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    USBIG Discussion Paper No. 102, February 2005

    Work in Progress, do not cite or quote without authors permission

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    The Compassionate Face of Religion:

    as Grounding for a Guaranteed Income

    (To be presented at the 2005 USBIG Congress, March 4-6 in e!

    "or# Cit$%

    B&'ord arris

    )etired *ro'essor o' Socio+og$

    6 *inehi++ .ri/e

    Bastrop, T 1602

    'arrisbe3earth+in#net

    Introduction:

    I' one +oo#s at the present !or+d con'+icts, the tit+e o'

    this paper sees /er$ &nrea+istic since ost o' these con'+icts

    in/o+/e re+igio&s gro&ps 'ighting and #i++ing ebers o' ri/a+

    re+igio&s gro&ps The present ar in Ira7 is no e8ception since

    an$ so ca++ed Christian organi9ations are attepting to de'ine

    it as a ne! cr&sade against M&s+is !ith the corresponding

    response b$ i+itant M&s+is naing the con'+ict a holy war

    against the infidel :o!e/er, I !i++ tr$ to arg&e that there is

    another side or face to universal faiths that be+ie/es in

    compassion and ser/ice to others, partic&+ar+$ those !ho are

    argina+i9ed or at the botto o' the socia+ and econoic

    str&ct&res I be+ie/e that this side or face o' an$ re+igions

    o''er a gro&nding 'or a g&aranteed incoe and there'ore a

    reso&rce 'or those acti/ists !ho are ad/ocating 'or s&ch changes

    This st&d$ is a part o' an ongoing research that I startedin the 0;s at the beginning o' the present War Against the

    Poor. ro

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    soe!hat depressed and began to see# the norati/e roots 'or $

    +i'e +ong ro+e as a Poverty Warrior. This +ed e bac# to soe o'

    $ o!n theo+ogica+ roots--e+s erre, *a&+ Ti++ich and )ichard

    ieb&hr--b&t a+so to p+ace these tho&ghts in a +ong and cross

    c&+t&ra+ st&d$ o' sii+ar /ie!s o' compassionate service and

    state policies. Soe o' this research is re'+ected in this paper

    M$ o/er a++ p&rpose in this paper here is to reco/er

    re+igio&s disco&rse 'orprogressive causes, s&ch as a guaranteed

    income, 'ro the Christian )ight that is proinent in toda$As

    po+itics red B+oc# has /er$ ab+$ ca&ght $ intentions

    or the +ast 7&arter-cent&r$, the right has re+ied on a

    sip+e narrati/e that !as ade 'ao&s b$ )ona+d )eagan and

    has been repeated e/er since It is the c+ai that the

    United States !as once a great nation !ith peop+e !ho +i/ed

    b$ a ora+ creed that ephasi9ed piet$, hard !or#, thri't,

    se8&a+ restraint and se+'-re+iance, b&t there cae a tie in

    the

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    the ta8 codes to a#e s&re that once ore both corporations

    and !ea+th$ indi/id&a+s pa$ their 'air share e can e8pand

    the reso&rces that !e pro/ide to reg&+ator$ agencies so that

    !e get '&++ and honest 'inancia+ disc+os&re 'ro

    corporations, a re/ersa+ o' en/ironenta+ degradations and

    other /ita+ p&b+ic goods e can re/isit D!e+'are re'orE to

    a#e s&re that the proise that !e D+ea/e no chi+d behindE

    isn;t @&st an ept$ capaign s+oganiii

    Max Weber on the Dual Face of Religion:

    In his st&dies o' or+d )e+igions Ma8 eber pro/ides

    &nderstanding o' ho! this d&a+ 'aces o' re+igion arise and

    there'ore pro/ide 'or both supportand critique o' societies

    econoic and po+itica+ ine7&a+ities :e arg&es that in the +arge

    iperia+ ci/i+i9ations the suffering ca&sed b$ the e8tree

    econoic and po+itica+ ine7&a+ities prod&ced in re'+ecti/e

    indi/id&a+s and gro&ps 'ors o'prophetic and redemptoryreligions based on universal brotherhood. ?ong s&ch gro&ps there

    eerged an ethic that re'+ects a sense o' h&anit$ e8periencing

    coon s&''erings 'ro s&ch econoic and po+itica+ ine7&a+ities

    in societ$

    The ore iperati/es that iss&ed 'ro the ethic o'

    reciprocit$ aong neighbors !ere raised, the ore rationa+

    the conception o' sa+/ation becae and the ore it !as

    s&b+iated into and ethic o' abso+&te deands F8terna++$,

    s&ch coands rose to a co&nis o' +o/ing brethren

    interna++$ the$ rose to the attit&de o' caritas, +o/e 'orthe s&''ererper se, 'or one;s neighbor, 'or an, and

    'ina++$ 'or the ene$i/

    &rther he arg&es that

    The re+igion o' brother+iness has a+!a$s c+ashed !ith the

    orders and /a+&es o' this !or+d, and the ore consistent+$

    its deands ha/e been carried thro&gh, the sharper the c+ash

    has been The sp+it has becoe !ider the ore that /a+&es o'

    the !or+d ha/e been rationa+i9ed and s&b+iated in ters o'

    their o!n +a!s/

    or those gro&ps or indi/id&a+s !ho do not !ant to gi/e &p

    their po!er, eber arg&es that there are t!o consistent Da/en&es

    o' escapeE 'ro the deands o' this D&ni/ersa+ ethics o'

    brother+inessE or caritas. ne is the a/en&e o' mysticism that

    o/es the ethics deand to a di''erent +e/e+ o' rea+it$ than the

    rea+ !or+d The ethic o' caritas then on+$ app+ies to the

    4

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    spiritual world and to on+$ certain gro&ps s&ch as monks or

    saints. The other consistent response 'or eber is the *&ritan

    ethic

    ?s a re+igion o' /irt&osos, *&ritanis reno&nced the

    &ni/ersa+is o' +o/e, and rationa++$ ro&tini9ed a++ !or# in

    this !or+d into ser/ing God;s !i++ and testing one;s state

    o' grace God;s !i++ in its &+tiate eaning !as 7&ite

    incoprehensib+e, $et it !as the on+$ positi/e !i++ that

    co&+d be #no!n In this respect, *&ritanis accepted the

    ro&ntini9ation o' the econoic cosos, !hich, !ith the !ho+e

    !or+d, it de/a+&ed as creat&ra+ and depra/ed This state o'

    a''airs appeared as God-!i++ed, and as ateria+ and gi/en

    'or '&+'i++ing one;s d&t$ In the +ast resort, this eant in

    princip+e to reno&nce sa+/ation as a goa+ attainab+e b$ an,

    that is, b$ e/er$bod$ It eant to reno&nce sa+/ation in

    'a/or o' the gro&nd+ess and a+!a$s on+$ partic&+ari9ed

    grace In tr&th, this standpoint o' &nbrother+iness !as no

    +onger a gen&ine Hre+igion o' sa+/ation;/i

    Th&s DGod;s i++E is not to he+p the poor beca&se their

    'ai+&re in ters o' ateria+ s&ccess eans the God has not

    e+ected the 'or sa+/ation *o/ert$ becoes a ora+ iss&e and one

    can a#e a c+assi'ication o' Ddeser/ing poorE 'ro D&ndeser/ing

    poorE It sho&+d be noted that eber !rote his 'ao&s st&d$, The

    Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, a'ter a /isit to

    ?erica and he !as str&c# b$ the !a$ *rotestant gro&ps '&nctioned

    in this co&ntr$ In an artic+e that is &s&a++$ no! p&b+ished !ith

    The Protestant Ethicca++ed DThe *rotestant Sects and the Spirito' Capita+is,E/iieber points to the validating role that the

    +oca+ congregation has in estab+ishing the Dora+ !orthingnessE

    o' the eber B&siness or *ro'essiona+ s&ccess !as o'ten

    dependant &pon !hether soe denoinationa+ gro&p @&dged that one

    !as 'it to ta#e co&nion or participate in congregationa+ +i'e

    Th&s grace !as not universally a/ai+ab+e to a++ b&t !as

    particularized according to the standards o' that denoination

    and partic&+ar congregation In an$ !a$s this creates a /er$

    +i/e+$ civil societyb&t a+so one that is e8tree+$ eclusionary

    based &pon rigid positions o' ora+it$ Th&s eber &nderstood the

    econoic /a+&e o' social capital, b&t he a+so presents it asbeing /er$particularized in its e''ects eber a+so sho!ed that

    the *&ritan Fthic co&+d a+so ha/e po+itica+ 'ors

    hen sa+/ation aristocracies are charged b$ the coand o'

    their God to tae the !or+d o' sin, 'or :is g+or$, the$ gi/e

    birth to the Dcr&saderE S&ch !as the case in Ca+/inis and,

    in a di''erent 'or, Is+a ?t the sae tie, ho!e/er,

    5

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    sa+/ation aristocracies separate Dho+$E !ars or [email protected]&stE !ars

    'ro other, p&re+$ sec&+ar, and there'ore pro'o&nd+$

    de/a+&ed, !ars The @&st !ar is engaged in 'or the sa#e o'

    e8ec&ting God;s coandent, or 'or the sa#e o' 'aith, !hich

    in soe sense a+!a$s eans a !ar o' re+igion/iii

    Th&s, po+itica+ action is @&sti'ied to cope+ non-be+ie/ers

    to go b$ the partic&+ar /ersions o' ora+it$ that the 'aith

    deands

    eber does a good @ob in e8p+aining thepunitive faceo'

    universalistic religions, b&t is not as good on data 'or the

    compassionate face. Using eber it is &nderstandab+e that soe o'

    the [email protected] socia+ thin#ers that he+ped 'or and perpet&ate social

    darwinism and its negati/e attit&de abo&t the poor !ere c+erics

    s&ch as Joseph To!nsend, Thoas Ma+th&s and i++ia Graha

    S&er :o!e/er, he +ea/es o&t the data that the origina+

    ethic of brotherliness reained in 'orce 'or an$ o' the

    *rotestant gro&ps that he st&died Soe ebers and gro&ps--

    partic&+ar+$ aong K&a#ers, Methodists and soe ?nabaptists

    D!anted to instit&tiona+i9e the ethic o' brother+iness !ith 'e!er

    reser/ations--that is, alsoin a ne! 'ors o' socia+ co&nit$

    and po+itica+ !i++-'orationEi8DThese socia+ o/eents, !hich

    did not !ant to di/ert the potentia+ o' ethica++$ rationa+i9ed

    !or+d /ie!s onto the trac#s o' discip+ined +abor by privatized

    individuals, b&t !anted rather to con/ert it into socia+-

    re/o+&tionar$ 'ors o' +i'eE In one sense the partia+ and

    +iited instit&tiona+i9ed 'ors that eber gi/es +ea/es a +arge

    degree o' surplus moralitythat o'ten !as a part o' the 'orationo' foreign bodies!ithin the /ario&s capita+istic societies

    Socia+ historians s&ch as Fric :osba! and F * Thopson sho!

    the in'+&ence o' K&a#ers and Methodist on the =abor Mo/eent

    ? re+igio&s tradition---a$ be /er$ radica+ It is tr&e that

    certain 'ors o' re+igion ser/e to dr&g the pain o'

    into+erab+e socia+ strains, and pro/ide an a+ternati/e to

    re/o+t ----:o!e/er, inso'ar as re+igion is the +ang&age and

    'rae!or# o' a++ genera+ action in &nde/e+oped societies--

    and a+so, to a great e8tent, aong the coon peop+e o'

    preind&stria+ Britain--ideo+ogies o' re/o+t !i++ a+so bere+igio&s8

    ?erican socia+ theorists s&ch as Thorstein Leb+en sho!

    sii+ar in'+&ences in ?erican tho&ght Leb+en sa! a

    contradiction o' compassionandpecuniary/a+&es in ?erican

    +i'e In both an independent essa$ entit+ed DChristian Mora+s and

    the Copetiti/e S$steE and partia++$ in Chapter III o' his

    6

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    !heory of the Leisure Class,8iLeb+en arg&es that the Christian

    princip+e o' non-resistance, brother+$ +o/e, and &t&a+ s&pport

    has pro/ided estern Ci/i+i9ation a +ea/ening set o' nors to

    contro+ the indi/id&a+istic pec&niar$ /a+&es ephasi9ed b$

    b&siness and pro'it-a#ing :e arg&ed that the Christian /a+&es

    !ere a c&+t&ra+ re/ersion to the Dani&s o' the +o!er (peaceab+e%

    sa/age c&+t&reE8ii ptiistica++$, Leb+en 'e+t that in his da$

    the integration o' copassion and pec&niar$ /a+&es !as 'a++ing

    apart and there'ore he said, De8cept 'or a possib+e re/ersion to

    a c&+t&ra+ sit&ation strong+$ characteri9ed b$ ideas o' e&+ation

    and stat&s, the ancient socia+ bias ebodied in the Christian

    princip+e o' brotherhood sho&+d +ogica++$ contin&e to gain gro&nd

    at the e8pense o' the pec&niar$ ora+ o' copetiti/e

    b&sinessE8iii

    In his o!n +i'e eber, #ne! the in'+&ence o' these ore

    radica+ re+igio&s traditions Both his other and his !i'e !ere

    ebers o' a "eminist and #ocial $emocratic re+igio&s gro&p and

    eber !as constant+$ e8posed to their ideas and soe!hat

    po+itica++$ in'+&enced b$ the :is genera+ s#eptica+ and

    rea+istic perspecti/e #ept hi 'ro gi/ing '&++ s&pport :o!e/er,

    he !as 'ascinated b$ To+sto$ and )&ssian ?narchists and his !i'e

    Marianne sho!ed eberAs s&pport o' a ore +e'tist attit&de

    :is !i'e has stated that his s$path$ !ith the str&gg+e o'

    the pro+etariat 'or a h&an and digni'ied e8istence had 'or

    decades been so great that he o'ten pondered !hether or not

    he sho&+d @oin their ran#s as a part$ eber--b&t a+!a$s

    !ith negati/e conc+&sions :is reasoning, according to his!i'e, D!as that one co&+d on+$ be an honest socia+ist, @&st

    +i#e a Christian, on+$ i' one !as read$ to share the !a$ o'

    +i'e o' the &npropertied, and in an$ case, on+$ i' one !as

    read$ to 'orego a c&+t&red e8istence, based &pon their !or#

    Since his disease, this !as ipossib+e 'or eber :is

    scho+arship sip+$ depended &pon capita+ rent &rtherore,

    he reained persona++$ an Hindi/id&a+ist;E8i/

    TheRight to Subsistence and the Compassionate Face:

    The disc&ssions o' the d&a+it$ o' re+igion, in the +ast

    section, d!e+t priari+$ on a re+ati/e+$ +ate period o' !or+d

    histor$ The concerns o' the di''erent gro&ps o' *rotestants

    thro&gh either an unbrotherly ethicor b$ aintaining the sense

    o' caritas or agape (&sing the Gree# ter 'or unconditional

    love%--!ere based on their /ar$ing interpretations o' sacred

    tets--in this case the +d and e! Testaents o' the Christian

    7

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    Bib+e Conser/ati/es +i#e Martin +as#$, !ho coined the ter

    compassionate conservatism, !i++ &se the sae te8ts as

    progressi/e Christians b&t !i++ s&dden+$ thro! in a te8t that

    n&++i'ies the compassionate face

    Thro&gho&t the Bib+e and in *ro/erbs speci'ica++$, character

    and econoic s&ccess go together D=a9$ hands a#e a an

    poor, b&t di+igent hands bring !ea+th :e !ho !or#s his

    +and !i++ ha/e ab&ndant 'ood, b&t he !ho chases 'antasies

    +ac#s @&dgent.i+igent hands !i++ r&+e, b&t +a9iness ends

    in s+a/e +abor.o not +o/e s+eep or $o& !i++ gro! poor

    sta$ a!a#e and $o& !i++ ha/e 'ood to spareE (*ro/ 04,

    2, 224, 20%8/

    The sae bib+e a++o!s both sets o' interpretations The

    theo+ogies o' the compassionate facepic# &p on those te8ts that

    e8press thro&gh '&++ ethica+ ip+ications o' the ethic of

    brotherly love. Jaes Scott, a st&dent o' peasant socia+

    o/eents partic&+ar+$ in So&theast ?sia, arg&es that thro&gh o&t

    the !or+d the peasant moral economy o' the right to subsistence

    is pic#ed &p b$ &ni/ersa+ re+igio&s ideo+ogies in their /ie! o' a

    better !or+d I' one 'ee+s oppressed then one attepts to iagine

    soe '&t&re e8istence !here %ustice and compassion r&+e

    It near+$ a+!a$s ip+ies a societ$ o' brotherhood in !hich

    there !i++ be no rich and poor, in !hich no distinctions o'

    ran# and stat&s !i++ e8ist*ropert$ is t$pica++$, tho&gh

    not a+!a$s, to be he+d in coon and shared The

    en/isioned &topia a$ a+so inc+&de a se+'-$ie+ding andab&ndant nat&re as !e++ as radica++$ trans'ored h&an

    nat&re in !hich greed, en/$, and hatred !i++ disappear

    hi+e the earth+$ &topia is th&s anticipation o' the '&t&re,

    it o'ten har#s bac# to a $thic Fden 'ro !hich an#ind has

    'a++en a!a$8/i

    St&dents o' the ?ncient ear Fastern isdo +iterat&re ha/e

    'o&nd the sae genera+ concern 'or the socia+ and econoic rights

    'or widows, orphans and the poor epressedas an idea+ in the

    /ario&s re+igio&s te8ts ?s Char+es ensha! s&ari9es

    It iss&rprising at !hat ear+$ stage in the histor$ o' the

    ancient ear Fast the cop&+sion !as 'e+t to protect these

    peop+e (ido!s, orphans and the poor in genera+%It !as a

    coon po+ic$, and the Israe+ites in +ater histor$ inherited

    the concept 'ro their 'orebears, soe o' !ho had coe 'ro

    Mesopotaia, soe had been capti/e in Fg$pt, and others had

    gro!n &p in the Canaanite !or+d In the Israe+ite co&nit$

    8

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    this po+ic$ !as e8tended thro&gh the high ethica+ re+igion

    o' "ah!eh to becoe a de'inite part o' their, +ater to be

    inherited b$ Christian and M&s+is s&ch as the >oran

    ob+igations o' &akat or alms giving and 'hsan or s$path$

    'or the do!ntrodden and oppressed 8/ii

    In an$ o' the ear Fastern re+igions, this compassionate

    face!as e8pressed thro&gh the iage o' a god or goddess !ho !as

    pict&red as a ode+ o' &nconditiona+ +o/e--ie ?sc+epias, the

    Gree# god o' hea+ing, and Isis, the Fg$ptian goddess .&ring the

    :e++enistic period these t!o di/inities copeted 'or the

    +o$a+ties o' be+ie/ers !ith the iages o' Jes&s and probab+$ !as

    b+ended in to Christianit$ as it becae doinant

    ? sii+ar copassionate iage is in the B&ddhist tradition

    o' the +egendar$ Fdicts o' ?so#a These !ere the roc#ed car/ed

    record o' the s&pposed practica+ eas&res o' ?so#a the third

    Ma&r$an Fperor (21 BC-22 BC%8/iiiTheir act&a+ historica+ base

    reains in 7&estion, b&t the$ do pro/ide a norati/e idea+ 'or

    an$ B&ddhist acti/ists :e !as the 'irst B&ddhist Fperor o'

    India and !as initia++$ an adherent o' the orthodo8 :ind& 'aith

    It is said that be'ore his con/ersion to B&ddhis, he !as t$pica+

    o' Indian onarchs at the tie In his con/ersion, he !as

    s&pposed to be in'+&enced b$ his other;s 'aith ?'ter a

    partic&+ar !ar--the >a+inga !ar--the +egend is that he reacted to

    !hat he 'e+t !as the &nnecessar$ ta#ing o' h&an +i'e and o/ed

    to instit&tiona+i9e a di''erent socia+ and po+itica+ order :e is

    pict&red b$ soe as attepting to e8perient !ith the teachings

    o' B&ddha as a g&ide to socia+ po+ic$ ? constant re'rain in hisedicts is

    ?++ en are $ chi+dren J&st as, in regard to $ o!n

    chi+dren, I desire that the$ a$ be pro/ided !ith a++ #inds

    o' !e+'are and happiness in this !or+d and in the ne8t, the

    sae I desire in regard to a++ en8i8

    ?so#a !as s&pposed to be inspired b$ the stor$ o' B&ddha,

    !hen he !as sic# !ith d$senter$ and addressed the on#s,

    DBrethren, he !ho !o&+d care 'or e, +et hi care 'or the sic#E

    The acco&nts sa$ that he pro/ided 'or edica+ care at no e8pense'or both h&ans and ania+s, not on+$ in his #ingdo, b&t a+so in

    at +east ten #ingdos !ith !hich he had 'riend+$ re+ations :e

    a+so is pict&red as practicing a ore restorati/e criina+

    @&stice s$ste ne !riter sa$s

    :ere I need not read the edicts, b&t ere+$ +ist his

    acti/ities o' tra/e+ing aro&nd gi/ing gi'ts e8tensi/e+$,

    9

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    coissioning his 7&eens and inisters to do +i#e!ise,

    b&i+ding rest-ho&ses and hospices 'or the poor and sic#,

    patroni9ing edicine, iporting doctors 'ro as 'ar a!a$ as

    Greece, pro/iding 'or con/icts and their 'ai+ies, sending

    o&t specia+ inisters to in/estigate cases o' @&dicia+

    harshness or corr&ption, 'reeing prisoners on ho+ida$s, and

    so on, genera++$ acting as a 'ather to his chi+dren to!ard

    a++ peop+e

    (In his edicts% ?so#a is sa$ing a++ en o' a++ c+asses can

    be as gods b$ /irt&e o' their ebodient o' .hara in

    #indness, tr&th'&+ness, and so 'orth It is a deand to +i/e

    &p to transcendent /a+&es and not pretend the$ are possib+e

    on+$ in a separate rea+ o' the gods88

    :e !as a+so pict&red as to+erant to!ard a++ re+igio&s

    gro&ps F/en i' the historica+ acc&rac$ o' ?so#a;s reign is in

    7&estion, this iage o' copassion pro/ides a strong norati/e

    compassionate face aong socia++$ acti/e B&ddhist.

    The Je!ish script&res, preser/ed partia++$ in the bib+ica+

    +d Testaent, b&i+d on the concern 'or the poor that !as a part

    o' ear Fastern societies and added inno/ations !hich !ere b&i+t

    in to the .e&teronic Code

    ?t the end o' e/er$ se/en $ears $o& sha++ grant a re+ease

    ?nd this is the anner o' the re+ease e/er$ creditor sha++

    re+ease !hat he has +ent to his neighbor he sha++ not e8act

    it o' his neighbor, his brother, beca&se the =ord;s re+easehas been proc+aied B&t there !i++ be no poor aong $o&

    ('or the =ord !i++ b+ess $o& in the +and !hich the =ord $o&r

    God gi/es $o& 'or an inheritance to possess%, i' on+$ $o&

    !i++ obe$ the /oice o' the =ord $o&r God, being care'&+ to

    do a++ this coandent !hich I coand $o& this da$88i

    bser/ing the Sabbath becae ore than @&st resting on the

    se/enth da$, it becae an iss&e o' socia+ @&stice In other parts

    o' the script&re this !as e8tended to the concept o' the J&bi+ee

    "ear :ere there is ordained Da sabbath o' sabbath $ears, a

    s&per-sabbathE in !hich +and is restored to the origina+ o!nersDIn this $ear o' @&bi+ee $o& sha++ ret&rn, e/er$ one o' $o&, to

    $o&r propert$the +and sha++ not be so+d in perpet&it$, for the

    land is mine( with me you are but aliens and tenants.E88iiThe

    p&rpose !as to pre/ent the trans'oration o' &+tip+e peasant

    sa++ho+ders into +arge +and o!nerships the !a$ odern

    agrib&siness has done The Je!ish prophets aintained this

    !

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    coitent ca++ing the Israe+ites bac# to a concept o' socia+

    @&stice

    )ecent scho+arship on Jes&s and his teachings see hi as

    basica++$ !ithin this prophetic tradition and his rea+ essage is

    one o' )oncrete *ove--Agape or )aritas or )ompassion--ip+$ing

    /er$ speci'ic actions o' 'eeding the h&ngr$, c+othing the na#ed,

    gi/ing drin# to the thirst$, /isiting those in prison,

    inistering to sic# and !e+coing the hoe+ess Jes&s is pict&red

    as being concerned abo&t rene!ing the socia+ @&stice concerns o'

    the +d Testaent and consistent+$ p&shes a subversive agenda in

    his parab+es and actions o' p&tting the argina+i9ed and poor

    'irst in the +ingdom of od. ?s Marc&s J Borg points o&t

    Jes&s o'ten &sed the +ang&age o' parado8 and re/ersa+ to

    shatter the con/entiona+ !isdo o' his tie Ipossib+e

    cobinations abo&nd in his teaching hat #ind o' !or+d is

    it in !hich a *harisee--t$pica++$ /ie!ed as righteo&s and

    p&re--can be prono&nced &nrighteo&s and an o&tcast be

    accepted hat #ind o' !or+d is it in !hich riding a don#e$

    can be a s$bo+ o' #ingship, in !hich the poor are b+essed,

    the 'irst are +ast and the +ast 'irst, the h&b+e e8a+ted

    and the e8a+ted h&b+ed

    The >ingdo is copared to soething ip&re it is +i#e a

    !oen (associated !ith ip&rit$% p&tting +ea/en (!hich is

    ip&re% into '+o&r The >ingdo is 'or chi+dren, !ho in that

    !or+d !ere nobodies th&s, the >ingdo is 'or nobodies The

    sae point is ade b$ Jes&s; ea+s !ith o&tcasts the>ingdo is a ban7&et o' o&tcasts, o' nobodies88iii

    ne o' the parab+es, Workers in the ineyard, is interpreted

    b$ an$ scho+ars as ip+$ing soe 'or o' guaranteed income or at

    +east a de'inite right to s&bsistence 'or a++ !or#ers It !as

    directed at the p+ight o' the &rban &nep+o$ed

    ? +ando!ner !ent o&t ear+$ in the orning to hire +aborers

    'or his /ine$ard ?'ter agreeing !ith the +aborers 'or the

    da$;s !age (denarius--the ao&nt needed 'or a da$;s

    s&bsistence%, he sent the into his /ine$ard hen he !ento&t three ho&rs +ater he sa! other peop+e standing id+e in

    the ar#etp+ace, and said to the, D"o& a+so go into the

    /ine$ard, and I !i++ pa$ $o& !hate/er is rightE So the$

    !ent hen he !ent o&t three ho&rs +ater, and three ho&rs

    a'ter that, he did the sae ?+so abo&t the e+e/enth ho&r

    No' a t!e+/e ho&r da$O he !ent o&t and 'o&nd others standing

    aro&nd, and he said to the, Dh$ are $o& standing here id+e

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    a++ da$E The$ said, DBeca&se no one hired &sE :e said to

    the, D"o& a+so go into the /ine$ardE hen e/ening cae,

    the o!ner o' the /ine$ard said to his anger, DCa++ the

    +aborers and gi/e the their pa$, beginning !ith the +ast

    and then going to the 'irst hen those hired at the

    e+e/enth ho&r cae, each o' the recei/ed a da$; !age

    (denarius% o! !hen the 'irst cae, the$ tho&ght the$ !o&+d

    recei/e ore b&t each o' the recei/ed the denari&s ?nd

    !hen the$ recei/ed it, the$ gr&b+ed against the +ando!ner,

    sa$ing, DThese +ast !or#ed on+$ one ho&r, and $o& ha/e ade

    the e7&a+ to &s !ho ha/e borne the b&rden o' the da$ and

    the scorched heatE B&t he rep+ied to one o' the, DM$ dear

    an, I a doing $o& no !rong .id $o& not agree !ith e 'or

    a denari&s Ta#e !hat be+ongs to $o& and go I choose to

    gi/e to this +ast the sae as I gi/e to $o& ? I not

    a++o!ed to do !hat I choose !ith !hat be+ongs to e r is

    $o&r e$e e/i+ (poneros% beca&se I a good (agathos%88i/

    ?s indicated ear+ier, these representations o' a

    compassionate face !ere presented in the sae bib+e !ith

    representations o' a orepunitive face. .e&terono$ a+so has

    chapters and +a!s that ad/ocate #i++ing a++ the citi9ens,

    inc+&ding !oen and chi+dren, o' capt&red cities ?+so, the

    7&otes ear+ier 'ro *ro/erbs sho! the ear+$ roots o' the

    distinction o' deserving poor 'ro undeserving poorthat ha/e

    persisted thro&gho&t !estern histor$ and the attepts to de/e+op

    instit&tions that he+p the poor )haritable activitiesin the

    Christian est too# an$ 'ors88/*ope Gregor$, in 5

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    distrib&tion in )oe since the 'i'th cent&r$ BC This tep+e !as

    'o&nded b$ theplebeian po+itica+ part$ and represented their

    attept to estab+ish instit&tions that the$ contro++ed

    .&ring the Midd+e ?ges, an$ onastic orders &sed the sae

    ode+ o' the diaconiae in estab+ishing hospita+s, hoste+s and

    sites to 'eed the poor in /ario&s parts o' the Christian !or+d

    'ten the !ea+th$ and po!er'&+ resisted these c+ais o'

    universal charityand attepted to a#e universal love on+$ a

    spirit&a+ atter ?t ties the c+erg$ arg&ed that its o!nership

    o' +and and !ea+th !as on beha+' o' the poor and at the sae tie

    the$ [email protected]$ed the &se o' !ea+th 'or itse+' There did eerge

    periodic re'or gro&ps, s&ch as the ranciscans, to restore the

    origina+ p&rpose and priorit$ o' ser/ing the poor Increasing+$

    these instit&tions cae &nder +a$ contro+ and ear+$ h&anist s&ch

    as Fras&s and Li/es proposed rationa+i9ing these in to

    go/ernent responsibi+it$ In the pre'ace to her trans+ation o'

    J&an =&is Li/es proposa+ 'or charit$ re'or to the to!n co&nci+

    o' Br&ges, Be+gian in 526, Sister ?+ice Tobriner88/ipoints o&t

    that he !as in'+&enced b$ the organi9ation o' charit$ and

    hospita+s in La+encia, Spain &nder the r&+e o' the Moors There

    !as specia+ protection o' orphans and other poor and the

    hospita+s &sed the best o' Je!ish and Moorish edicine Li/es !as

    ed&cated in s$nagog&e schoo+s since he had a Je!ish bac#gro&nd

    e/en tho&gh he !as bapti9ed in in'anc$ as a Christian In his

    proposa+, Li/es sa$s

    The )oans o' ancient ties pro/ided in s&ch anner 'or

    their citi9ens that no one neede to beg hence begging !as'orbidden b$ the T!e+/e Tab+es The ?thenians too# the sae

    pre/entati/e eas&res 'or their pop&+ace ?gain, the =ord

    ga/e the Je!ish peop+e a pec&+iar +a!, hard and intractab+e,

    s&ch as becae a peop+e o' sii+ar teperaent $et in

    .e&terono$ :e coands the to s&ch preca&tions that, so

    'ar as it is !as !ithin their po!er, there !as to be no

    indigent beggars aong the, especia++$ in that $ear o' rest

    so acceptab+e to the =ord In s&ch anner are a++ peop+e to

    +i/e 'or the =ord Jes&s !as b&ried--!ith the +d =a! and

    the cereonia+s and the Do+d anE--and rose again in

    regeneration o' +i'e and spirit Un7&estionab+$, it is ascanda+ and disgrace that !e Christians con'ront e/er$!here

    in o&r cities so an$ poor and indigent, !e to !ho no

    [email protected]&nction has been ore e8p+icit+$ coanded than charit$

    (I ight sa$, the on+$ one%88/ii

    In Fng+and the con'iscation o' ch&rch propert$ &nder :enr$

    LIII created the necessit$ 'or the *oor =a!s S&ch go/ernent

    3

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    progras started a series o' c$c+es o' o/ing bet!een the

    progressi/e concept o' outdoor relief and the regressi/e concept

    o' indoor relief. &tdoor re+ie' !as the process !here the poor

    person or 'ai+$ +i/ed in their o!n hoe !hi+e being he+ped b$

    adinistrators !ho #ne! the as neighbors Indoor re+ie' !as !hen

    the poor !ere 'orced intopoor houses orpaupers homes !here

    the$ +i/ed as inates and o'ten 'orced to !or# 'or pri/ate

    'actor$ o!ners b/io&s+$, this debate contin&es to the present

    da$ e/en in USBIG disc&ssions aro&nd ho! unconditional the basic

    income or guaranteed incomesho&+d be The ter reciprocityhas

    becoe the code !ord 'or merited or unmerited incoe The

    compassionate 'ace !o&+d sa$ that o&r o!n s&ccess is a gift/b$

    grace--and there'ore a+!a$s not based on merit There'ore !e are

    ob+igated to give to others graciously !itho&t concern 'or the

    merits o' the recipient.

    Paines and Georges Debt to the Compassionate Face

    Thoas ? :orne in his boo#, Property Rights and Po!erty

    Political "rgument in #ritain, $%&'($)*+,88/iiis&ggest another

    ro&te that the .e&teronoic Code and other +d Testaent concepts

    in'+&enced +ater concepts o' socia+ @&stice :e arg&es that there

    !as a tradition in !hich go/ernent gro&nded aid to the poor !as

    @&sti'ied b$ neither charit$ nor &ti+itarian ca+c&+ation nor

    po+itica+ coproise b&t !as seen as a welfare right based on

    concepts o' propert$ In 625, Groti&s described the origins o'

    propert$ rights !ith God granting the earth to a++ peop+e 'or

    their s&stenance ?ccording to Groti&s, indi/id&a+s !ho 'ind

    these+/es !itho&t propert$ and &nab+e to s&r/i/e and th&s star/ea$ +egitiate+$ ta#e 'ro others This right to ta#e 'ro those

    !ho o!n ore than the$ need 'or s&r/i/a+ is #no!n as the right o'

    necessit$ Groti&s !rote, Dthe priiti/e right o' the &ser

    re/i/es, as i' co&nit$ o' o!nership reained, since in respect

    to a++ h&an +a!s--the +a! o' o!nership inc+&ded--s&pree

    necessit$ sees to ha/e been e8pectedE ne o' the +egacies o'

    Groti&s, according to :orne, !as a propert$ theor$ that contained

    the idea o' earth and its prod&ce &st be &sed to aintain

    e/er$one;s +i'e, and that the right that indi/id&a+s ha/e to the

    earth as a coon can ne/er be re+in7&ished :orne traces these

    concepts thro&gh a !ide range o' thin#ers inc+&ding :obbes and=oc#e tho&gh the$ tended to &te its ore progressi/e

    ip+ications S&ch 'o&nders o' =ibera+ tho&ght ight be seen as a

    /ariation o' eber;s insight abo&t the *rotestant Fthic The

    Dright o' necessit$E !as too great a threat to econoic and

    po+itica+ po!er to a++o! the '&++ thr&st o' this nor to be

    accepted as a part o' go/ernent po+ic$ So inte++ect&a+ ro&tes

    aro&nd its ip+ications !ere de/e+oped to protect the stat&s 7&o

    4

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    :orne points to a +ong +ine o' thin#ers !ho did recogni9e the

    progressi/e ip+ications

    --the agrarianis o' i++ia g+i/e, Thoas Spence, and

    Thoas S#idore to the de'ense o' the +d *oor =a!s in the

    ear+$ 0 b$ i++ia Cobbet and &+tiate+$ to the !or#ing

    c+ass po+itica+ econo$ o' the )icardian Socia+ists88i8

    :ere, I !o&+d +i#e to sho! the in'+&ence o' this progressi/e

    tradition on Thoas *aine and :enr$ George since the$ are

    considered b$ an$ to be +i#epatron saints 'or the o/eent to

    estab+ish a guaranteed incomeor a basic income. Both !ere

    in'+&enced b$ this Bib+ica+ Tradition abo/e--that +and &+tiate+$

    be+ongs to God and a++ peop+e o&ght to bene'it 'ro this

    o!nership

    In gro!ing &p *aine !as e8posed to both K&a#eris and the

    ?ng+ican Ch&rch :is 'ather !as a K&a#er, !hi+e his other !as

    ?ng+ican, and their arriage p&t the 'ai+$ at odds !ith both

    gro&ps =ater as an ad&+t, *aine !as a +a$ preacher 'or the

    Methodist o/eent in Fng+and *aine biographer, John >eane,

    sa$s

    *aine !as a+so to&ched b$ the Methodists; doctrine o'

    reass&rance, !hose ega+itarianis ap+i'ied the K&a#er thee

    that each indi/id&a+ !as e7&ipped !ith an inner +ight and

    there'ore e7&a+ be'ore God Methodis p&t 'or!ard the

    e8hi+arating /ie!, traceab+e to the ear+$ se/enteenth-

    cent&r$ .&tch theo+ogian Jacob ?rini&s, that Christ;ssacri'ice and atoneent eant that a++ en and !oen ight

    be sa/ed, not @&st the preordained e+ect, as John Ca+/in and

    his 'o++o!ers had stip&+ated888

    =ater in his +i'e, *aine !rote his The "ge of Reason that

    !as a criti7&e o' organi9ed re+igion o' his tie !here he tries

    to present e/idence 'or be+ie' in a bene/o+ent 'or o' God and at

    the sae tie criti7&e an$ practices re+igio&s gro&ps :e arg&es

    'or a deist or 0nitarian be+ie' in God, th&s +ea/ing o&t be+ie'

    in the di/init$ o' Christ and the +itera+ interpretation o' the

    Bib+e The "ge of Reasonbecae his ost contro/ersia+ boo# toboth the +eaders o' the rench )e/o+&tion and at the sae tie

    ch&rch +eaders hen he cae bac# to ?erica +ater the

    contro/ers$ !as sti++ raging :e !as a+so attepting to de/e+op a

    &ni/ersa+ re+igion

    It is certain that, in one point, a++ the nations o' the

    earth and a++ re+igions agree--a++ be+ie/e in a God the

    5

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    thins the$ disagree are the red&ndancies anne8ed to the$

    be+ie'I' e/er a &ni/ersa+ re+igion sho&+d pre/ai+, it

    !i++ not be b$ be+ie/ing an$thing ne!, b&t in getting rid o'

    red&ndancies and be+ie/ing as an at 'irst be+ie/ed at

    'irst ?da, i' e/er there !as s&ch a an, !as created a

    .eist b&t in the eantie, +et e/er$ an 'o++o!, as he has

    a right to do, the re+igion and !orship he pre'ers888i

    :e did 'or a ne! re+igio&s societ$ ca++ed

    Theophi+anthropists !hich had 'o&r 'esti/a+s one in honor o'

    George ashington, another Saint Lincent de *a&+, another

    Socrates and the +ast )o&ssea& Soe consider the paph+et,

    D?grarian J&stice; as a part o' this theophi+anthropic o/eent

    It !as !ritten as a proposa+ to the rench go/ernent and in

    reaction to a seron b$ the Bishop o' =+anda'' on EThe isdo and

    Goodness o' God, in ha/ing ade both )ich and *oorE *aine sa$s

    in his pre'ace

    The error contained in this seron deterined e to p&b+ish

    $ D?grarian J&sticeE It is !rong to sa$ God ade rich and

    poor :e ade on+$ male and female( and he ga/e the the

    earth 'or their inheritanceInstead o' preaching to

    enco&rage one part o' an#ind in inso+enceit !o&+d be

    better that priests ep+o$ed their tie to render the

    genera+ condition o' an +ess iserab+e than it is

    *ractica+ re+igion consists in doing good and the on+$ !a$

    o' ser/ing God is that o' endea/oring to a#e his creation

    happ$ ?++ preaching that has not 'or its [email protected] is nonsense

    and h$pocris$888ii

    :is thesis in D?grarian J&sticeE o!es &ch to the bib+ica+

    heritage that God o!ns the earth and there'ore, +oans it to

    h&ans 'or their &se The h&an o!ner on+$ o!ns the ipro/eents

    ade b$ his o!n +abor, !hi+e the +and itse+' is Dthe common

    property of the human race.1 *aine probab+$ had these ideas !hen

    he ade his 'irst proposa+s 'or a !e+'are state in, The Rights

    of an, Part Second, b&t the rationa+e !as not '&++$ de/e+oped in

    that ateria+ :e proposes that 'ro a ground-rent !hich the

    proprietor o!es 'or the +and he ho+ds

    To create a nationa+ '&nd, o&t o' !hich there sha++ be paid

    to e/er$ person, !hen arri/ed at the age o' t!ent$-one

    $ears, the s& o' 'i'teen po&nds ster+ing, as a copensation

    in part, 'or the +oss o' his or her inheritance, b$ the

    introd&ction o' the s$ste o' +anded propert$ ?nd a+so, the

    s& o' ten po&nds per ann&, d&ring +i'e, to e/er$ person

    6

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    no! +i/ing, o' the age o' 'i't$ $ears, and to a++ others as

    the$ sha++ arri/e at that age888iii

    *aine arg&es that this gro&nd-rent sho&+d be co++ected at

    the tie !hen the propert$ is passed to descendants thro&gh

    inheritance I !i++ not go in to the detai+s o' his proposa+s

    since the$ are !e++ #no!n to this a&dience

    :enr$ George !as probab+$ in/o+/ed in traditiona+ re+igion

    ore than *aine :e a#es a ore e8p+icit &se o' the .e&teronoic

    Code in his +ect&re on 2oses in 1 gi/en to the "o&ng Man;s

    :ebre! ?ssociation in San rancisco The roots o' his be+ie'

    abo&t +and p&b+ished the ne8t $ear as Progress and Po!erty are

    e8pressed in this +ect&re

    F/er$!here in the Mosaic instit&tions is the +and treated as

    a gi't o' the Creator to :is coon creat&res, !hich no one

    had a right to onopo+i9e F/er$!here it is, not $o&r

    estate, or $o&r propert$, not the +and !hich $o& bo&ght, or

    the +and !hich $o& con7&ered, b&t Hthe +and !hich th$ =ord

    th$ God gi/en thee;--;the +and !hich the =ord +endeth thee;

    Moses sa! that the rea+ ca&se o' the ens+a/eent o' the

    asses o' Fg$pt !as, !hat has e/er$!here prod&ced

    ens+a/eent, the possession b$ a c+ass o' the +and &pon

    !hich and 'ro !hich the !ho+e peop+e &st +i/e :e sa! that

    to perit in +and the sae &n7&a+i'ied pri/ate o!nership

    that b$ nat&ra+ right attaches to the things prod&ced b$

    +abo&r, !o&+d be ine/itab+$ to separate the peop+e into the/er$ rich and the /er$ poor, ine/itab+$ $o ens+a/e +abo&r--

    to a#e the asters o' the an$, no atter !hat the

    po+itica+ 'ors to bring /ice and degradation, no atter

    !hat the re+igion888i/

    George sa! the Sabbath obser/ance as a sign that none are

    Dcondened to cease+ess toi+E :e criti7&e o' the re+igio&s

    +eadership o' his ties has ip+ications 'or a criti7&e o' the

    Christian )ight

    There are an$ !ho be+ie/e that the Mosaic instit&tions !ere+itera++$ dictated b$ the ?+ight$, $et !ho !o&+d deno&nce

    as irre+igio&s and Dco&nisticE an$ app+ication o' their

    spirit to the present da$ ?nd $et to-da$ ho! &ch !e o!e

    these instit&tionsP This /er$ da$ the on+$ thing that stands

    bet!een o&r !or#ing c+asses and cease+ess toi+ is one o'

    these Mosaic instit&tions othing in po+itica+ econo$ is

    better sett+ed than that &nder conditions !hich no! pre/ai+

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    the !or#ing c+asses !o&+d get no ore 'or se/en da$s; +abo&r

    than the$ get 'or si8888/

    George de/e+oped in his Progress an Po!erty the ip+ications

    o' this coon o!nership o' +and and his proposa+ 'or a #ingle

    !a. /er and o/er he is critica+ o' the Ma+th&sian and Socia+

    .ar!inist thin#ing o' his tie that tended to b+ae po/ert$ on

    the ora+s o' the poor or soe preordained stat&s b$ God or

    at&re In his 3de to *iberty he repeats his dept to the +d

    Testaent

    =ibert$ cae to a race o' s+a/es cro&ching &nder Fg$ptians

    !hips, and +ed the 'orth 'ro the :o&se o' Bondage She

    hardened the in the desert and ade i' the a race o'

    con7&ers The 'ree spirit o' the Mosaic =a! too# their

    thin#ers &p the heights !here the$ behe+d the &nit$ o' God,

    and inspired their poets !ith stains that $et phase the

    highest e8a+tations o' tho&ght888/i

    ?+so he ass&ed that i' the conditions 'or greed !ere

    e+iinated that natural state o' h&anit$ !o&+d ta#e o/er and

    peop+e !o&+d +i/e in co&nit$

    The$ are greed$ o' 'ood !hen the$ are not ass&red that there

    !i++ be a 'air and e7&itab+e distrib&tion, !hich gi/e each

    eno&gh B&t !hen these conditions are ass&red, the$ cease to

    be greed$ o' 'ood888/ii

    The Compassionate Face in the !ixties:

    ro the standpoint o'conser/ati/e theorists, the si8ties

    are de'ined as the !orst disaster in ?erican :istor$ ?++ o' the

    [email protected] prob+es o' o&r societ$ are /ie!ed as being ca&sed b$ the

    perissi/e and &nchristian po+icies ad/ocated partic&+ar+$ b$ the

    einist Mo/eent and the ar on *o/ert$ Interesting+$, the

    B+ac# and other Fthnic Ci/i+ )ights Mo/eents are &s&a++$ not

    entioned, so as to not appear to be racist :o!e/er, !riters

    s&ch as Char+es M&rra$ and rancis a$aa &se bio+ogica+ ode+ss&ch as socia+ dar!inis M&rra$ ip+ies that the poor are

    genetica++$ d&ber as !e++ as being iora+ !hi+e a$aa see

    'einis as ad/ocating a 'or o' arriage that does not 'it the

    idea+ pattern s&ggested b$ evolutionary psychology. Conser/ati/es

    s&ch as Gertr&de :ie+'arb and Mar/in +as#$ p&t ore ephasis

    on the brea#do!n in re+igio&s /a+&es :ie+'arb in her t!o

    boo#s, The -e(morali.ation of Societyand /ne 0ation, T1o

    8

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    Cultures,222!iiire/erses the criti7&e o' the *&ritan Fthic

    de/e+oped b$ Ma8 eber in to a praise o' these sae /a+&es in

    that this ethic s&pports the ora+ s&periorit$ o' Capita+is She

    ca++s this ethic Lictorian Lirt&es and sees the as doinant in

    Fng+and and the US d&ring the Lictorian period :er thesis is

    that the cobination o' =e'tist inte++ect&a+s and the rise o'

    under class /a+&es aong the poor has +ed to a++ o' the socia+

    prob+es o' toda$

    In a po!er'&++$ arg&ed boo#, M$ron Magnet has ana+$9ed

    the d&a+ re/o+&tion that has +ed to the strange

    a++iance bet!een !hat he ca++s the D:a/esE and the

    D:a/e-otsE The 'irst !as a socia+ re/o+&tion intended

    to +iberate the poor 'ro the po+itica+, econoic, and

    racia+ oppression that #ept the in bondage The second

    !as a c&+t&ra+ re/o+&tion +iberating the (as the :a/es

    these+/es !ere being +iberated% 'ro the ora+

    restraints o' bo&rgeois /a+&es The 'irst created the

    !e+'are progras o' the Great Societ$, !hich pro/ided

    co&nterincenti/es to +ea/ing po/ert$ ?nd the second

    disparaged the beha/ior and attit&des that

    traditiona++$ ade 'or econoic ipro/eent--Ede'erra+

    o' grati'ication, sobriet$, thri't, dogged ind&str$,

    and so on thro&gh the !ho+e cata+og&e o' anti7&e-

    so&nding bo&rgeois /irt&esE Together these re/o+&tions

    had the &nintended e''ect o' iring the poor in their

    po/ert$--a po/ert$ e/en ore deora+i9ing and se+'-

    perpet&ating than the o+d po/ert$888i8

    Sii+ar+$, Mar/in +as#$ a#es sii+ar arg&ents

    partic&+ar+$ in his 'irst boo#, The Tragedy of "merican

    Compassion32l:e spends a [email protected] portion o' this boo# attac#ing

    the e+'are )ights o/eent and the scho+ars s&ch as )ichard

    C+o!ard and rances o8 *i/en !ho s&pported this o/eent The

    D#e$ contrib&tion o' the ar on *o/ert$ !as the de+iberate

    attept to &nco&p+e !e+'are 'ro shae b$ changing attit&des o'

    both !e+'are recipients and the better-o''E The e+'are )ights

    o/eent !anted to estab+ish !e+'are as a right or entit+eent

    and this !o&+d be bad 'or the poor according to +as#$ ?s a

    Dborn againE *rotestant, +as#$ sa! the so+&tion to po/ert$ asbeing compassionate conservatism !here ser/ice 'or the poor

    sho&+d be in the hands o' ch&rch gro&ps !ho co&+d &pho+d high

    ora+ standards and e/en con/ert the poor ?s a pro'essor o'

    Jo&rna+is at the Uni/ersit$ o' Te8as, he !as /er$ in'+&entia+ on

    George B&sh Jr !hi+e he !as go/ernor and this has becoe the

    basis o' the present adinistrations faith based initiatives and

    marriage enhancement as his contrib&tion to !e+'are re'or

    9

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    or e this criticis re'+ects the Punitive "ace o'

    re+igion there'ore, I !o&+d arg&e thatthe si8ties !as one o'

    the periods in ?erican histor$ !hen the )ompassionate "aceo'

    re+igion !as ost e/ident Most o' the [email protected] socia+ o/eents--

    inc+&ding the ar on *o/ert$ !ith its ad/ocac$ o' a guaranteed

    income--d&ring this tie period !ere in'+&enced b$ soe re+igio&s

    traditionJaes arre++;s thesis in his boo#, The Spirit of the

    Si2ties,8+i!as that these socia+ o/eents shared a coon

    'rae!or# o' Personalism!hich in/ite ?ericans to as# the

    7&estion, D!hat are peop+e 'orE and then Dinsist that o&r

    instit&tions operate as i' a++ peop+e atteredE S&ch

    personalismip+ies a sense o' co&nit$ and so+idarit$ !ith

    DothersE that is not ass&ed in an$ 'ors o' ?erican

    Dindi/id&a+isE arre++ identi'ies s&chpersonalismin a

    /ariet$ o' re+igio&s and sec&+ar ?erican traditions s&ch as the

    Catho+ic or#ers Mo/eent, *rotestant Socia+ Gospe+, the paci'ist

    e++o!ship o' )econci+iation, Co&na+ ?narchis, The e! =e't

    and Fn/ironenta+is The ter Personalism he priari+$ too# 'ro

    the social theology o' the 'o&nders o' the Catho+ic or#er

    Mo/eent, .oroth$ .a$ and *eter Ma&rin and the Methodist

    theo+ogian, Fdgar Brightan, !ho !as one o' the in'+&ences on

    Martin =&ther >ing Jr

    ?nother tradition, !hich 'or&+ates a 'or o'personalism

    and !as /er$ in'+&entia+ on an$ po/ert$ !or#ers, !as the

    Sett+eent :o&se Mo/eent ne o' the 'e! ?'rican ?erican

    Socio+ogist, ?nna J&+ia Cooper, de'ined the Socia+ Sett+eent

    &sing the /ocab&+ar$ o' the Gospe+s

    The Socia+ Sett+eent idea is as o+d as the 'act DThe ord

    ade '+esh and d!e+t aong &sE It is the heart o'

    s$path$, the hand o' brother+$ grip, the brain o'

    &nderstanding insight, o' e''icient and aster'&+ good !i++

    ind!e++ing in the ist o' do!n-and-o&t h&anit$--It is set

    on 'ire !ith the con/iction that a++ en are created !ith a

    di/ine right to a chance, and sets abo&t haering do!n soe

    o' the handicaps !hich haper !ho+e sections o' the

    co&nit$ thro&gh the ine7&a+ities o' en/ironent, or the

    greed o' the great8+ii

    Jane ?ddas, at :&++ :o&se, !as s&rro&nded b$ !oen s&ch as

    +orence >e++e$ and Char+otte *er#ins Gi+an and en s&ch as

    George : Mead and John .e!e$ The ?'rican ?erican Socio+ogist,

    FB .& Bois !as re+ated to a sett+eent ho&se in *hi+ade+phia

    and +i#e ?nna J&+ia Cooper !as /er$ e8p+icit abo&t the iportance

    o' a re+igio&s perspecti/e Fach chapter in his c+assic, The

    2!

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    !ouls of "lac# Fol#$ has as a heading &sica+ notes that are

    ta#en 'ro egro spirit&a+s that are paired !ith F&ropean /erse--

    b$ Bro!ning, B$ron, S!inb&rne, S$ons, Tenn$son .& Bois;s

    biographer, .a/id =e/ering =e!is, sa$s

    .& Bois eant the c&+t&ra+ s$bo+is o' these do&b+e

    epigraphs to be pro'o&nd+$ s&b/ersi/e o' the c&+t&ra+

    hierarch$ o' his tie Three $ears into another cent&r$ o'

    seeing+$ &nassai+ab+e F&ropean s&preac$, Soulsco&ntered

    !ith the /oices heard b$ hi 'or the 'irst tie in the

    Tennessee bac#co&ntr$ Unti+ ost readers appreciated the

    essage o' the songs s&ng in bondage b$ b+ac# peop+e, .&

    Bois !as sa$ing, the !ords !ritten in 'reedo b$ !hite

    peop+e !o&+d reain ho++o! and co&nter'eit8+iii

    ?++ o' these persons and others !ere in/o+/ed !ith Socia+

    Sett+eents in e8tending the ob+igations o' copassion and

    charit$ into a concept o' a )haritableor Welfare #tate The$

    p&shed 'or /ario&s 'ors o'publicsocia+ !e+'are and a+so 'or

    the reg&+ation o' the gro!ing po!er o' +arge corporations These

    heritages !ere partic&+ar+$ iportant 'or the si8ties ar on

    *o/ert$

    ne o' the [email protected] re+igio&s +eaders o' the si8ties !as Martin

    =&ther >ing Jr In addition to being in'+&enced b$ o' the

    personalistictheo+og$ o' Fdgar Brightan he !as in'+&enced b$

    the neo-orthodo8 theo+og$ o' )einho+d ieb&hr and the eastern

    tho&ght o' the :ind&, Mohandras > Gandhi ?++ three !ere

    coitted to the priac$ o' the )ompassionate "ace o' re+igionand to non-/io+ent socia+ action and 'e+t that the sit&ation o'

    B+ac#s in the So&th ight be a p+ace !here a non-/io+ent 'or o'

    socia+ action ight be s&ccess'&+ In the +ast $ear o' his +i'e,

    >ing !as p+anning a [email protected] arch on ashington, the )ampaign for

    the Poor, !here the proposa+ 'or a guaranteed income !o&+d be

    ade :e !as assassinated be'ore that arch cae abo&t b&t his

    s&pport 'or a guaranteed income !as e8pressed in his +ast boo#,

    4here -o 4e Go From 5ere Chaos or Community6 :e points o&t that

    in the si8ties econo$ none o' the progras that ta#e a partia+

    /ie! can so+/e the prob+es o' po/ert$ beca&se the$ are not

    coprehensi/e eno&gh The progra &st be a progressi/e one

    irst, it ost be pegged to the edian incoe o' societ$,

    not the +o!est +e/e+s o' incoe To g&arantee an incoe at

    the '+oor !o&+d sip+$ perpet&ate !e+'are standards and

    'ree9e into societ$ po/ert$ conditions Second, the

    g&aranteed incoe &st be d$naic it &st a&toatica++$

    increase as the tota+ socia+ incoe gro!s ere it peritted

    2

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    to reain static &nder gro!th conditions, the recipients

    !o&+d s&''er a re+ati/e dec+ine I' periodic re/ie!s

    disc+ose that the !ho+e nationa+ incoe has risen, the

    g&aranteed incoe !o&+d ha/e to be [email protected]&sted &p!ard b$ the

    sae percentage8+i/

    ?n in'+&entia+ boo# aong *rotestant gro&ps in the si8ties

    !as one b$ *hi+ip ogaan ca++ed, Guaranteed "nnual Income The

    oral Issues3 ne o' the chapters in this boo# is ca++ed, D?

    Christian )esponse to the H*rotestant Fthic;E In this chapter he

    arg&es against the t$pe o' ethic described b$ eber aong an$

    ear+$ ?erican *rotestants :e sa$s

    In this perspecti/e (the basic Christian attit&de%, the

    D*rotestant FthicE (!hich as !e ha/e recei/ed it a$ be a

    distortion o' both ethics and o' *rotestantis% represents a

    ha+'-tr&th The tr&e ha+' is the iportance o' !or# in h&an

    '&+'i++ent The 'a+se ha+' is the s&bordination o' an to

    !or# and, !orse $et, the attept to estab+ish !hether or not

    peop+e are deser/ing o' !hat God has a+read$ gi/en

    theMan !as not ade 'or ateria+ ends nor can !e +iit

    h&an creati/it$ to !hat !i++ bring cash in the

    ar#etp+ace8+/

    ?t the end o' the boo#, he gi/es three s&pporting positiona+

    papers on guaranteed income passed b$ the 4ational )ouncil of

    the )hurches of )hrist in the 0. #. A.56789:, !he 0nited

    2ethodist )hurch56789:, and a report o' a specia+ coittee in

    the 0nited Presbyterian )hurch in the 0. #. A. 5678;:. TheMethodist stateent and the ationa+ Co&nci+ o' Ch&rches !ere

    /er$ sii+ar and the Methodist recoends a guaranteed income

    that carries o&t the 'o++o!ing princip+es

    % ?/ai+ab+e to a++ as a atter o' right

    2% ?de7&ate to aintain hea+th and h&an decenc$

    % ?dinistered so as to a8ii9e co/erage and [email protected]&st

    bene'its to changes in the cost o' +i/ing

    4% .e/e+oped in a anner !hich !i++ respect the 'reedo o'

    persons to anage their o!n +i/es, increase their po!er

    to choose their o!n careers, and enab+e the toparticipate in eeting persona+ and co&nit$ needs

    5% .esigned to a''ord incenti/e to prod&cti/e acti/it$

    6% .esigned in s&ch a !a$ that e8isting socia++$ desirab+e

    progras and /a+&es are conser/ed and enhanced8+/i

    ro ost o' $ persona+ e8perience, an$ o' the ar on

    *o/ert$ progras !ere re+ated to soe ch&rch re+ated agenc$

    22

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    T$pica+ o' an$ o' these ser/ices !ere those de/e+oped b$ es+e$

    Co&nit$ Centers in San ?ntonio, Te8as This agenc$ !as

    sponsored b$ the Methodist Ch&rch and stood at the crossroads o'

    the ar on *o/ert$, the Sett+eent :o&se Mo/eent and Gang or#

    es+e$ Centers !as a traditiona+ ch&rch re+ated sett+eent ho&se

    that de/e+oped a gang !or# [email protected] '&nded b$ the ationa+

    Instit&te o' Menta+ :ea+th as a part o' that 'edera+ agenc$;s

    pre-po/ert$ progra de/e+opent hen the ar on *o/ert$ !as

    '&nded, this agenc$ had LIST? !or#ers and other po/ert$ '&nds to

    de/e+op di''erent t$pes o' neighborhood progras In the

    3utreach and 3rganizingode+ de/e+oped b$ the es+e$ Centers

    thro&gh its gang !or# e8perience, each neighborhood !or#er spent

    abo&t 'i't$ percent o' their tie in each o' the t!o acti/ities

    o' 3utreachand 3rganizing The o/era++ p&rpose o' this t$pe o'

    ser/ice !as to increase the po!er o' the poor in their

    negotiations !ith the doinant instit&tions o' the +arger

    societ$ 3utreach e''orts !ere directed to!ard those 'ai+ies and

    indi/id&a+s !ho !ere at the botto o' the +o!-incoe

    neighborhood;s interna+ strati'ication s$ste S&ch residents

    !ere &s&a++$ de'ined b$ other neighborhood persons as +o!er in

    stat&s and a+so !ere +abe+ed b$ socia+ agencies as D&+ti-

    prob+eE and Dhard to reachE S&ch 3utreachre7&ires that the

    !or#er o/e be$ond the indi/id&a+ c+ients or 'ai+$ to ediating

    and ad/ocac$ !ith ep+o$ees, po+itica+, socia+ agencies, schoo+s

    or an$ other instit&tions that ight be in/o+/ed !ith the

    partic&+ar prob+e or had reso&rces that ight he+p to!ard a

    so+&tion The 3rganizinge''orts in/o+/ed beginning !ith gro&ps

    o' residents aro&nd !hate/er iss&es the$ sa! as re+e/ant ?gain

    3rganizing, +i#e 3utreach, in/o+/ed interacting !ith the +argerco&nit$ instit&tiona+ str&ct&res Co++ecti/e po+itica+ action,

    both b$ and in beha+' o' residents, !as soeties re7&ired Th&s

    the Dpri/ate tro&b+esE o' e/en the +o!est o' the neighborhood

    residents !ere potentia++$ being trans+ated into Dp&b+ic iss&esE

    This ode+ o' socia+ pra8is that cobines both 3utreachas

    ser/ice practice and 3rganizingaro&nd iss&es or se+'-he+p

    pre/ents the practice o' Ddo&b+e c+os&reE, !here one gro&p is

    he+ped at the e8pense o' a +o!er stat&s gro&p *riorit$, in this

    ode+, is p+aced on the needs and iss&es o' the 'ai+ies at the

    botto o' the tota+ strati'ication str&ct&re The 'o++o!ing

    stateent, &sed b$ es+e$ Centers in training their !or#ers,sho!s the /a+&e 'rae!or# that de'ined the basic code o'

    responsibi+it$ e8pected o' the !or#ers

    Ser/ice is not at a distance--it eans persona+

    in/o+/eent !ith peop+e

    2 o person or prob+e is be$ond o&r concern or attention

    In 'act, !e are ob+igated to search o&t the Do&tcastsE

    23

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    &r oti/ation 'or ser/ice cannot be the possibi+it$ o'

    s&ccess or an$ other condition that ight be associated

    !ith the recei/er o' the ser/ice e can ne/er rea++$

    gi/e &p on a person

    4 &r o!n interests or persona+ 'ee+ings are not o' an$

    iportance as !e ser/e e a$ not persona++$ +i#e the

    person

    5 e &st indi/id&a++$ ass&e that !e are responsib+e !hen

    others do no +i/e &p to their responsibi+it$, and th&s tr$

    o&r best to a#e a di''erence8+/ii

    ?s indicated ear+ier, the es+e$ Centers thro&gh its

    in/o+/eent in e+'are )ights a+so !as in/o+/ed the po+itica+

    action in beha+' o' a g&aranteed incoe The position o' the

    Methodist Ch&rch o&t+ined abo/e !as &sed !ith the board o'

    directors 'or st&d$ and to engage the in ad/ocating in beha+' o'

    this po+ic$

    MiscellaneousReligious Positions on G%I&:

    ne o' the Christian gro&ps that contin&ed to ad/ocate a

    guaranteed income a'ter the War Against the Poor began !as the

    stateent on the econo$ ade b$ the United States Catho+ic

    Bishops in

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    are pre'aced b$ the theo+ogica+ base 'or this +etter The$ s& &p

    the +d Testaent

    Centra+ to the bib+ica+ presentation o' @&stice is that the

    @&stice o' a co&nit$ is eas&red b$ its treatent o' the

    po!er+ess in societ$, ost o'ten described as the !ido!, the

    orphan, the poor and stranger (non-Israe+ite% in the

    +and8+i8

    The s&ar$ o' the e! Testaent is base on the *arab+e o'

    the =ast J&dgent

    either the b+essed nor the c&rsed are asto&nded that the$

    are @&dged b$ the Son o' Man, nor that the @&dgent is

    rendered according to the !or#s o' charit$ The shoc# coes

    !hen the$ 'ind that in neg+ecting the poor, the o&tcast and

    the oppressed, the$ are [email protected] Jes&s hise+' Jes&s !ho

    cae as DFan&e+E or DGod !ith &sE and !ho proises to be

    !ith his peop+e &nti+ the end o' the age is hidden in those

    ost in need to [email protected] the is to [email protected] God ade ani'est

    in histor$+

    I !as teaching Socio+og$ in a Jes&it Uni/ersit$ at this tie

    and !as a part o' an inter-departenta+ sponsorship o' a

    s$posi& disc&ssing this pastora+ +etter ? gro&p o' +a$

    Catho+ic b&sinessen cae to the eeting protesting the right o'

    the Bishops to Dinter'ereE in econoic atters Their ro+e !as

    de'ined as on+$ Dspirit&a+E

    ? *rotestant Socio+ogist !ho a+so contin&es to ad/ocate a

    guaranteed income is )obert Be++ah Be++ah began as a Mar8ist and

    d&ring the McCarth$ period and in

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    hat !as partic&+ar+$ distressing to e !as the a+ost

    in/eterab+e tendenc$ in soe 7&arters to identi'$ !hat I

    ca++ed ci/i+ re+igion !ith the ido+atro&s !orship o' the

    state ---It !as not that I 'ai+ed to recogni9e the

    e8istence o' s&ch ido+atro&s be+ie', tho&gh historica++$ it

    !as ore coon+$ en&nciated b$ preachers than b$

    po+iticians, b&t that I be+ie/ed it to be a per/ersion o'

    the centra+ and norati/e tradition+i

    In the eighties and nineties, Be++ah co++aborated !ith a

    tea o' scho+ars to !rite t!opolitical boo#s--Be++ah;s +abe+

    The other co++aborators !ere a++ socia+ scientist and a+so acti/e

    ebers o' /ario&s re+igio&s traditions--three !ere raised

    Catho+ic and one Je!ish The other scho+ars !ere )ichard Madsen,

    i++ia M S&++i/an, ?nn S!ider and Ste/en M Tipton The t!o

    boo#s are, 5abits of the 5eartsand The Good Society andin these

    boo#s, based &pon depth inter/ie!s !ith a !ide /ariet$ o'

    ?ericans, the$ a#e a !ide range o' criti7&es and

    recoendations 'or ?erican Societ$ T$pica+ !o&+d be there

    recoendation o' the bib+ica+ and rep&b+ican tradition

    The +it&s test that both the bib+ica+ and rep&b+ican

    tradition gi/es &s 'or assa$ing the hea+th o' a societ$ is

    ho! it dea+s !ith the prob+e o' !ea+th and po/ert$ The

    :ebre! prophets too# their stand b$ the =anawin, the poor

    and oppressed, and condened the rich and po!er'&+ !ho

    e8p+oit the The e! Testaent sho!s a Jes&s !ho +i/ed

    aong the =anawin o' his da$ and !ho recogni9ed the

    di''ic&+t$ the rich !o&+d ha/e in responding to his ca++Both testaents a#e it c+ear that societies sharp+$ di/ided

    bet!een rich and poor are not in accord !ith the !i++ o'

    God C+assic rep&b+ican theor$ 'ro ?ristot+e to the

    ?erican 'o&nders rested on the ass&ptions that 'ree

    instit&tions co&+d s&r/i/e in a societ$ on+$ i' there !ere a

    ro&gh e7&a+it$ o' conditions+ii

    In the second boo#, the$ recoend a guaranteed minimum

    income or a social wage as basic to greater economic democracy.

    The$ a+so recoend co&nit$ organi9ing e''orts in +o!-incoe

    areas to he+p b&i+d a sense o' participation in both the econo$and the po+itica+ co&nit$+iii

    ? odern Methodist theo+ogian that s&pports a guaranteed

    income in his !ritings is John B Cobb, Jr :e is aong a gro&p

    o' theo+ogians !ho dra! 'ro the *rocess *hi+osoph$ o' ?+'red

    hitehead Cobb has partic&+ar+$ been in/o+/ed in a B&ddhist-

    Je!ish-Christian con/ersation :e a+so has @oined !ith econoists

    26

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    s&ch as :eran F .a+$ in de/e+oping econoic tho&ght that is

    /er$ critica+ o' the present neoliberal perspective in re+ation

    to the g+oba+ econo$

    B&ddhist and Christians cannot agree that !ea+th is the

    s&pree goa+ o' h&an +i'e B&ddhist #no! that attachent to

    !or+d+$ goods, and certain+$ to their increase, b+oc#s the

    path o' spirit&a+ ad/ance ? c&+t&re 'oc&sed on this end is

    deep+$ sic# Christians be+ie/e the 'irst tas# o' go/ernent

    is @&stice, and the$ see the p&rs&it o' !ea+th pro'o&nd+$

    inter'eres !ith the achie/eent o' @&stice e #no! a+so

    that Jes&s !as /er$ e8p+icit in asserting that !e cannot

    ser/e both God and !ea+thBoth B&ddhists and Christians

    !ant the basic needs o' a++ to be et!e deep+$ oppose

    p+acing the 7&est 'or !ea+th 'irstJ&stice, peace, and the

    basic needs o' a++ are &ch higher priorities than sip+$

    increasing o/era++ !ea+th+i/

    In Cobb;s @oint !riting !ith :eran F .a+$, the$ de/e+op

    ip+ications 'or s&pporting ore h&ane de/e+opent po+icies that

    b&i+d 'ro the grass root &p In their boo#, For The Common

    Good, the$ recoend a /ersion o' the negative income ta that is

    s&''icient to eet h&an need+/In another paper, :eran .a+$

    proposes a #teady-#tate >conomy that is b&i+t on the +d

    Testaent ad/ocac$ o' Sabbath and the J&bi+ee "ear, entioned

    ear+ier ?+ong !ith a negati/e incoe ta8 to set a ini&, .a+$

    s&ggests a a8i& incoe o' ten ties the ini& :e arg&es

    that the @&bi+ee $ear ip+ied both a ini& and a a8i&

    Certain+$ at a ini& there !ere g+eaing, and a+s, and

    the rights o' s+a/es and o' !ido!s, a++ o' !hich can be

    interpreted as pro/iding a '+oor be+o! !hich no one !as

    a++o!ed to 'a++ as there a corresponding cei+ing on

    persona+ !ea+th I s&bit that there !as, beca&se e/en the

    #ing, the person ost +i#e+$ to ha/e &n+iited rights o'

    acc&&+ation, !as e8press+$ denied s&ch a right either

    horses, !i/es, nor go+d and si+/er &st increase e8cessi/e+$

    b$ the #ing (.e&t 16''%+/i

    In

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    the stip&+ation o' a#ing this a stead$ state econo$ !ith

    contro+s on gro!th beca&se o' the en/ironenta+ concerns :e

    arg&es that the +iit-to-gro!th debate disappeared !ith the

    e+ection o' )ona+d )eagan !hen Dpeop+e rea+i9ed that +iits to

    gro!th ip+$ +iits to ine7&a+it$ (i' po/ert$ is to be red&ced%

    and, speci'ica++$, a a8i& +iit Both .a+$ and Cobb !ere

    in'+&enced b$ ear+ier de/e+opent ideas o' the :ind&, Gandhi, and

    the 'or&+ations o' the Catho+ic theorist, Sch&acher, !ho

    +abe+ed his theories as DB&ddhist FconoicsE+/ii

    ?nother theo+ogian !ho s&pports aguaranteed income is the

    'einist theo+ogian, )osear$ )ad'ord )e&ther =i#e an$ 'einist

    theo+ogians, she ta#es /er$ serio&s+$ the ear+$ iages o' the

    'einine as sacred s&ch as the Mother Goddess iages

    e can spea# o' the root h&an iage o' the di/ine as the

    *ria+ Matri8, the great !ob !ithin !hich a++ things, Gods

    and h&ans, s#$ and earth, h&an and nonh&an beings, are

    generated :ere the di/ine is not abstracted into soe other

    !or+d be$ond this earth b&t is the encopassing so&rce o'

    ne! +i'e that s&rro&nds the present !or+d and ass&res it

    contin&ance This is e8pressed in the ancient $th o' the

    or+d Fgg o&t o' !hich a++ things arise+/iii

    )e&ther does not accept the Mother Goddess iage

    &ncritica++$ +i#e soe 'einist thin#ers b&t recogni9es that soe

    o' the &se o' this iage in ancient ci/i+i9ations !ere a !a$ to

    +egitiate aristocratic po!er She a''irs it abi+it$ to not

    separate the a+e'einine in the concepts o' the .i/ine, b&tother 7&a+ities sho&+d be critici9ed

    B$ patriarch$ !e ean not on+$ the s&bordination o' 'ea+es

    to a+es, b&t the !ho+e str&ct&re o' ather-r&+ed societ$

    aristocrac$ o/er ser's, asters o/er s+a/es, #ings o/er

    s&[email protected], racia+ o/er+ords o/er co+oni9ed peop+e )e+igions

    that rein'orce hierarchica+ strati'ication &se the .i/ine as

    the ape8 o' this s$ste o' pri/i+ege and contro+ The

    re+igions o' the ancient ear Fast +in# the Gods and

    Goddesses !ith the #ings and 7&eens, the priests and

    priestesses, the !arrior and tep+e aristocrac$ o' astrati'ied societ$ The Gods and Goddesses irror this

    r&+ing c+ass and 'or its hea/en+$ co&nterpart The

    di/inities a+so sho! erc$ and 'a/or to the distressed, b&t

    in the anner o' nob+esse ob+ige+i8

    )e&ther ac#no!+edges the !or# o' 'einist bib+ica+ scho+ars

    !ho ha/e reco/ered the /ario&s 'einine iages in the Je!ish and

    28

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    Christian traditions s&ch as the in'+&ence o' the Isis Goddess on

    the iage o' the isdo o' God as #ophia and the !a$ the 'einine

    iage is &sed in re'erring to the )ompassion o' God The root

    !ord 'or the ideas o' copassion and erc$ in :ebre! is rechem,

    or !ob Th&s a copassionate God has aterna+ or womblike

    7&a+ities

    I' Godess is not the creator and /a+idator o' the e8isting

    hierarchica+ socia+ order, b&t rather the one !ho +iberates

    &s 'ro it, !ho opens &p a ne! co&nit$ o' e7&a+s, then

    +ang&age abo&t Godess dra!n 'ro #ingship and hierarchica+

    po!er &st +ose its pri/i+eged p+ace Iages o' Godess &st

    inc+&de 'ea+e ro+es and e8perience Iages o' Godess &st

    dra! 'ro the acti/ities o' peasants and !or#ing peop+e

    *eop+e at the botto o' societ$ Most o' a++, iages o'

    Godess &st be trans'orati/e, pointing &s bac# to o&r

    a&thentic potentia+ and 'or!ard to ne! redeeed

    possibi+ities+8

    )&ether;s ad/ocac$ o' a guaranteed income coes in her

    o/era++ histor$ o' the 'ai+$ in !estern c&+t&re and histor$ It

    is one o' the best socia+ science and historica+ pict&re o'

    'orer and odern 'ai+ies In her proposa+s 'or po+icies 'or the

    odern 'ai+$ the s&ggestions are sii+ar to the 0niversal

    )aretaker ode+ presented ear+ier She proposes a 'or o' the

    negative income ta that is basica++$ the sae as red B+oc# The

    '+oor is set at the po/ert$ +e/e+ and Da 'ai+$ !ith no incoe

    !o&+d recei/e at +east that &ch aid or each do++ar earned it

    !o&+d recei/e t!o bac#, &p to do&b+e the po/ert$ +ineE(2% Thisproposa+ is set !ithin other po+icies to create greater economic

    democracy and an ecologically so&nd societ$

    U+tiate+$--no coprehensi/e p+an 'or a++e/iating po/ert$

    can ha/e a chance o' po+itica+ s&ccess i' it does not

    address the prob+e o' the s&perrich, those o!ners o'

    corporations !ho +arge+$ doinate the ?erican po+itica+

    s$ste, deterine its po+icies, and de'ine the hegeonic

    c&+t&re b$ contro+ o' the ainstrea edia The po!er o' the

    rich to dictate !ho is e+ected to go/ernent needs to be

    c&rbed b$ an ins&rgent deocratic o/eent, one that &sesthe e+ectora+ ight o' the [email protected]$ to strip the rich o' the

    po!er to set po+icies that 'a/or the rather the [email protected]$+8i

    Conclusions:

    Using Ma8 eber, I ha/e arg&ed that re+igion can ha/e t!o

    di''erent 'aces--apunitive one and a compassionate one &rther,

    29

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    the compassionate face norati/e+$ ip+ies a socia+ po+ic$ o' an

    unconditional guaranteed income. This has been deonstrated b$ a

    /ariet$ o' e8ap+es in the past and present There are soe

    coon e+eents in these e8ap+es o' the compassionate face. The

    'irst coon aspect is a social realism that recogni9es the

    pre/a+ence o' doination and e8p+oitation in the e8isting socia+

    str&ct&res ?+so,s&ch rea+is /ie!s the attepts to de'ine

    merit or di''erentiation o' deserving from undeserving as an

    ideological co/er 'or pri/i+ege The second 'eat&re is the idea

    that a++ nat&ra+ and c&+t&ra+ reso&rces be+ongto God and th&s

    sho&+d be &sed to bene'it a++ h&ans or children of od. S&ch

    reso&rces not on+$ inc+&de +and b&t a+so inc+&des those c&+t&ra+

    capita+ created b$ socia+ re+ations and e/en inc+&des those

    inherited ta+ents that an indi/id&a+ a$ possess b$ chance or

    +&c# ? third coon e+eent is the /ie! that there is a

    potentia+ 'or an inclusive community based on compassion that

    transcends a++ nat&ra+ and partic&+aristc c+ais The nors o'

    the transcendent community ip+$ an infinite responsibility that

    cannot per'ect+$ be et b$ h&ans ? 'o&rth coon e+eent is the

    ephasis on the priar$ goa+ o' action in this !or+d is the

    eeting o'materialistich&an need--ie food for the hungry,

    drink for the thirsty, clothing for the naked, shelter for the

    homeless, healing for the sick and reconciliation for those in

    prison. ina++$ there is a '&rther aspect o' the abo/e social

    realism that ip+ies that a++ re+igio&s instit&tions and

    indi/id&a+s cobine both compassionate andpunitive 'ors It is

    o'ten ipossib+e to separate the t!o as the$ are 'o&nd in 'ora+

    organi9ations and e/en interna+i9ed in the sae indi/id&a+

    ?s an e8ap+e o' ho! the t!o 'aces ight operate !ithin the

    sae indi/id&a+, I !i++ point to the Go/ernor o' ?+abaa, Bob

    )i+e$,+8iiand his &ns&ccess'&+ p+an in 200 to raise ta8es b$

    Q2 bi++ion a $ear and priari+$ do this to he+p the poor These

    ne! ta8es !o&+d be paid priari+$ b$ the !ea+thiest thro&gh ta8es

    on propert$, b&sinesses, cars, &ti+ities, deeds and cigarettes

    :e !o&+d a+so raise the thresho+d at !hich residents ha/e to pa$

    incoe ta8es, 'ro the c&rrent Q4,600 ann&a++$ to Q20,000 Bob

    )i+e$ is a conser/ati/e )ep&b+ican, a tr&e discip+e o' )ona+d

    )eagan, and had ser/ed in the Congress ?t one tie he had

    cop+ained that e!t Gingrich !as +eaning too 'ar +e't )i+e$ !asin'+&enced b$ an artic+e in the"labama La1 Re!ie1 b$ S&san *ace

    :ai++, an Uni/ersit$ o' ?+abaa ta8 +a! pro'essor !ho too# a

    sabbatica+ to earn a Master o' Theo+ogica+ St&dies degree In her

    artic+e, D?n ?rg&ent 'or Ta8 )e'or Based on J&deo-Christian

    Fthics,E she sa! the re'or o' the ?+abaa ta8 s$ste !as

    necessar$ to ass&re that chi+dren 'ro +o! incoe 'ai+ies !o&+d

    ha/e the sae opport&nit$ as those 'ro ore a''+&ent 'ai+ies

    3!

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    In ?+abaa, peop+e !ith incoes be+o! Q,000 pa$ 0< percent o'

    their incoe in ta8es, !hi+e those !ho a#e ore than Q22

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    i'ndnotes

    red B+oc#, DThe )ight;s Mora+ Tro&b+e,E The 0ation, (Sept 0,

    200%,20-22, p20iiGeorge =a#o'', Draing the .es,E The "merican Prospect, Lo+ 2,

    Sept, 200, pp 2-5iii

    B+oc#, opcit, p 22i"Ma8 eber, D)e+igio&s [email protected] o' the or+d the Meaning o'

    Their )ationa+ Constr&ction,E in From a2 4eber Essays in Sociology

    edited b$ : : Gerth and C right Mi++s, e! "or# 8'ord

    Uni/ersit$ *ress,

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    ##"B&'ord F arris, Jr, D)eco/er$ o' a Tradition,E 0e1 4orld

    /utloo:,(March-?pri+, nop', ing, Jr, 4here -o 4e Go From 5ere Chaos or

    Community6, e! "or# :arper )o!,

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    $Ibid, p