working while learning or learning while working ? aviad tur-sinai dmitri romanov noam zussman

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Working While Learning or Learning While Working ? Aviad Tur-Sinai Dmitri Romanov Noam Zussman. March 11, 2008. Subject. Paper investigates empirically whether employment during academic study effects the duration of study and the likelihood of dropping out. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Working While Learning or Learning While Working ?

    Aviad Tur-SinaiDmitri RomanovNoam Zussman

    March 11, 2008

  • SubjectPaper investigates empirically whether employment during academic study effects the duration of study and the likelihood of dropping out.

    Takes advantage of a comperhensive individual-level dataset constructed from administrative files and records of candidates, students, and recipients of bachelors degrees.

  • Main FindingsThe relationship between the extent of students employment and duration of their studies depends on their age:

    Among students aged 22-26 at the beginning of their studies, the extent of employment has no effect on the duration of studies.

    Among the older students there is a strong positive effect.

  • Motivation for Study (1)Employment is common among first-degree students who come from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds and pursue various academic diciplines. It has considerable implications for the students economic situation and on access to the higher-education system and their patterns of study.

  • Motivation for Study (2)Clashing conclusions via the literature:

    Brunello and Winter-Ember (2003): Employment of students in Europe had no significant effect on the duration of study.

    Ehrenberg and Sherman (1987):Employment of male students during the semester prolonged their degree studies and raised their dropout rates.

  • Motivation for Study (3)Solving an econometric problem:Endogeneity of the students employment (resulting from the positive correlation between unobserved personal characteristics: motivation, social connections...) when investigating the effect of employment on the duration of study.Usual IV doesnt solve the problem of individual heterogeneity in employment and scholastic achievements (Ruhm, 1997; Light, 2001; Hakkinen, 2006).

    Therefore we suggest a solution to solve the individual heterogeneity problem.

  • The Data:Administrative records of first-degree students at higher education institutions in Israel - who began their studies in the 1999/2000 academic year.

  • The Data:EducationFor each first-degree student (6 years follow-up):Preferences for institutions. Fields of study at the time of enrollment.The progression of studies: institution(s), subjects completed.Scholastic abilities.

  • The Data:Employment and earning: Matched employee-employer for the years 1999-2005 :Number of months worked.Annual gross earnings.Tenure of employment with employer.

  • The Data:Demographic data: (source: administrative register of residents) SexDate of BirthNationality/ReligionCountry of birthDate of immigrationMarital statusNumber of childrenLocality of residenceIdentity of students parents

    Total population: 24,960 students.

  • Progression of Studies

  • Proportion of students who received degree within 6 years from beginning of studies 82.9%78.9%69.4%

    1

    82.387.3

    80.786.9

    78.986.2

    77.181.2

    78.283.4

    85.286.1

    74.782.9

    66.873.3

    2

    0.8050.847

    0.7470.829

    0.6680.733

    Men

    Women

    3

    0.8050.847

    0.7470.829

    0.6680.733

    Men

    Women

    1

    82.387.3

    80.786.9

    -78.986.2

    -77.181.2

    78.283.4

    - 85.286.1

    74.782.9

    66.873.3

    MenWomen

    Universities80.5%84.7%

    Private Colleges74.7%82.9%

    Public Colleges66.8%73.3%

    2

    3

  • Deviation of duration of degree studies from standard years 3 years4 yearsyears

    1

    82.387.3

    80.786.9

    78.986.2

    77.181.2

    78.283.4

    85.286.1

    74.782.9

    66.873.3

    3

    0.8050.847

    0.7470.829

    0.6680.733

    6

    82.387.3

    80.786.9

    -78.986.2

    -77.181.2

    78.283.4

    - 85.286.1

    74.782.9

    66.873.3

    80.5%84.7%

    74.7%82.9%

    66.8%73.3%

    4

    3.83.7

    3.63.6

    3.83.6

    3.83.7

    3.63.6

    3.83.6

    5

    67.3 53.2

    81.160.366.9

    83.4 , 31.5

    87.464.467.9

    88.179.978.9

    89.478.472.8

    92.1 80

    93.884.4

    97.8

    3

    67.353.2

    , 81.160.366.9

    , 83.431.5

    87.464.467.9

    88.179.978.9

    89.478.472.8

    92.180

    93.884.4

    97.8

    9

    30.44

    30.38

    30.67

    30.49

    30.41

    3.080.73

    3.79-0.03

    4-0.03

    40.13

    10

    0.44

    0.38

    0.67

    0.49

    0.41

    0.73

    -0.03

    -0.03

    0.13

    11

    0.44

    0.38

    0.67

    0.49

    0.41

    0.73

    -0.03

    -0.03

    0.13

    4

    ()

    3.083.80.7347.4

    33.70.6752.4

    33.50.4966.6

    33.40.3868

    33.40.4469.5

    44.10.1375.1

    33.40.4176.4

    3.793.8-0.0387.9

    44-0.0390.8

    Social sciences30.44

    Business and administration sciences30.38

    Mathematics, statistics, and computer sciences30.67

    Physical, biological sciences and agriculture30.49

    Medicine30.41

    Humanities and general studies3.080.73

    Paramedical professions3.79-0.03

    Law4-0.03

    Engineering and architecture40.13

    0.440.85Social sciences

    0.380.81Business and administration sciences

    , 0.670.89Mathematics, statistics, and computer sciences

    , 0.490.78Physical, biological sciences and agriculture

    0.410.79Medicine

    0.731.06Humanities and general studies

    -0.030.74

    -0.030.62

    0.130.83Engineering and architecture

  • Proportion of first-degree recipients who began advanced degree studies immediately after first degree (by duration of first-degree studies) %

    1

    82.387.3

    80.786.9

    78.986.2

    77.181.2

    78.283.4

    85.286.1

    74.782.9

    66.873.3

    3

    0.8050.847

    0.7470.829

    0.6680.733

    6

    82.387.3

    80.786.9

    -78.986.2

    -77.181.2

    78.283.4

    - 85.286.1

    74.782.9

    66.873.3

    80.5%84.7%

    74.7%82.9%

    66.8%73.3%

    4

    3.83.7

    3.63.6

    3.83.6

    3.83.7

    3.63.6

    3.83.6

    5

    67.3 53.2

    81.160.366.9

    83.4 , 31.5

    87.464.467.9

    88.179.978.9

    89.478.472.8

    92.1 80

    93.884.4

    97.8

    3

    67.353.2

    , 81.160.366.9

    , 83.431.5

    87.464.467.9

    88.179.978.9

    89.478.472.8

    92.180

    93.884.4

    97.8

    9

    30.44

    30.38

    30.67

    30.49

    30.41

    3.080.73

    3.79-0.03

    4-0.03

    40.13

    10

    0.44

    0.38

    0.67

    0.49

    0.41

    0.73

    -0.03

    -0.03

    0.13

    11

    0.44

    0.38

    0.67

    0.49

    0.41

    0.73

    -0.03

    -0.03

    0.13

    12

    4.510.76.4

    6.24.34.5

    9.47.94.7

    18.311.46.8

    18.596.3

    24.79.65.3

    24.613.18.3

    48.532.724.8

    4932.156

    3 years

    4 years

    5 years

    4

    ()

    3.083.80.7347.4

    33.70.6752.4

    33.50.4966.6

    33.40.3868

    33.40.4469.5

    44.10.1375.1

    33.40.4176.4

    3.793.8-0.0387.9

    44-0.0390.8

    30.44

    30.38

    , 30.67

    , 30.49

    30.41

    3.080.73

    3.79-0.03

    4-0.03

    40.13

    0.440.85

    0.380.81

    , 0.670.89

    , 0.490.78

    0.410.79

    0.731.06

    -0.030.74

    -0.030.62

    0.130.83

    3 years4 years5 years

    Engineering and architecture4.510.76.4

    Law6.24.34.5

    Business and administration sciences9.47.94.7

    Social sciences18.311.46.8

    Mathematics, statistics, and computer sciences18.596.3

    Paramedical professions24.79.65.3

    Humanities and general studies24.613.18.3

    Physical, biological sciences and agriculture48.532.724.8

    Medicine4932.156

  • Employment

  • Measuring Rate of employment & Earnings Rate of employmentA work load index.Represented by the proportion of employee-wage months in the course of the year out of twelve months.

    EarningsAnnual earnings from all working places.No. of months worked during the year.

    Therefore: we can derive the average monthly wage.

  • Employment Rate of Fisrt-Degree students %

    g_work2004

    43.8339021615

    45.2104664391

    46.6097838453

    48.3276450512

    51.0125142207

    52.6393629124

    53.0147895336

    53.0602957907

    51.7519908987

    46.5870307167

    38.2025028441

    38.7599544937

    36.3026166098

    37.7019340159

    40.8532423208

    44.0728100114

    44.220705347

    42.4687144482

    48.8395904437

    57.747440273

    60.1706484642

    58.9874857793

    54.8464163823

    55.7337883959

    55.6655290102

    53.6746302617

    56.0523321957

    57.3151308305

    57.6791808874

    56.2457337884

    55.7565415245

    59.6131968146

    60.8532423208

    61.558589306

    62.4118316268

    62.6962457338

    63.5267349261

    62.0591581342

    63.3219567691

    63.5267349261

    64.1296928328

    63.4129692833

    62.172923777

    61.0921501706

    61.5699658703

    65.6200227531

    66.8373151308

    67.6791808874

    66.06370876

    66.8259385666

    68.1342434585

    68.3959044369

    70.0682593857

    70.3981797497

    69.6587030717

    67.1899886234

    66.9397042093

    69.7155858931

    70.3981797497

    70.6257110353

    Year 1

    Year 2

    Year 3

    Year 4

    Higher-ed. institues - without prior employers - 3 years

    yearbog2004

    Univ1:19994:19997:199910:19991: