser/es contin&ed

disc&ssions These and other proposa+s sho&+d be a part o' acreati/e and ongoing e''ort to 'ashion a s$ste o' incoe

s&pport 'or the poor that protects their basic dignit$ and

pro/ides the necessar$ assistance in a @&st and e''ecti/e


This stateent is a part o' coprehensi/e disc&ssions and

proposa+s 'or the entire econo$ The speci'ic po+ic$ s&ggestions


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are pre'aced b$ the theo+ogica+ base 'or this +etter The$ s& &p

the +d Testaent

Centra+ to the bib+ica+ presentation o' @&stice is that the

@&stice o' a co&nit$ is eas&red b$ its treatent o' the

po!er+ess in societ$, ost o'ten described as the !ido!, the

orphan, the poor and stranger (non-Israe+ite% in the


The s&ar$ o' the e! Testaent is base on the *arab+e o'

the =ast J&dgent

either the b+essed nor the c&rsed are asto&nded that the$

are @&dged b$ the Son o' Man, nor that the @&dgent is

rendered according to the !or#s o' charit$ The shoc# coes

!hen the$ 'ind that in neg+ecting the poor, the o&tcast and

the oppressed, the$ are re@ecting Jes&s hise+' Jes&s !ho

cae as DFan&e+E or DGod !ith &sE and !ho proises to be

!ith his peop+e &nti+ the end o' the age is hidden in those

ost in need to re@ect the is to re@ect God ade ani'est

in histor$+

I !as teaching Socio+og$ in a Jes&it Uni/ersit$ at this tie

and !as a part o' an inter-departenta+ sponsorship o' a

s$posi& disc&ssing this pastora+ +etter ? gro&p o' +a$

Catho+ic b&sinessen cae to the eeting protesting the right o'

the Bishops to Dinter'ereE in econoic atters Their ro+e !as

de'ined as on+$ Dspirit&a+E

? *rotestant Socio+ogist !ho a+so contin&es to ad/ocate a

guaranteed income is )obert Be++ah Be++ah began as a Mar8ist and

d&ring the McCarth$ period and in <55 !ent to Canada Mar8 sti++

contin&es to inspire his criti7&es hen he cae bac# to States,

he @oined the :ar/ard 'ac&+t$ !here he !as in'+&enced b$ the

socio+ogist, Ta+cott *arson, and the theo+ogian, *a&+ Ti++ich :e

did a a@or st&d$ o' Japanese re+igion and de/e+oped the concept

o' civil religion, !hich arg&es 'or the sacred roots o' sec&+ar

instit&tions in societ$ :is concept&a+i9ation o' this idea !as

probab+$ in'+&enced b$ his in/o+/eent in the a@or o/eents o'

the si8ties inc+&ding ci/i+ rights and condenation o' theLietna ar :is concept o' the best o' the American )ivil

<eligion !as sii+ar to Jaes arre++ concept o' Personalism as

the basis o' the radica+ tradition that gro&nded the socia+

o/eents o' the Si8ties :is o/e a!a$ 'ro the concept o'

civil society in his +ater !riting !as e8pressed b$ hi


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hat !as partic&+ar+$ distressing to e !as the a+ost

in/eterab+e tendenc$ in soe 7&arters to identi'$ !hat I

ca++ed ci/i+ re+igion !ith the ido+atro&s !orship o' the

state ---It !as not that I 'ai+ed to recogni9e the

e8istence o' s&ch ido+atro&s be+ie', tho&gh historica++$ it

!as ore coon+$ en&nciated b$ preachers than b$

po+iticians, b&t that I be+ie/ed it to be a per/ersion o'

the centra+ and norati/e tradition+i

In the eighties and nineties, Be++ah co++aborated !ith a

tea o' scho+ars to !rite t!o political boo#s--Be++ah;s +abe+

The other co++aborators !ere a++ socia+ scientist and a+so acti/e

ebers o' /ario&s re+igio&s traditions--three !ere raised

Catho+ic and one Je!ish The other scho+ars !ere )ichard Madsen,

i++ia M S&++i/an, ?nn S!ider and Ste/en M Tipton The t!o

boo#s are, 5abits of the 5earts and The Good Society and in these

boo#s, based &pon depth inter/ie!s !ith a !ide /ariet$ o'

?ericans, the$ a#e a !ide range o' criti7&es and

recoendations 'or ?erican Societ$ T$pica+ !o&+d be there

recoendation o' the bib+ica+ and rep&b+ican tradition

The +it&s test that both the bib+ica+ and rep&b+ican

tradition gi/es &s 'or assa$ing the hea+th o' a societ$ is

ho! it dea+s !ith the prob+e o' !ea+th and po/ert$ The

:ebre! prophets too# their stand b$ the =anawin, the poor 

and oppressed, and condened the rich and po!er'&+ !ho

e8p+oit the The e! Testaent sho!s a Jes&s !ho +i/ed

aong the =anawin o' his da$ and !ho recogni9ed the

di''ic&+t$ the rich !o&+d ha/e in responding to his ca++Both testaents a#e it c+ear that societies sharp+$ di/ided

bet!een rich and poor are not in accord !ith the !i++ o'

God C+assic rep&b+ican theor$ 'ro ?ristot+e to the

?erican 'o&nders rested on the ass&ptions that 'ree

instit&tions co&+d s&r/i/e in a societ$ on+$ i' there !ere a

ro&gh e7&a+it$ o' conditions+ii

In the second boo#, the$ recoend a guaranteed minimum

income or a social wage as basic to greater economic democracy.

The$ a+so recoend co&nit$ organi9ing e''orts in +o!-incoe

areas to he+p b&i+d a sense o' participation in both the econo$and the po+itica+ co&nit$+iii 

? odern Methodist theo+ogian that s&pports a guaranteed

income in his !ritings is John B Cobb, Jr :e is aong a gro&p

o' theo+ogians !ho dra! 'ro the *rocess *hi+osoph$ o' ?+'red

hitehead Cobb has partic&+ar+$ been in/o+/ed in a B&ddhist-

Je!ish-Christian con/ersation :e a+so has @oined !ith econoists


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s&ch as :eran F .a+$ in de/e+oping econoic tho&ght that is

/er$ critica+ o' the present neoliberal perspective in re+ation

to the g+oba+ econo$

B&ddhist and Christians cannot agree that !ea+th is the

s&pree goa+ o' h&an +i'e B&ddhist #no! that attachent to

!or+d+$ goods, and certain+$ to their increase, b+oc#s the

path o' spirit&a+ ad/ance ? c&+t&re 'oc&sed on this end is

deep+$ sic# Christians be+ie/e the 'irst tas# o' go/ernent

is @&stice, and the$ see the p&rs&it o' !ea+th pro'o&nd+$

inter'eres !ith the achie/eent o' @&stice e #no! a+so

that Jes&s !as /er$ e8p+icit in asserting that !e cannot

ser/e both God and !ea+thBoth B&ddhists and Christians

!ant the basic needs o' a++ to be et!e deep+$ oppose

p+acing the 7&est 'or !ea+th 'irstJ&stice, peace, and the

basic needs o' a++ are &ch higher priorities than sip+$

increasing o/era++ !ea+th+i/

In Cobb;s @oint !riting !ith :eran F .a+$, the$ de/e+op

ip+ications 'or s&pporting ore h&ane de/e+opent po+icies that

b&i+d 'ro the grass root &p In their boo#, For The Common

Good, the$ recoend a /ersion o' the negative income ta that is

s&''icient to eet h&an need+/ In another paper, :eran .a+$

proposes a #teady-#tate >conomy that is b&i+t on the +d

Testaent ad/ocac$ o' Sabbath and the J&bi+ee "ear, entioned

ear+ier ?+ong !ith a negati/e incoe ta8 to set a ini&, .a+$

s&ggests a a8i& incoe o' ten ties the ini& :e arg&es

that the @&bi+ee $ear ip+ied both a ini& and a a8i&

Certain+$ at a ini& there !ere g+eaing, and a+s, and

the rights o' s+a/es and o' !ido!s, a++ o' !hich can be

interpreted as pro/iding a '+oor be+o! !hich no one !as

a++o!ed to 'a++ as there a corresponding cei+ing on

persona+ !ea+th I s&bit that there !as, beca&se e/en the

#ing, the person ost +i#e+$ to ha/e &n+iited rights o'

acc&&+ation, !as e8press+$ denied s&ch a right either

horses, !i/es, nor go+d and si+/er &st increase e8cessi/e+$

b$ the #ing (.e&t 16''%+/i

In <<2 he set the g&aranteed incoe at Q,000 and &ses anegati/e incoe ta8 'or&+a and !or# incenti/e o' 50R a#ing

Q5,000 a brea#-e/en point at !hich no ta8 is paid, either

positi/e or negati/e Th&s i' a person earns Q,000 than the

negati/e incoe ta8 s&bsid$ !o&+d be (Q5,000-,000% 8 2

Q6,000, a#ing tota+ incoe o' Q<,000 b/io&s+$ in princip+e

this is '+e8ib+e ith Q,000 as a ini& the a8i& is

there'ore Q0,000 !ith incoe abo/e this ta8ed at 00R .a+$ adds


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the stip&+ation o' a#ing this a stead$ state econo$ !ith

contro+s on gro!th beca&se o' the en/ironenta+ concerns :e

arg&es that the +iit-to-gro!th debate disappeared !ith the

e+ection o' )ona+d )eagan !hen Dpeop+e rea+i9ed that +iits to

gro!th ip+$ +iits to ine7&a+it$ (i' po/ert$ is to be red&ced%

and, speci'ica++$, a a8i& +iit Both .a+$ and Cobb !ere

in'+&enced b$ ear+ier de/e+opent ideas o' the :ind&, Gandhi, and

the 'or&+ations o' the Catho+ic theorist, Sch&acher, !ho

+abe+ed his theories as DB&ddhist FconoicsE+/ii

?nother theo+ogian !ho s&pports a guaranteed income is the

'einist theo+ogian, )osear$ )ad'ord )e&ther =i#e an$ 'einist

theo+ogians, she ta#es /er$ serio&s+$ the ear+$ iages o' the

'einine as sacred s&ch as the Mother Goddess iages

e can spea# o' the root h&an iage o' the di/ine as the

*ria+ Matri8, the great !ob !ithin !hich a++ things, Gods

and h&ans, s#$ and earth, h&an and nonh&an beings, are

generated :ere the di/ine is not abstracted into soe other

!or+d be$ond this earth b&t is the encopassing so&rce o'

ne! +i'e that s&rro&nds the present !or+d and ass&res it

contin&ance This is e8pressed in the ancient $th o' the

or+d Fgg o&t o' !hich a++ things arise+/iii 

)e&ther does not accept the Mother Goddess iage

&ncritica++$ +i#e soe 'einist thin#ers b&t recogni9es that soe

o' the &se o' this iage in ancient ci/i+i9ations !ere a !a$ to

+egitiate aristocratic po!er She a''irs it abi+it$ to not

separate the a+e'einine in the concepts o' the .i/ine, b&tother 7&a+ities sho&+d be critici9ed

B$ patriarch$ !e ean not on+$ the s&bordination o' 'ea+es

to a+es, b&t the !ho+e str&ct&re o' ather-r&+ed societ$

aristocrac$ o/er ser's, asters o/er s+a/es, #ings o/er

s&b@ects, racia+ o/er+ords o/er co+oni9ed peop+e )e+igions

that rein'orce hierarchica+ strati'ication &se the .i/ine as

the ape8 o' this s$ste o' pri/i+ege and contro+ The

re+igions o' the ancient ear Fast +in# the Gods and

Goddesses !ith the #ings and 7&eens, the priests and

priestesses, the !arrior and tep+e aristocrac$ o' astrati'ied societ$ The Gods and Goddesses irror this

r&+ing c+ass and 'or its hea/en+$ co&nterpart The

di/inities a+so sho! erc$ and 'a/or to the distressed, b&t

in the anner o' nob+esse ob+ige+i8 

)e&ther ac#no!+edges the !or# o' 'einist bib+ica+ scho+ars

!ho ha/e reco/ered the /ario&s 'einine iages in the Je!ish and


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Christian traditions s&ch as the in'+&ence o' the Isis Goddess on

the iage o' the isdo o' God as #ophia and the !a$ the 'einine

iage is &sed in re'erring to the )ompassion o' God The root

!ord 'or the ideas o' copassion and erc$ in :ebre! is rechem,

or !ob Th&s a copassionate God has aterna+ or womblike


I' Godess is not the creator and /a+idator o' the e8isting

hierarchica+ socia+ order, b&t rather the one !ho +iberates

&s 'ro it, !ho opens &p a ne! co&nit$ o' e7&a+s, then

+ang&age abo&t Godess dra!n 'ro #ingship and hierarchica+

po!er &st +ose its pri/i+eged p+ace Iages o' Godess &st

inc+&de 'ea+e ro+es and e8perience Iages o' Godess &st

dra! 'ro the acti/ities o' peasants and !or#ing peop+e

*eop+e at the botto o' societ$ Most o' a++, iages o'

Godess &st be trans'orati/e, pointing &s bac# to o&r

a&thentic potentia+ and 'or!ard to ne! redeeed


)&ether;s ad/ocac$ o' a guaranteed income coes in her

o/era++ histor$ o' the 'ai+$ in !estern c&+t&re and histor$ It

is one o' the best socia+ science and historica+ pict&re o'

'orer and odern 'ai+ies In her proposa+s 'or po+icies 'or the

odern 'ai+$ the s&ggestions are sii+ar to the 0niversal

)aretaker ode+ presented ear+ier She proposes a 'or o' the

negative income ta that is basica++$ the sae as red B+oc# The

'+oor is set at the po/ert$ +e/e+ and Da 'ai+$ !ith no incoe

!o&+d recei/e at +east that &ch aid or each do++ar earned it

!o&+d recei/e t!o bac#, &p to do&b+e the po/ert$ +ineE(2% Thisproposa+ is set !ithin other po+icies to create greater economic

democracy and an ecologically so&nd societ$

U+tiate+$--no coprehensi/e p+an 'or a++e/iating po/ert$

can ha/e a chance o' po+itica+ s&ccess i' it does not

address the prob+e o' the s&perrich, those o!ners o'

corporations !ho +arge+$ doinate the ?erican po+itica+

s$ste, deterine its po+icies, and de'ine the hegeonic

c&+t&re b$ contro+ o' the ainstrea edia The po!er o' the

rich to dictate !ho is e+ected to go/ernent needs to be

c&rbed b$ an ins&rgent deocratic o/eent, one that &sesthe e+ectora+ ight o' the a@orit$ to strip the rich o' the

po!er to set po+icies that 'a/or the rather the a@orit$+8i



Using Ma8 eber, I ha/e arg&ed that re+igion can ha/e t!o

di''erent 'aces--a punitive one and a compassionate one &rther,


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the compassionate face norati/e+$ ip+ies a socia+ po+ic$ o' an

unconditional guaranteed income. This has been deonstrated b$ a

/ariet$ o' e8ap+es in the past and present There are soe

coon e+eents in these e8ap+es o' the compassionate face. The

'irst coon aspect is a social realism that recogni9es the

pre/a+ence o' doination and e8p+oitation in the e8isting socia+

str&ct&res ?+so, s&ch rea+is /ie!s the attepts to de'ine

merit or di''erentiation o' deserving from undeserving as an

ideological co/er 'or pri/i+ege The second 'eat&re is the idea

that a++ nat&ra+ and c&+t&ra+ reso&rces be+ong to God and th&s

sho&+d be &sed to bene'it a++ h&ans or children of od. S&ch

reso&rces not on+$ inc+&de +and b&t a+so inc+&des those c&+t&ra+

capita+ created b$ socia+ re+ations and e/en inc+&des those

inherited ta+ents that an indi/id&a+ a$ possess b$ chance or

+&c# ? third coon e+eent is the /ie! that there is a

potentia+ 'or an inclusive community based on compassion that

transcends a++ nat&ra+ and partic&+aristc c+ais The nors o'

the transcendent community ip+$ an infinite responsibility that

cannot per'ect+$ be et b$ h&ans ? 'o&rth coon e+eent is the

ephasis on the priar$ goa+ o' action in this !or+d is the

eeting o' materialistic h&an need--ie food for the hungry,

drink for the thirsty, clothing for the naked, shelter for the

homeless, healing for the sick and reconciliation for those in

 prison. ina++$ there is a '&rther aspect o' the abo/e social

realism that ip+ies that a++ re+igio&s instit&tions and

indi/id&a+s cobine both compassionate and punitive 'ors It is

o'ten ipossib+e to separate the t!o as the$ are 'o&nd in 'ora+

organi9ations and e/en interna+i9ed in the sae indi/id&a+

?s an e8ap+e o' ho! the t!o 'aces ight operate !ithin the

sae indi/id&a+, I !i++ point to the Go/ernor o' ?+abaa, Bob

)i+e$,+8ii and his &ns&ccess'&+ p+an in 200 to raise ta8es b$

Q2 bi++ion a $ear and priari+$ do this to he+p the poor These

ne! ta8es !o&+d be paid priari+$ b$ the !ea+thiest thro&gh ta8es

on propert$, b&sinesses, cars, &ti+ities, deeds and cigarettes

:e !o&+d a+so raise the thresho+d at !hich residents ha/e to pa$

incoe ta8es, 'ro the c&rrent Q4,600 ann&a++$ to Q20,000 Bob

)i+e$ is a conser/ati/e )ep&b+ican, a tr&e discip+e o' )ona+d

)eagan, and had ser/ed in the Congress ?t one tie he had

cop+ained that e!t Gingrich !as +eaning too 'ar +e't )i+e$ !asin'+&enced b$ an artic+e in the "labama La1 Re!ie1 b$ S&san *ace

:ai++, an Uni/ersit$ o' ?+abaa ta8 +a! pro'essor !ho too# a

sabbatica+ to earn a Master o' Theo+ogica+ St&dies degree In her

artic+e, D?n ?rg&ent 'or Ta8 )e'or Based on J&deo-Christian

Fthics,E she sa! the re'or o' the ?+abaa ta8 s$ste !as

necessar$ to ass&re that chi+dren 'ro +o! incoe 'ai+ies !o&+d

ha/e the sae opport&nit$ as those 'ro ore a''+&ent 'ai+ies


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In ?+abaa, peop+e !ith incoes be+o! Q,000 pa$ 0< percent o'

their incoe in ta8es, !hi+e those !ho a#e ore than Q22<,000

pa$ on+$ 4 percent Bob )i+e$ said, D?ccording to o&r Christian

ethic, !e are s&pposed to +o/e God, +o/e each other, and he+p

ta#e care o' the poor, and this is a step in the right

directionE It is interesting that )i+e$;s p+an had s&pport 'ro

soe ?+abaa;s ch&rches--s&ch as Methodists, *resb$terians,

So&thern Baptist, Fpiscopa+ians, Catho+ic and soe Je!ish

+eaders :o!e/er, the opposition inc+&ded Christian )ight--headed

b$ the Christian Coa+ition--a+ong !ith state )ep&b+ican +eaders

and b&siness organi9ations--s&ch as +arge +ando!ners and tiber

copanies :e did ha/e soe s&pport 'ro ban#s and ins&rance and

te+eco&nications interests )i+e$;s proposa+ !as de'eated

The 'o++o!ing 7&ote 'ro a 4ineties gang worker , ather Greg

Bo$+e sho!s that ho! the compassionate face ip+ies speci'ic

socia+ po+icies and a gro&nding 'or the po+itica+ process to

bring abo&t these po+icies

Copassion is ore than @&st a 7&a+it$ o' God and ore than

an indi/id&a+ /irt&e, it is a socia+ paradig It;s ho! the

s$ste is s&pposed to !or# I' !e thin# gang ebers are

onsters, then it !i++ be ab&ndant+$ c+ear !hat !e sho&+d

do--get to&gher beca&se the$ are onsters I' $o& thin#

the$ are h&an beings, --then $o& open $o&rse+' &p to a

!ho+e s+e! o' cop+e8 so+&tions to rea++$ cop+e8 ca&ses+8iii


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 red B+oc#, DThe )ight;s Mora+ Tro&b+e,E The 0ation, (Sept 0,

200%,20-22, p20ii George =a#o'', Draing the .es,E The "merican Prospect, Lo+ 2,

Sept, 200, pp 2-5iii

 B+oc#, opcit, p 22i" Ma8 eber, D)e+igio&s re@ections o' the or+d the Meaning o'

Their )ationa+ Constr&ction,E in From a2 4eber Essays in Sociology  

edited b$ : : Gerth and C right Mi++s, e! "or# 8'ord

Uni/ersit$ *ress, <12 *0" Ibid, p0"i Ibid p2-"ii Ma8 eber, The Protestant Ethic and The Spirit of Capitalism,

Trans+ated b$ Stephen >a+berg, =os ?nge+es, Ca+i'ornia )o8b&r$

*&b+ishing Copan$, 2002"iii eber, op cit, pp 6-1i#

 J&rgen :aberas, The Theory of Communicati!e "ction 9olume I,Reason and Rationali.ation, Boston Beacon *ress, <1 * 22# Fric :obsba&, 8ncommon People Resistance, Rebellion and 7a.., e!

"or# The e! *ress, << * 4#i Thorstein Leb+en, The Theory of The Leisure Class "n Economic

Study of Institutions, e! "or# The Modern =ibrar$ * #ii Leb+en, DChristian Mora+s and the Copetiti/e S$ste,E pp 200-2

in Essays in /ur Changing /rder , edited b$ =eon ?rd9roonic, e! "or#

The Li#ing *ress, <54 * 205 #iii Ibid p 2#i" Gerth and Mi++s, op cit,#"

 Mar/in +as#$, Rene1ing "merican Compassion, e! "or# The ree*ress, <66#"i  Jaes C Scott, D*rotest and *ro'anation ?grarian )e/o+t and the

=itt+e Tradition,E Theory and Society , 4(<11% 225-226#"ii  Char+es enshan, Dido!, rphan, and the *oor in ?ncient ear

Fastern =ega+ and isdo =iterat&reE in Studies in "ncient Israelite

4isdom edited b$ Jaes = Crensha!, e! "or# >ta/ *&b+ishing :o&se,

<16, 6-1#"iii . C ?hir, "so:a The Great, .e+hi B ) *&b+ishing Corporation,

<<5#i# )obert ? Th&ran, DThe Fdicts o' ?so#aE in The Path of

Compassion 4ritings of Socially Engaged #uddhism, edited b$ redFppsteiner, Ber#e+e$, Ca+i'ornia *ara++e8 *ress, < ## Ibid, pp 6-1##i #ible, .e&terono$ 5 -, 5##ii Ibid, =e/itic&s 25 2-2##iii Marc&s J Borg, Meeting Jes&s 'or the irst Tie The :istorica+

Jes&s and the :eart o' Conteporar$ aith, e! "or# :arper Co++ins

*&b+ishers, <<4 *p 0-##i" #ible, Matthe! 20 -5

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##" B&'ord F arris, Jr, D)eco/er$ o' a Tradition,E 0e1 4orld

/utloo:, (March-?pri+, <<% pp 22-25##"i ?+ice Tobriner, " Si2teenth(century 8rban Report3 Part I

Introduction and Commentary3 Part II Translation of /n "ssistance to 

the Poor (b$ J&an =&is Li/es%, Chicago Schoo+ o' Socia+ Ser/ice

?dinistration, <1 * <

##"ii Ibid, p 1##"iii Thoas ? :orne, Property Rights and Po!erty Political "rguments

in #ritain, $%&'($)*+, Chape+ :i++ The Uni/ersit$ o' orth Caro+ina

*ress, <<0##i# Ibid, p20###  John >eane, Tom Paine " Political Life, e! "or# =itt+e Bro!n

and Copan$, <<5###i Thoas *aine, The "ge of Reason ###ii  Thoas *aine, Agrarian ?ustice, pp 605-62 in Complete 4ritings of 

Thomas Paine edited b$ *hi+ip S oner * 60< ###iii

 Ibid, pp 62-6###i" :enr$ George, DMoses,E +ect&re gi/en to "o&ng Man;s :ebre!

?ssociation in San rancisco###" Ibid###"i :enr$ George, Progress and Po!erty, e! "or# )obert Scha+#enbach

o&ndation, < * 541 ###"ii Ibid, p 552###"iii Gertr&de :ie+'arb, The -e(orali.ation of Society, e! "or#

?+'red ? >nop', <<5 and /ne 0ation, T1o Cultures3 Me! "or#, ?+'red

? >nop', <<<###i# /ne 0ation, T1o Cultures, p 244#$

  Mar/in +as#$, The Tragedy of "merican Compassion, ashington,.C )egener$ Gate!a$, <<2#$i Jaes J arre++, The Spirit of the Si2ties, e! "or# )o&t+edge,

<<1#$ii ?nna J&+ia Cooper, DThe Socia+ Sett+eent hat It Is, and hat It

.oes (<% in " 9oice From the South, pp 26-21#$iii .a/id =e/ering =e!is, 43 E3 #3 -u #ois #iography of a Race, $)%)(

$;$; , e! "or# :enr$ :o+t and Copan$, Inc, << * 21#$i" Martin =&ther >ing, Jr, 4here -o 4e Go From 5ere Chaos or

Community6 , e! "or# :arper )o!, <6#$"  *hi+ip ogaan, Guaranteed "nnual Income The oral Issues,

ash/i++e ?bingdon *ress, <6 #$"i Ibid, pp 44-45#$"ii See /ario&s artic+es on the es+e$ Co&nit$ Centers s&ch as

B&'ord arris and Bett$ arris, DThe HMoonb+oo S$ndroe; and *o/ert$

arriors,E presented at Mid-?erican ?erican St&dies ?ssociation

eeting in 200#$"iii ? pastora+ +etter o' the United States Catho+ic Bishops, Economic

7ustice For "ll Catholic Teaching and the 83S3 Economy  * 2< #$i# Ibid, p

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$ Ibid, p <$i )obert Be++ah, Dinding the Ch&rch *ost-Traditiona+

.iscip+eshipE ?rtic+e on+ine (!!!re+igionorg% ta#en 'ro

Christian Century  * 4$ii )obert Be++ah, 5abits of the 5eart, Ber#e+e$ and =os ?nge+es

Uni/ersit$ o' Ca+i'ornia *ress, <5 * 25$iii

 )obert Be++ah, The Good Society , e! "or# ?+'red ? >nop',<< * 04$i" John B Cobb, Jr, D? B&ddhist-Christian Criti7&e o' eo-=ibera+

Fconoics,E +ect&re de+i/ered at the Fastern B&ddhist con'erence at

tani Uni/ersit$ in >$oto, Ma$ ,2002 at the !ebsite o' re+igion-

on+ine$"  :eran F .a+$ and John B Cobb, Jr (ith contrib&tions b$

C+i''ord Cobb% or The Coon Good )edirecting the Fcono$ to!ard

Co&nit$, the Fn/ironent, and a S&stainab+e &t&re, Boston Beacon

*ress, <<$"i :eran F .a+$, D? Bib+ica+ Fconoic *rincip+e and the Stead$-State

Fcono$,E Epiphany 7ournal, inter, <<2, 6-$"ii F Sch&acher, Small Is #eautiful,$"iii )osear$ )ad'ord )e&ther, Se2ism and God(Tal: to1ards a feminist

Theology , Boston Beacon *ress, < p 4$i# Ibid, p 6$# Ibid, p 6<$#i )osear$ )ad'ord )e&ther, Christianity and the odern Family

Ruling Ideologies and -i!erse Realities, Boston Beacon *ress, 2000

* 22$#ii See report in So<ourners(Septeber-ctober, 200% b$ Ji a++as,

pp 1-$#iii

 report o' speech at Saint =o&is Uni/ersit$ b$ Greg Bo$+e, SJ oneb 21 in 8ni!ersity 0e1s